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Ill  II  II 

3  1833  01052  2214 

















As  local  history  is  more  interesting  and  profitable  than  general, 
and  as  the  time  has  arrived  when  the  publication  of  county  histories 
can  be  made  self-supporting,  the  publishers  of  this  volume  selected 
Jackson  county  as  a  good  field;  and  they  have  indeed  found  it  a 
pleasant  one,  for  the  county  has  had  an  interesting  history,  having 
always  been  one  of  the  chief  counties  of  the  great  Peninsular  State. 
In  matters  of  general  public  interest  and  progress,  Jackson  county 
has  ever  taken  a  leading  and  prominent  position.  Here  have  lived 
men  who  have  taken  an  important  part  in  the  affairs  of  State  and 
in  molding  the  political  sentiments  and  destiny  of  the  country. 
This  county  has  been  the  scene  of  conflict  between  some  of  the  most 
gigantic  intellects  of  the  nation,  as  well  as  the  birthplace  of  many 
business,  philanthropic  and  party  enterprises. 

This  history  appears  none  too  soon.  The  pioneers  have  nearly 
all  passed  away.  Here  and  there  we  see  the  bended  form  and 
whitened  head  of  some  of  these  veterans,  but  they  constitute  not 
more  than  one  in  twenty  of  the  early  pilgrims.  We  have  faithfully 
interviewed  them,  and  obtained  what  facts  we  could.  Accurate 
history  is  most  difficult  to  write;  many  things  are  differently  told 
by  different  persons,  and  if  nineteen-twentieths  of  the  five  hundred 
thousand  data  in  this  volume  are  correct,  there  may  still  be  twenty- 
five  thousand  errors. 

To  obtain  a  glance  at  the  scope  and  merits  of  a  volume,  it  is  nec- 
essary to  study  critically  the  title-page  and  table  of  contents.  By 
looking  carefully  at  the  latter,  one  will  learn  how  to  use  the  work, 
— where  to  look  for  any  given  class  of  items.  In  this  volume, 
notice  particularly  that  the  townships  are  arranged  alphabetically, 
and  the  biographies  also  alphabetically,  in  their  respective  town- 
ships. A  number  of  personal  sketches  will  be  found  under  head 
of  Jackson  city,  as  many  of  the  parties  reside  in  or  near  that 

As  one  of  the  most  interesting  features  of  this  work,  we  present 
the  portraits  of  numerous  representative  citizens.      Many  others. 

just  as  deserving,  of  course,'  we  did  not  select;  but  those  we  have 
given  constitute  a  good  representation,  and  they  are  all  men  of  high 
standing  in  the  community. 

The  task  of  compiling  this  history,  which  has  assumed  propor- 
tions much  larger  than  we  had  expected,  has  been  a  pleasant  one, 
although  laborious  and  expensive;  and  we  desire  here  to  express 
our  hearty  thanks  to  those  who  have  so  freely  aided  us  in  collecting 
material.  To  the  county  officials,  pastors  of  Churches,  officers  of 
societies,  pioneers,  members  of  the  Pineer  Society  and  es- 
pecially the  editors  of  the  press,  we  are  particularly  grateful  for 
the  many  kindnesses  and  courtesies  shown  us  while  laboring  in  the 
county.  But  most  of  all  we  wish  to  thank  those  who  have  so  liber- 
ally and  materially  aided  the  work  by  becoming  subscribers. 

Intek-State  Publishing  Company. 
Chicago,  May,  1881. 



Mi  in  nil- Builders 

Large  lilies 


Maimers  ami  customs 

European  Possession 

Lift  nut 

National  rolleies 

Ordinance  of  17s7 

French  and  Indian  War 

Massacre  at  Michllimaeklnac 

Siege  of  Detroit 

Alii"rii  an  Hi  ■volution 



Hull- surrender 

IVrrv's  victory 

Close  of  the  War 


Administration  of  Gen.  Cass 

'■  '•    Geo.  B.  Porter 

The  "  Ti  iledo  War." 

Administration  nf  Gov.  Horner 

Michigan  as  a  state 

Adinlnlstratiiuis  nf  the  sine  Governors. 

War n(  the  Rebellion 

Public  Si li. ml  .system 

State  University 

stab-  Normal  School 

Agricultural  College 

Cuher  Colleges 

Charitable  institutions  

state  Public  School 

state  Reform  School 

Institution  for  the  Deaf  and  Dumh,  and 

the  Blind 

Asylum  for  the  Insane,  at  Kalamazoo 

'■       "     "      •'         "   Pontlac 

Penal  Institutions 

State  Agricultural  society 

State  Firemen's  Association 

State  Board  or  Public  Health 

State  Land  Office 

State  Library : 

Banks I 




state  Officers 

Topography 1 

A  Retrospect 




Boundaries,  Area  and  Population 117 

Lakes  and  Streams 117 

Pre-eminence lis 

Geology 119 

Sanitary 128 

October  In  this  County 129 

Archaeology    129 



Ante-Pioneer  History 133 

Baptlste.  the  trader  134 

The  story  of  the  Flood 134 

The  council  Fire    135 

An  Indian  Killed  by  a  stag 136 

The  Indian  Babes 136 

The  American  Pioneers 13a 

Necrology 154 


TLEMENT    166 

Poetry  In  Prose 166 

The  pioneers' First  Survey 168 

The  Fourth  of  July 168 

Horace  Blackmail's  story  169 

Making  a  Location 169 

Off  to  Monroe 170 

Legislative  Watchfulness 170 

Arrival  at  Grand  River 172 

Reporting  the  Name 172 

First  conventional  Body 174 

New  Settlers  Seeking  Privileges 174 

The  White  Captive 175 

Personal  Interest  and  Enterprise.. ., 176 

The  village  Blacksmith 

The  Mlll-iiuil.lers  

Brevities  .' 

First  Postmaster 

change  ol  Name  or  the  Village 

Mavoasa  Mall-Carrier 

Hon.  George  P..  Cooper 

The  Republic  Forever 

Early  Manufactures 

First  Merchants    

organization  of  tin- county 

The  First  comitv  Road  

A  Year's  Labors  

The  First  Purchasers  of  Land 

\Va-hlturon  Irving  

Jaeksoiiians  Dealing  with  the  18th Cen- 

Other  Patentees  



Jackson  County  In  1330 

Hon   David  Adams 

John  L.  Moore 


By  Rev.  Asahel  A.  King 

Bv  Mrs.  Ranney 

By  Marvin  Darrlll 

Bv  Mrs.  M.  W.  Clapp 

Bv  W.  W.  Wolcott  

By  Col.  M.  Shoemaker 209,  217, 

Bv  Jacob  Cornell 

The  Indian  Friends 

Wolves  and  Whisky  

By  Hon.  Jonathan  shearer  

By  Hon.  Fiilus  Llyrmore 

Various  Dates 

A  Little  Story 



second  and  Thin]  Meeting. 
Fourth  Sleeting 

Fifth  "         257 

Judge  Johnson's  Welcome    ...  "58 

Col.  Shoemaker's  Address      261 

"The  Brave   Pioneer,''  by  Mrs.  N.   H. 

Pierce o63 

Earned  Honors 266 

Sixth  Meeting .  267 

Seventh     "    "  26S 

Address  of  President  Bingham 269 


SORS   273 

The  Legislature  Organizing  the  Coun- 
ties   073 

Township  Meeting,  1831 " '    275 

Jackson  county  organized «75 

"  "        In  1832 276 

Transactions  1S.'B-'51 278-299 

"  1852-'80 !. '299-302 

court-House 30,, 

Jail 301 

Poor-House 301 



Seat  of  Justice  Established 303 

Pioneer  courts 303 

First  Session,  lsxi "  ■](„] 

Second    "  "    3(l7 

Sessions  1  sit;  to  1»1 310 

County  Officers 311 

Justices  of  the  Peace '.[  315 



Our  Whig  Citizens 319 

Log-Cabin  liaising 31,, 

Political  Foes..  3,,0 

"       Poetry,  18M '.'.'.'.'.  320 

Off  to  Fort  Meigs 3-0 

A  Defeated  candidate ! '■'■'„ 

The  Last  Friend.  ..  fn 

Inquiries  and  Answers 33i 


A  Conclave  studying  i  oiintv  Interests'  j-<2 

I ation  or  the  Capital 

Under  the  Oaks wa 

AD  Inquiry 324 

Jackson,  its  Progenitor  3a5 

The   Free    Democratic    Convention  "at     " 

Jackson  3°6 

First  Republican  Convention  '"  '  '■'■'■', 

Results  of  a  Prohibition  Convention  "  "  330 
Honest  Monev  League  331 

TheJacksonttes..         „! 

Election  Returns. ...'.". ! '.'.'.'. '.'. '. !!!!!!!!!  330 



Number  of  Volunteers 341 

Ladles'  Aid  Society  ■  V, 

Jackson  Milltan   Talent      i,~. 

Regimental    Histories 344-3<in 

JF^nc8a°P?uereS  ASSlSt  ^"^^  ^  " 

Col    Shoemaker  and  the  13th :«l 

Battle  of  south  Mountain        ^,0 

Poem  on  Same....  3,3 

Soldiers  Buried  in  Jackson  County!"'.!;  391 

Present  Military  Organization 392 

Conclusion 594 

Memorial  Day,  isso '.'.'.'.'!  395 



Our  Ancestors  in  the  Revolution 397 

Soldiersof  isl2 39a 

The  Sac  War 390 

TheToledo  War '.  ...."..'. 40! 

Jackson  Light  Infantry 401-2 

The  Barry  Horse  Guards 402 

.Mexican  War '493 

The  Old  Jackson  Grays .'!.'! 403 

Jackson  Silver  Grays '403 

Jackson  Grays  at  Bull  Run  ...         '  4o4 

Death  of  Pomeroy ""  406 

Col.  Shoemaker's  Reminiscences  of  Lib- 

by  Prison 4lls 

Picket  Duty  as  it  should  be 413 

W.  W.  Van  Antwerp 414 

surprise  of  the  Rebels  415 

The  6th  Infantry .....!!!!!'.!!!  416 


The  Press 420 

Jackson  citizen 401 

Weekly  Patriot  ..  422 

Liberator 4.";; 

Saturday  Evenlng.Star        .  4n< 

other  Papers  ....'...  4.« 

Schools 424 

Railroads l„ 

Banks 43A 

Agricultural  society '.'.'.'.' '. .'.'.'.'.'.'."'  432 

Jackson  Horse-Breeiling  Association...!!  443 



The  Treacherous  Corporation 446 

A  Letter  Home 450 

Death  of  Abel    Fitch LSI 

The  Victim  ot  the  conspirators      ...     452 

The  Strike  of  1877 4V> 

A  Terrible  I!.  K.  Drama.      4i» 

A  Romance  m  i;eal  Life 41:1 

The  Indians  Captive '  Wl 

Murder 4f,t 

Drowned 4,17 

Run  Over  by  the  Cars !."!.'.' 4cs 

Deal  lis  by  oi  her  Casualties 470 

Fires   473 

SKirms  and  Lightning 474 

Miscellaneous  475 

A  strange  suit ""479 

A  Retrospect.     ...  4S1 

The  Present  ........V."!!!  482 



Fifty-two  Years  Ago 4ss 

The  Leading  Highways 484 

Seeking    Privileges jaa 

Early  Officials.. 4g5 

Vote  of  the  city  from  is,;  to  isso  ....   '  493 
old-time  Description   oi  the  \  Hinge  495 

The  Modern  Builders  ....  "495 

I'aisincss  Blocks,  Public  Buildings,  etc.  496 

Postoffice 417 

Fire  Department 499 

Public  Schools    ....         500 

The  Churches 512 

Freemasonry  m  the  county.     .  523 

Offl-FellowSnip 533 

Good  Templars     536 

Reform  club       537 

other  societies     s3iU5sl 

Manufactories,  etc 551 


Farmers'  Milt.  las.  Co 566 

Water- Works 566 

Gas- Works 568 

statistics 56S 

Early  Bar  of  the  County 569 

State  Prison 571 

First  Events 577 

Biographical  Sketches 579 


Blackman 762 

Columbia 776 

Concord 825 

Grass  Lake 843 

Hanover 878 

Henrietta 896 

Leonl 908 

Liberty 937 

Napoleon 959 

NorveU aai 

Parma 1007 

Pulaski 1023 

Rives  1032 

Sandstone 1050 

Spring  Arbor 1059 

Sprlngport 1078 

Summit 1098 

Tompkins m>i 

Waterloo 1132 


Map  of  Jackson  County 14  &  15 

Hieroglyphics  of  the  Mound-Builders  ...  19 

La  Salle   Landing   at   the  Mouth   of  St.  S43 

Joseph  River 25 

Indians  Attacking  Frontiersmen 31 

Gen.  George  Rogers  Clark 37 

Gen.  Arthur  St.  Clair 43 

Trapping 49 

Tecumseh 55 

Pontlac 61 

Hunting  Prairie  Wolves  In  an  Early  Day    67 
Eastern  Asylum  for  the  Insane  at  Pontlac    73 

State  Public  School,  at  Coldwater 81 

The  CapltoL  at  Lansing 91 

University  of  Michigan 102-3 

State  Prison  114 

Spring ArborSemlnary...  ..  1059 


Adams,  Cyril 911 

Anderson,  R.  H 731 

Austln,A.  K 1003 

Belden,  Eugene  H 875 

Belden,  John 839 

Blair,  ex-Gov.  Austin 245 

Calvert,  Dr.  Wm.  J 279 

Carmer,  J.  V 267 

Clapp,  William 893 

Cradlt,  E.  S 417 

Dean,  Horace 435 

De  Lamater,  A .  H 7h5 

Eggleston,  B.  F 489 

Eldred,  H.  B 453 

Gibson,  W.  A..M.D 643 

Gorton,  Aaron  T 1075 

Gould.  James 609 

Humphrey,  Gen   Wm 313 

Hyndman,  Dr.  D 471 

Jones,  Dr.  L.  M 803 

Kennedy,  W.  E 948 

Kennedy,  Mrs.  Clara 949 

M  arsh.  Samuel  T 929 

Mattlce,  Charles 985 

Morrison,  Patton  677 

North,  Dr.  Jno.  D 347 

Perry,  L.  G  857 

Reed,  Wlllard 1039 

Richardson.  J.  L 675 

l,  D.  J 541 

lOS 523 

Alfred 767 

Shoemaker,  Col.  Michael 131 

Tunniciltr,  Dr.  J 505 

Vaughn.  S .  S 713 

Waldo,  Leonard  S 1021 

Wood,  Charles 381 

Wood,  Jonathan 399 

Wood,  Lincoln 749 



Michigan!  If  you  seek  a  pleasant  peninsula,  look  around  you, in 
Michigan.  Every  visitor  at  St.  Paul's  church,  London,  is  over- 
awed with  the  magnificence  of  that  structure,  the  work  of  Sir  Chris- 
topher Wren.  He  wants  to  know  where  the  remains  of  Wren  are 
now;  in  the  crypt  of  the  church  they  lie,  where  the  following  is 
engraved  upon  the  headstone:  Si  monumentum  requiris,  circum- 
spice, — If  you  seek  a  monument  [of  Wren],  look  around  [and  behold 
the  work  of  his  brain  in  this  mighty  building].  The  State  of  Mich- 
igan has  appropriately  adopted  for  her  motto  this  expression,  with 
a  slight  alteration,  thns:  Si  quceris  peninmlam  amcenam,  cir- 
cumspice, — If  you  seek  a  pleasant  peninsula,  look  around  you.  And 
indeed  Michigan  may  as  justly  feel  proud  of  its  resources  as  Great 
Britain,  of  St.  Paul's  church, — yea,  and  infinitely  more.  What 
with  her  substantial  foundation  in  agriculture  throughout  the 
southern  counties,  in  horticulture  throughout  the  lower  peninsula, 
and  especially  the  fruit  belt  along  her  western  boundary,  in  piner- 
ies in  the  central  portion  of  the  State,  and  with  her  crown  of  iron 
and  copper  in  the  upper  peninsula,  tipped  with  silver,  she  stands 
the  real  queen  of  the  utilitarian  world. 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  write  the  history  of  such  a  State.  Contrast 
this  pleasant  task  with  writing  and  studying  the  histories  of  States 
and  empires  which  we  have  been  taught  to  ponder  and  revere  from 
our  youth  up,  histories  of  European  countries  cobwebbed  with 
intrigue,  blackened  with  iniquity  and  saturated  with  blood.  What 
a  standing,  practical  reproof  Michigan  is  to  all  Europe!  and  what 
a  happy  future  she  has  before  her,  even  as  compared  with  all  her 
sister  States! 

Now  let's  to  our  chosen  task,  and  say  first  a  few  words  concern- 
ing the  prehistoric  races,  observing,  by  the  way,  that  the  name 
"  Michigan  "  is  said  to  be  derived  from  the  Indian  Mitchi-sawg- 
yegcm,  a  great  lake. 


The  numerous  and  well-authenticated  accounts  of  antiquities 
found  in  various  parts  of  our  country  clearly  demonstrate  that  a 
people  civilized,  and  even  highly  cultivated,  occupied  the  broad  sur- 
face of  our  continent  before  its  possession  by  the  present  Indians; 


but  the  date  of  their  rule  of  the  Western  World  is  so  remote  that 
all  traces  of  their  history,  their  progress  and  decay,  lie  buried  in 
deepest  obscurity.  Nature,  at  the  time  the  first  Europeans  came, 
had  asserted  her  original  dominion  over  the  earth;  the  forests  were 
all  in  their  full  luxuriance,  the  growth  of  many  centuries;  and 
naught  existed  to  point  out  who  and  what  they  were  who  formerly 
lived,  and  loved,  and  labored,  and  died,  on  the  continent  of  America. 
This  pre-historic  race  is  known  as  the  Mound-Builders,  from  the 
numerous  large  mounds  of  earth- works  left  by  them.  The  remains 
of  the  works  of  this  people  form  the  most  interesting  class  of 
antiquities  discovered  in  the  United  States.  Their  character  can 
be  but  partially  gleaned  from  the  internal  evidences  and  the 
peculiarities  of  the  only  remains  left,-  the  mounds.  They  consist 
of  remains  of  what  were  apparently  villages,  altars,  temples,  idols, 
cemeteries,  monuments,  camps,  fortifications,  pleasure  grounds,  etc., 
etc.  Their  habitations  must  have  been  tents,  structures  of  wood, 
or  other  perishable  material;  otherwise  their  remains  would  be 
numerous.  If  the  Mound-Builders  were  not  the  ancestors  of  the 
Indians,  who  were  they?  The  oblivion  which  has  closed  over  them 
is  so  complete  that  only  conjecture  can  be  given  in  answer  to  the 
question.  Those  who  do  not  believe  in  the  common  parentage  of 
mankind  contend  that  they  were  an  indigenous  race  of -the  West- 
ern hemisphere;  others,  with  more  plausibility,  think  they  came 
from  the  East,  and  imagine  they  can  see  coincidences  in  the  religion 
of  the  Hindoos  and  Southern  Tartars  and  the  supposed  theology  of 
the  Mound-Builders.  They  were,  no  doubt,  idolators,  and  it  has 
been  conjectured  that  the  sun  was  the  object  of  their  adoration.  The 
mounds  were  generally  built  in  a  situation  affording  a  view  of  the 
rising  sun;  when  enclosed  in  walls  their  gateways  were  toward  the 
east;  the  caves  in  which  their  dead  were  occasionally  buried  always 
opened  in  the  same  direction;  whenever  a  mound  was  partially 
enclosed  by  a  semi-circular  pavement,  it  was  on  the  east  side;  when 
bodies  were  buried  in  graves,  as  was  frequently  the  case,  they  were 
laid  in  a  direction  east  and  west;  and,  finally,  medals  have  been 
found  representing  the  sun  and  his  rays  of  light. 

At  what  period' they  came  to  this  country  is  likewise  a  matter  of 
speculation.  From  the  comparatively  rude  state  of  the  arts  among 
them,  it  has  been  inferred  that  the  time  was  very  remote.  Their 
axes  were  of  stone.  Their  raiment,  judging  from  fragments  which 
have  been  discovered,  consisted  of  the  bark  of  trees,  interwoven 
with  feathers;  and  their  military  works  were  such  as  a  people 
would  erect  who  had  just  passed  to  the  pastoral  state  of  society 
from  that  dependent  alone  upon  hunting  and  fishing. 

The  mounds  and  other  ancient  earth-works  constructed  by  this 
people  are  far  more  abundant  than  generally  supposed,  from  the  fact 
that  while  some  are  quite  large,  the  greater  part  of  them  are  small 
and  inconspicuous.  Along  nearly  all  our  water  courses  that  are 
large  enough  to  be  navigated  with  a  canoe,  the  mounds  are  almost 
invariably  found,  covering  the  base  points  and  headlands  of  the 


bluffs  which  border  the  narrower  valleys;  so  that  when  one  finds 
himself  in  such  positions  as  to  command  the  grandest  views  for  river 
scenery,  he  may  almost  always  discover  that  he  is  standing  upon, 
or  in  close  proximity  to,  some  one  or  more  of  these  traces  of  the 
labors  of  an  ancient  people. 

The  Mound-Builder  was  an  early  pioneer  in  Michigan.  He  was 
the  first  miner  in  the  upper  peninsula.  How  he  worked  we  do  not 
know,  but  he  went  deep  down  into  the  copper  ore  and  dug  and 
raised  vast  quantities,  and  probably  transported  it,  but  just  how  or 
where,  we  cannot  say.  The  ancient  mining  at  Isle  Royale,  in  Lake 
Superior,  has  excited  amazement.  The  pits  are  from  10  to  20  feet 
in  diameter,  from  20  to  60  feet  in  depth,  and  are  scattered  through- 
out the  island.  They  follow  the  richest  veins  of  ore.  Quantities 
of  stone  hammers  and  mauls  weighing  from  10  to  30  pounds  have 


been  found,  some  broken  from  use  and  some  in  good  condition. 
Copper  chisels,  knives  and  arrowheads  have  been  discovered.  The 
copper  tools  have  been  hardened  by  fire.  Working  out  the  ore  was 
doubtless  done  by  heating  and  pouring  on  water, — a  very  tedious 
process;  and  yet  it  is  said  that,  although  200  men  in  their  rude  way 
could  not  accomplish  any  more  work  than  two  skilled  miners  at  the 
present  day,  yet  at  one  point  alone  on  Isle  Royale  the  labor  per- 
formed exceeds  that  of  one  of  the  oldest  mines  on  the  south  shore, 
operated  by  a  large  force  for  more  than  30  years.  Since  these 
ancient  pits  were  opened,  forests  have  grown  up  and  fallen,  and 
trees  400  years  old  stand  around  them  to-day. 

Mounds  have  been  discovered  on  the  Detroit  river,  at  the  head 
of  the  St.  Ciair.  the  Black,  the  Rouge,  on  the  Grand,  at  the  foot  of 


Lake  Huron,  and  in  many  other  portions  of  the  State.  Those  at 
the  head  of  the  St.  Clair  were  discovered  by  Mr.  Gilinan,  in  1872, 
and  are  said  to  he  very  remarkable. 


Mr.  Breckenridge,  who  examined  the  antiquities  of  the  Western 
country  in  1817,  speaking  of  the  mounds  in  the  American  Bottom, 
says:  "The  great  number  and  extremely  large  size  of  some  of  them 
may  be  regarded  as  furnishing,  with  other  circumstances,  evidences 
of  their  antiquity.  I  have  sometimes  been  induced  to  think  that  at 
the  period  when  they  were  constructed  there  was  a  population  here 
as  numerous  as  that  which  once  animated  the  borders  of  the  Nile 
or  Euphrates,  or  of  Mexico.  The  most  numerous,  as  well  as  con- 
siderable, of  these  remains  are  found  in  precisely  those  parts  of  the 
country  where  the  traces  of  a  numerous  population  might  be  looked 
for,  namely,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Mississippi  to  the  Illinois  river,  and  on  the  west  from  the  St. 
Francis  to  the  Missouri.  I  am  perfectly  satisfied  that  cities  similar 
to  those  of  ancient  Mexico,  of  several  hundred  thousand  souls,  have 
existed  in  this  country." 

It  must  be  admitted  that  whatever  the  uses  of  these  mounds — 
whether  as  dwellings  or  burial  places — these  silent  monuments  were 
built,  and  the  race  who  built  them  vanished  from  the  face  of  the 
earth,  ages  before  the  Indians  occupied  the  land,  but  their  date 
must  probably  forever  baffle  human  skill  and  ingenuity. 

It  is  sometimes  difficult  to  distinguish  the  places  of  sepulture 
raised  by  the  Mound-Builders  from  the  more  modern  graves  of  the 
Indians.  The  tombs  of  the  former  were  in  general  larger  than 
those  of  the  latter,  and  were  used  as  receptacles  for  a  greater  number 
of  bodies,  and  contained  relics  of  art,  evincing  a  higher  degree  of 
civilization  than  that  attained  by  the  Indians.  The  ancient  earth- 
works of  the  Mound-Builders  have  occasionally  been  appropriated 
as  burial  places  by  the  Indians,  but  the  skeletons  of  the  latter  may 
be  distinguished  from  the  osteological  remains  of  the  former  by 
their  greater  stature. 

"What  finally  became  of  the  Mound-Builders  is  another  query 
which  has  been  extensively  discussed.  The  fact  that  their  works 
extend  into  Mexico  and  Peru  has  induced  the  belief  that  it  was  their 
posterity  that  dwelt  in  these  countries  when  they  were  first  visited 
by  the  Spaniards.  The  Mexican  and  Peruvian  works,  with  the 
exception  of  their  greater  magnitude,  are  similar.  Belies  common 
to  all  of  them  have  been  occasionally  found,  and  it  is  believed  that 
the  religious  uses  which  they  subserved  were  the  same.  If,  indeed, 
the  Mexicans  and  Peruvians  were  the  progeny  of  the  more  ancient 
Mound-Builders,  Spanish  rapacity  for  gold  was  the  cause  of  their 
overthrow  and  final  extermination. 

A  thousand  other  queries  naturally  arise  respecting  these  nations 
which  now  repose  under  the  ground,  but  the  most  searching  investi- 


gation  can  give  us  only  vague  speculations  for  answers.  No  histo- 
rian has  preserved  the  names  of  their  mighty  chieftains,  or  given 
an  account  of  their  exploits,  and  even  tradition  is  silent  respecting 

Following  the  Mound-Builders  as  inhabitants  of  North  America, 
were,  as  it  is  supposed,  the  people  who  reared  the  magnificent  cities, 
the  ruins  of  which  are  found  in  Central  America.  This  people  was 
far  more  civilized  and  advanced  in  the  arts  than  were  the  Mound- 
Builders.  The  cities  built  by  them,  judging  from  the  ruins  of 
broken  columns,  fallen  arches  and  crumbling  walls  of  temples, 
palaces  and  pyramids,  which  in  some  places  for  miles  bestrew  the 
ground,  must  have  been  of  great  extent,  magnificent  and  very  pop- 
ulous. When  we  consider  the  vast  period  of  time  necessary  to  erect 
such  colossal  structures,  and,  again,  the  time  required  to  reduce 
them  to  their  present  ruined  state,  we  can  conceive  something  of 
their  antiquity.  These  cities  must  have  been  old  when  many  of 
the  ancient  cities  of  the  Orient  were  being  built. 

The  third  race  inhabiting  North  America,  distinct  from  the 
former  two  in  every  particular,  is  the  present  Indians.  They  were, 
when  visited  by  the  early  discoverers,  without  cultivation,  refine- 
ment or  literature,  and  far  behind  the  Monnd-Builders  in  the  knowl- 
edge of  the  arts.  The  question  of  their  origin  has  long  interested 
archaeologists,  and  is  the  most  difficult  they  have  been  called  upon 
to  answer.  Of  their  predecessors  the  Indian  tribes  knew  nothing; 
they  even  had  no  traditions  respecting  them.  It  is  quite  certain 
that  they  were  the  successors  of  a  race  which  had  entirely  passed 
away  ages  befnre  the  discovery  of  the  New  AVorld.  One  hypothesis 
is  that  the  American  Indians  are  an  original  race  indigenous  to  the 
Western  hemisphere.  Those  who  entertain  this  view  think  their 
peculiarities  of  physical  structure  preclude  the  possibility  of  a  com- 
mon parentage  with  the  rest  of  mankind.  Prominent  among  those 
distinctive  traits  is  the  hair,  which  in  the  red  man  is  round,  in  the 
white  man  oval,  and  in  the  black  man  flat. 

A  more  common  supposition,  however,  is  that  they  are  a  deriva- 
tive race,  and  sprang  from  one  or  more  of  the  ancient  peoples  of 
Asia.  In  the  absence  of  all  authentic  history,  and  when  even 
tradition  is  wanting,  any  attempt  to  point  out  the  particular  location 
of  their  origin  must  prove  unsatisfactory.  Though  the  exact  place 
of  origin  may  never  be  known,  jTet  the  striking  coincidents  of 
physical  organization  between  the  Oriental  type  of  mankind  and 
the  Indians  point  unmistakably  to  some  part  of  Asia  as  the  place 
whence  they  emigrated,  which  was  originally  peopled  to  a  great 
extent  by  the  children  of  Shem.  In  this  connection  it  has  been 
claimed  that  the  meeting  of  the  Europeans,  Indians  and  Africans 
on  the  continent  of  America,  is  the  fulfillment  of  a  prophecy  as 
recorded  in  Genesis  ix.  27:  "God  shall  enlarge  Japheth,  and  he 
shall  dwell  in  the  tents  of  Shem  ;  and  Canaan  shall  be  his  servant." 


Assuming  the  theory  to  be  true  that  the  Indian  tribes  are  of 
Shemitic  origin,  they  were  met  on  this  continent  in  the  fifteenth 
century  by  the  Japhetic  race,  after  the  two  stocks  had  passed  around 
the  globe  by  directly  different  routes.  A  few  years  afterward  the 
Hamitic  branch  of  the  human  family  was  brought  from  the  coast 
of  Africa.  During  the  occupancy  of  the  continent  by  the  three 
distinct  races,  the  children  of  Japheth  have  grown  and  prospered, 
while  the  called  and  not  voluntary  sons  of  Ham  have  endured  a 
servitude  in  the  wider  stretching  valleys  of  the  tents  of  Shem. 

When  Christopher  Columbus  had  finally  succeeded  in  demon- 
strating the  truth  of  his  theory,  that  by  sailing  westward  from 
Europe  land  would  be  discovered,  landing  on  the  Island  of  Ber- 
muda he  supposed  he  bad  reached  the  East  Indies.  This  was  an 
error,  but  it  led  to  the  adoption  of  the  name  of  "  Indians"  for  the 
inhabitants  of  the  island  and  the  main  land  of  America,  by  which 
name  the  red  men  of  America  have  ever  since  been  known. 

Of  the  several  great  branches  of  North  American  Indians  the 
only  ones  entitled  to  consideration  in  Michigan  history  are  the 
Algonquins  and  Iroquois.  At  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  America 
the  former  occupied  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  while  the  home  of  the 
Iroquois  was  as  an  island  in  this  vast  area  of  Algonquin  popula- 
tion. The  latter  great  nation  spread  over  a  vast  territory,  and 
various  tribes  of  Algonquin  lineage  sprung  up  over  the  country, 
adopting,  in  time,  distinct  tribal  customs  and  laws.  An  almost 
continuous  warfare  was  carried  on  between  tribes;  but  later,  on  the 
entrance  of  the  white  man  into  their  beloved  homes,  every  foot  of 
territory  was  fiercely  disputed  by  the  confederacy  of  many  neigh- 
boring tribes.  The  Algonquins  formed  the  most  extensive  alliance 
to  resist  the  encroachment  of  the  whites,  especially  the  English. 
Such  was  the  nature  of  King  Philip's  war.  This  king,  with  his 
Algonquin  braves,  spread  terror  and  desolation  throughout  New 
England.  With  the  Algonquins  as  the  controlling  spirit,  a  con- 
federacy of  continental  proportions  was  the  result,  embracing  in  its 
alliance  the  tribes  of  every  name  and  lineage  from  the  Northern 
lakes  to  the  gulf.  Pontiac,  having  breathed  into  them  his  impla- 
cable hate  of  the  English  intruders,  ordered  the  conflict  to  com- 
mence, and  all  the  British  colonies  trembled  before  the  desolating 
fury  of  Indian  vengeance. 

The  "  Saghinan  "  (spelled  variously)  or  Saginaw  country  com- 
prised most  of  the  eastern  portion  of  the  southern  peninsula  indef- 
initely. The  village  of  the  "  Hurons"  was  probably  near  Detroit. 
The  term  "  Huron  "  is  derived  from  the  French  hure,  a  wild  boar, 
and  was  applied  to  this  tribe  of  Indians  on  account  of  the  bristly 
appearance  of  their  hair.  These  Indians  called  themselves  "  Ouen- 
dats,"  as  the  French  spelled  the  name,  or  "Wyandots,"  as  is  the 
modern  orthography. 


The  art  of  hunting  not  only  supplied  the  Indian  with  food,  but, 
like  that  of  war,  was  a  means  of  gratifying  his  love    of  distinction. 


The  male  children,  as  soon  as  they  acquired  sufficient  age  and 
strength,  were  furnished  with  a  bow  and  arrow  and  taught  to  shoot 
birds  and  other  small  game.  Success  in  killing  large  quadrupeds 
required  years  of  careful  study  and  practice,  and  the  art  was  as 
sedulously  inculcated  in  the  minds  of  the  rising  generation  as  are 
the  elements  of  reading,  writing  and  arithmetic  in  the  common 
schools  of  civilized  communities.  The  mazes  of  the  forest  and  the 
dense,  tall  grass  of  the  prairies  were  the  best  fields  for  the  exercise 
of  the  hunter's  skill.  No  feet  could  be  impressed  in  the  yielding 
soil  but  that  the  tracks  were  the  objects  of  the  most  searching 
scrutiny,  and  revealed  at  a  glance  the  animal  that  made  them,  the 
direction  it  was  pursuing,  and  the  time  that  had  elapsed  since  it 
had  passed.  In  a  forest  country  he  selected  the  valleys,  because 
they  were  most  frequently  the  resort  of  game.  The  most  easily 
taken,  perhaps,  of  all  the  animals  of  the  chase  was  the  deer.  It  is 
endowed  with  a  curiosity  which  prompts  it  to  stop  in  its  flight  and 
look  back  at  the  approaching  hunter,  who  always  avails  himself  of 
this  opportunity  to  let  fly  the  fatal  arrow. 

Their  general  councils  were  composed  of  the  chiefs  and  old  men. 
When  in  council,  they  usually  sat  in  concentric  circles  around  the 
speaker,  and  eacli  individual,  notwithstanding  the  fiery  passions 
that  rankled  within,  preserved  an  exterior  as  immovable  as  if  cast 
in  bronze.  Before  commencing  business  a  person  appeared  with 
the  sacred  pipe,  and  another  with  fire  to  kindle  it.  After  being 
lighted,  it  was  first  presented  to  heaven,  secondly  to  the  earth, 
thirdly  to  the  presiding  spirit,  and  lastly  to  the  several  councilors, 
each  of  whom  took  a  whiff.  These  formalities  were  observed  with 
as  close  exactness  as  State  etiquette  in  civilized  courts. 

The  dwellings  of  the  Indians  were  of  the  simplest  and  rudest 
character.  On  some  pleasant  spot  by  the  bank  of  a  river,  or  near 
an  ever-running  spring,  they  raised  their  groups  of  wigwams,  con- 
structed of  the  bark  of  trees,  and  easily  taken  down  and  removed 
to  another  spot.  The  dwelling-places  of  the  chiefs  were  sometimes 
more  spacious,  and  constructed  with  greater  care,  but  of  the  same 
materials.  Skins  taken  in  the  chase  served  them  for  repose. 
Though  principally  dependent  upon  hunting  and  fishing,  the  un- 
certain supply  from  those  sources  led  them  to  cultivate  small 
patches  of  corn.  Every  family  did  everything  necessary  within 
itself,  commerce,  or  an  interchange  of  articles,  being  almost  unknown 
to  them.  In  cases  of  dispute  and  dissension,  each  Indian  relied 
upon  himself  for  retaliation.  Blood  for  blood  was  the  rule,  and 
the  relatives  of  the  slain  man  were  bound  to  obtain  bloody  revenge 
for  his  death.  This  principle  gave  rise,  as  a  matter  of  course,  to  in- 
numerable and  bitter  feuds,  and  wars  of  extermination  where  such 
were  possible.  "War,  indeed,  rather  than  peace,  was  the  Indian's 
glory  and  delight, — war,  not  conducted  as  in  civilization,  but  war 
where  individual  skill,  endurance,  gallantry  and  cruelty  were  prime 
requisites.  For  such  a  purpose  as  revenge  the  Indian  would  make 
great  sacrifices, and  display  a  patience  and  perseverance  truly  heroic; 


but  when  the  excitement  was  over,  he  sank  back  into  a  listless,  un- 
occupied, well-nigh  useless  savage.  During  the  intervals  of  his 
more  exciting  pursuits,  the  Indian  employed  his  time  in  decorating 
his  person  with  all  the  refinement  of  paint  and  feathers,  and  in  the 
manufacture  of  his  arms  and  of  canoes.  These  were  constructed  of 
bark,  and  so  light  that  they  could  easily  be  carried  on  the  shoulder 
from  stream  to  stream.  His  amusements  were  the  war  dance,  ath- 
letic games,  the  narration  of  his  exploits,  and  listening  to  the  ora- 
tory of  the  chiefs;  but  during  long  periods  of  sucli  existence  he 
remained  in  a  state  of  torpor,  gazing  listlessly  upon  the  trees  of  the 
forests  and  the  clouds  that  sailed  above  them;  and  this  vacancy 
imprinted  a  habitual  gravity,  and  even  melancholy,  upon  his  gen- 
eral deportment. 

The  main  labor  and  drudgery  of  Indian  communities  fell  upon 
the  women.  The  planting,  tending  and  gathering  of  the  crops, 
making  mats  and  baskets,  carrying  burdens, — in  fact,  all  things  of 
the  kind  were  performed  by  them,  thus  making  their  condition  but 
little  better  than  that  of  slaves.  Marriage  was  merely  a  matter  of 
bargain  and  sale,  the  husband  giving  presents  to  the  father  of  the 
bride.  In  general  they  had  but  t'ew  children.  They  were  subjected 
to  many  and  severe  attacks  of  sickness,  and  at  times  famine  and 
pestilence  swept  away  whole  tribes. 

The  Indians  had  not  only  their  good  "  manitous,"  but  also  their 
evil  spirits;  and  the  wild  features  of  the  lake  scenery  appears  to 
have  impressed  their  savage  minds  with  superstition.  They  believed 
that  ail  the  prominent  points  of  this  wide  region  were  created  and 
guarded  by  monsters;  and  the  images  of  these  they  sculptured  on 
stone,  painted  upon  the  rocks,  or  carved  upon  the  trees.  Those  who 
"obeyed  "  these  supernatural  beings ,  they  thought,  would  after  death 
range  among  flowery  fields  filled  with  the  choicest  game,  while 
those  who  neglected  their  counsels  would  wander  amid  dreary  soli- 
tudes, stung  by  gnats  as  large  as  pigeons. 


It  is  not  necessary  to  dwell  on  the  details  of  history  from  the 
discovery  of  America  in  1492  to  the  settlement  of  Michigan  in 
166S,  as  some  historians  do  under  the  head  of  "  the  history  of 
Michigan;"  for  the  transaction  of  men  and  councils  at  Quebec, 
New  York,  Boston,  or  London,  or  Paris,  concerning  the  European 
possessions  in  America  prior  to  166S  did  not  in  the  least  affect 
either  man,  beast  or  inanimate  object  within  the  present  limits  of 
the  State  of  Michigan.  Nor  do  we  see  the  necessity  of  going  back 
to  the  foundations  of  American  institutions,  simply  because  they 
are  the  origin  of  the  present  features  of  Michigan  institutions  and 
society,  any  more  than  to  Greek,  Latin,  Christian  or  mediaeval  civ- 
ilization, although  all  the  latter  also  affect  Michigan  society. 

Jacques  Marquette  was  the  first  white  man,  according  to  history, 
to  set  foot  upon  ground  within  what  is  now  the  State  of  Michigan. 


He  was  born  of  an  honorable  family  at  Laon,  in  the  north  of 
France,  in  1637,  the  month  not  known.  He  was  educated  for  the 
Catholic  priesthood;  in  165-t  he  joined  the  Jesuits,  and  in  1666  he 
was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  Canada;  after  the  river  St.  Lawrence 
and  the  Great  Lakes  had  been  mapped  out,  the  all-absorbing  object 
of  interest  with  Gov.  Frontenac  Talch,  the  "intendent,"  and  Mar- 
quette himself  was  to  discover  and  trace  from  the  north  the  won- 
derful Mississippi  that  De  Soto,  the  Spaniard,  had  first  seen  at  the 
South  in  1641.  In  166S,  according  to  Bancroft,  he  repaired  to  the 
Chippewa,  at  the  Sault,  to  establish  the  mission  of  the  St.  Mary, 
the  oldest  settlement  begun  by  Europeans  within  the  present  limits 
of  Michigan.     This  was  under  Louis  XIV.,  of  France. 

In  1669  Father  Marquette  established  a  mission  at  Mackinaw, 
then  called  "Michilimackinac,"  from  an  Indian  word  signifying 
"  a  great  turtle,"  or  from  the  Chippewa  "  inichine-maukinonk," 
"  a  place  of  giant  fairies."  Here  Marquette  built  a  chapel  in  1671, 
and  continued  to  teach  the  Indians  until  his  death. 

In  1673,  in  company  with  Louis  Joliet,  Father  Marquette  received 
orders  from  Gov.  Frontenac  to  proceed  west  and  explore  the  Mis- 
sissippi, which  they  did,  as  far  south  as  the  Arkansas  river. 

Marquette  was  a  scholar  and  a  polite  Christian,  enthusiastic, 
shrewd  and  persevering.  He  won  the  affections  of  all  parties, 
French,  English  and  Indian.  He  was  even  a  man  of  science,  with 
a  strong  element  of  romance  and  love  of  natural  beauty  iii  his 
character.  Parkman  speaks  of  him,  in  characteristic  epithet,  as 
"  the  humble  Marquette  who,  with  clasped  hands  and  upturned 
eyes,  seems  a  figure  evoked  from  some  dim  legend  of  mediaeval 
saintship."  In  life  he  seems  to  have  been  looked  up  to  with  rever- 
ence by  the  wildest  savage,  by  the  rude  frontiersman,  and  by  the 
polished  officer  of  government.  Most  of  all  the  States,  his 
name  and  his  fame  should  be  dear  to  Michigan.  He  died  in  June, 
1675,  and  was  buried  with  great  solemnity  and  deep  sorrow  near 
the  mouth  of  Pere  Marquette  river.  The  remains  were  afterward 
deposited  in  a  vault  in  the  middle  of  the  chapel  of  St.  Ignace  near 
by;  but  on  the  breaking  up  of  the  mission  at  this  place  the  Jesuits 
burned  the  chapel,  and  the  exact  site  was  forgotten  until  Sept.  3, 
1877,  when  the  vault,  consisting  of  birch  bark,  was  found;  but  the 
remains  of  the  great  missionary  were  probably  stolen  away  by  his 
Indian  admirers  soon  after  the  abandonment  of  the  mission. 

The  next  settlement  in  point  of  time  was  made  in  1679,  by 
Robert  Cavalier  de  La  Salle,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  river. 
He  had  constructed  a  vessel,  the  "  Griffin,"  just  above  Niagara  falls, 
and  sailed  around  by  the  lakes  to  Green  Bay,  Wis.,  whence  he 
traversed  "  Lac  des  Illinois,"  now  Lake  Michigan,  by  canoe  to  the 
mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  river.  The  "  Griffin  "  was  the  first  sailing 
vessel  that  ever  came  west  of  Niagara  falls.  La  Salle  erected  a  fort 
at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  river,  which  afterward  was  moved 
about  60  miles  up  the  river,  where  it  was  still  seen  in  Charlevoix's 


time,  1721.  La  Salle  also  built  a  fort  on  the  Illinois  river  just 
below  Peoria,  and  explored  the  region  of  the  Illinois  and  Missis- 
sippi rivers. 

The  next,  and  third,  Michigan  post  erected  by  authority  was  a 
second  fort  on  the  St.  Joseph  river,  established  by  Du  Luth,  near 
the  present  Fort  Gratiot,  in  1686.  The  object  of  this  was  to  inter- 
cept emissariesof  the  English,  who  were  anxious  to  open  traffic  with 
the  Mackinaw  and  Lake  Superior  nations. 

The  French  posts  in  Michigan  and  westward  left  very  little  to  be 
gathered  by  the  New  York  traders,  and  they  determined,  as  there 
was  peace  between  France  and  England,  to  push  forward  their 
agencies  and  endeavor  to  deal  with  the  western  and  northern 
Indians  in  their  own  country.  The  French  governors  not  only 
plainly  asserted  the  title  of  France,  but  as  plainly  threatened  to 
use  all  requisite  force  to  expel  intruders.  Anticipating  correctly 
that  the  English  would  attempt  to  reach  Lake  Huron  from  the 
East  without  passing  up  Detroit  river,  Du  Luth  built  a  fort  at  the 
outlet  of  the  lake  into  the  St.  Clair.  About  the  same  time  an 
expedition  was  planned  against  the  Senecas,  and  the  Chevalier 
Tonti,  commanding  La  Salle's  forts,  of  St.  Louis  and  St.  Joseph  of 
Lake  Michigan,  and  La  Durantaj'e,  the  veteran  commander  of 
Mackinaw,  were  employed  to  bring  down  the  French  and  Indian 
auxiliaries  to  take  part  in  the  war.  These  men  intercepted 
English  expeditions  into  the  interior  to  establish  trade  with  the 
Northern  Indians,  and  succeeded  in  cutting  them  off  for  many  years. 

Religious  zeal  for  the  Catholic  Church  and  the  national  aggrand- 
izement were  almost  or  quite  equally  the  primary  and  all-ruling 
motive  of  western  explorations.  For  these  two  purposes  expedi- 
tions were  sent  out  and  missions  and  military  posts  were  established. 
In  these  enterprises  Marquette,  Joliet,  La  Salle,  St.  Lusson  and 
others  did  all  that  we  find  credited  to  them  in  history. 

In  1669  or  1670,  Talon,  then  "  Intendant  of  New  France,"  sent 
out  two  parties  to  discover  a  passage  to  the  South  Sea,  St.  Lusson 
to  Hudson's  Bay  and  La  Salle  southwestward.  On  his  retnrn  in 
1671,  St.  Lusson  held  a  council  of  all  the  northern  tribes  at  the 
Sault  Ste. Marie,  where  they  formed  an  alliance  with  the  French. 

"  It  is  a  curious  fact,"  says  Campbell,  "  that  the  public  docu- 
ments are  usually  made  to  exhibit  the  local  authorities  as  originat- 
ing everything,  when  the  facts  brought  to  light  from  other  sources 
show  that  they  were  compelled  to  permit  what  they  ostensibly 
directed."  The  expeditions  sent  out  by  Talon  were  at  least  sug- 
gested from  France.  The  local  authorities  were  sometimes  made 
to  do  things  which  were  not,  in  their  judgment,  the  wisest. 

July  19,  1701,  the  Iroquois  conveyed  to  King  William  III  all 
their  claims  to  land,  describing  their  territory  as  "that  vast  tract 
of  land  or  colony  called  Canagariarchio,  beginning  on  the  north- 


west  side  of  Cadarachqui  lake  [Ontario],  and  includes  all  that  vast 
tract  of  land  lying  between  the  great  lake  of  Ottawawa '[Huron], 
and  the  lake  called  by  the  natives  Sahiquage,  and  by  the  Christians 
the  Lake  of  Sweege  [Oswego,  for  Lake  Erie],  and  runs  till  it 
butts  upon  the  Twichtwichs,  and  ie  bounded  on  the  westward  by 
the  Twichtwichs  by  a  place  called  Quadoge,  containing  in  length 
about  800  miles  and  breadth  400  miles,  including  the  country  where 
beavers  and  all  sorts  of  wild  game  keeps,  and  the  place 
called  Tjeughsaghrondie  alias  Fort  De  Tret  or  Wawyachtenock 
[Detroit],  and  so  runs  round  the  lake  of  Sweege  till  you  come  to  a 
place  called  Oniadarundaquat,"  etc. 

It  was  chiefly  to  prevent  any  further  mischief,  and  to  secure 
more  effectually  the  French  supremacy  that  La  Motte  Cadillac,  who 
had  great  influence  over  the  savages,  succeeded,  in  1701,  after 
various  plans  urged  by  him  had  been  shelved  by  hostile  colonial 
intrigues,  in  getting  permission  from  Count  Pontchartraiu  to  begin 
a  settlement  in  Detroit.  His  purpose  was  from  the  beginning  to 
make  not  only  a  military  post,  but  also  a  civil  establishment,  for 
trade  and  agriculture.  He  was  more  or  less  threatened  and  opposed 
by  the  monopolists  and  by  the  Mackinaw  missionaries,  and  was 
subjected  to  severe  persecutions.  He  finally  triumphed  and 
obtained  valuable  privileges  and  the  right  of  seigneury.  Crafts- 
men of  all  kinds  were  induced  to  settle  in  the  town,  and  trade 
flourished.  He  succeeded  in  getting  the  Hurons  and  many  of  the 
Ottawas  to  leave  Mackinaw  and  settle  about  "  Fort  Pontchartraiu." 
This  fort  stood  on  what  was  formerly  called  the  first  terrace,  being 
on  the  ground  lying  between  Lamed  street  and  the  river,  and 
between  Griswold  and  Wayne  streets.  Cadillac's  success  was  so 
great,  in  spite  of  all  opposition,  that  he  was  appointed  governor  of 
the  new  province  of  Louisiana,  which  had  been  granted  to  Crozat 
and  his  associates.  This  appointment  removed  him  from  Detroit, 
and  immediately  afterward  the  place  was  exposed  to  an  Indian 
siege,  instigated  by  English  emissaries  and  conducted  by  the  Mas- 
coutins  and  Ontagamies,  the  same  people  who  made  the  last  war  on 
the  whites  in  the  territory  of  Michigan  under  Black  Hawk  a  cen- 
tury and  a  quarter  later.  "  The  tribes  allied  to  the  French  came  in 
with  alacrity  and  defeated  and  almost  annihilated  the  assailants,  of 
whom  a  thousand  were  put  to  death. 

Unfortunately  for  the  country,  the  commanders  who  succeeded 
Cadillac  for  many  years  were  narrow-minded  and  selfish  and  not 
disposed  to  advance  any  interests  beyond  the  lucrative  traffic  with 
the'  Indians  in  peltries.  It  was  not  until  1734  that  any  new  grants 
were  made  to  farmers.  This  was  done  by  Governor-General  Beau- 
harnois,  who  made  the  grants  on  the  very  easiest  terms.  Skilled 
artisans  became  numerous  in  Detroit,  and  prosperity  set  in  all 
around.  The  buildings  were  not  of  the  rudest  kind,  but  built  of 
oak  or  cedar,  and  of  smooth  finish.  The  cedar  was  brought  from 
a  great  distance.  Before  1742  the  pineries  were  known,  and  at  a 
very  early  day  a  saw-mill  was  erected  on  St. Clair  river,  near  Lake 


Huron.  Before  1749  quarries  were  worked,  especially  at  Stony 
Island.  In  1763  there  were  several  lime  kilns  within  the  present 
limits  of  Detroit,  and  not  only  stone  foundations  but  also  stone 
buildings,  existed  in  the  settlement.  Several  grist-mills  existed 
along  the  river  near  Detroit.  Agriculture  was  carried  on  profitably, 
and  supplies  were  exported  quite  early,  consisting  chiefly  of  corn 
and  wheat,  and  possibly  beans  and  peas.  Cattle,  horses  and  swine 
were  raised  in  considerable  numbers;  but  as  salt  was  very  expens- 
ive, but  little  meat,  if  any,  was  packed  for  exportation.  The  salt 
springs  near  Lake  St.  Clair,  it  is  trtie,  were  known,  and  utilized  to 
some  extent,  but  not  to  an  appreciable  extent.  Gardening  and  fruit- 
raising  were  carried  on  more  thoroughly  than  general  farming. 
Apples  and  pears  were  good  and  abundant. 

During  the  French  and  English  war  Detroit  was  the  principal 
source  of  supplies  to  the  French  troops  west  of  Lake  Ontario,  and 
it  also  furnished  a  large  number  of  fighting  men.  The  upper  posts 
were  not  much  involved  in  this  war. 

"  Teuchsa  Grondie,"  one  of  the  many  ways  of  spelling  an  old 
Indian  name  of  Detroit,  is  rendered  famous  by  a  large  and  splen- 
did poem  of  Levi  Bishop,  Esq.,  of  that  city. 

During  the  whole  of  the  18th  century  the  history  of  Michigan 
was  little  else  than  the  history  of  Detroit,  as  the  genius  of  French 
government  was  to  centralize  power  instead  of  building  up  locali- 
ties for  self-government. 

About  1704,  or  three  years  after  the  founding  of  Detroit,  this 
place  was  attacked  by  the  Ottawa  Indians,  but  unsuccessfully;  and 
again,  in  1712,  the  Ottagamies,  or  Fox  Indians,  who  were  in  secret 
alliance  with  the  old  enemies  of  the  French,  the  Iroquois,  attacked 
the  village  and  laid  siege  to  it.  They  were  severely  repulsed,  and 
their  chief  offered  a  capitulation,  which  was  refused.  Considering 
this  an  insult,  they  became  enraged  and  endeavored  to  burn  up  the 
town.  Their  method  of  firing  the  place  was  to  shoot  large  arrows, 
mounted  with  combustible  material  in  flame,  in  a  track  through 
the  sky  rainbow-form.  The  bows  and  arrows  being  very  large  and 
stout,  the  Indians  lay  with  their  backs  on  the  ground,  put  both  feet 
against  the  central  portion  of  the  inner  side  of  the  bow  and  pulled 
the  strings  with  all  the  might  of  their  hands.  A  ball  of  blazing 
material  would  thus  be  sent  arching  over  nearly  a  quarter  of  a 
mile,  which  would  come  down  perpendicularly  upon  the  dry  shingle 
roofs  of  the  houses  and  set  them  on  fire.  But  this  scheme  was 
soon  checkmated  by  the  French,  who  covered  the  remaining  houses 
with  wet  skins.  The  Foxes  were  considerably  disappointed  at  this 
and  discouraged,  but  they  made  one  more  desperate  attempt,  failed, 
and  retreated  toward  Lake  St.  Clair,  where  they  again  entrenched 
themselves.  From  this  place,  however,  they  were  soon  dislodged. 
After  this  period  these  Indians  occupied  Wisconsin  for  a  time  and 
made  it  dangerous  for  travelers  passing  through  from  the  lakes  to 
the  Mississippi.     They  were  the  Ishmaelites  of  the  wilderness. 


In  1749  there  was  afresh  accession  of  immigrants  to  all  the  points 
upon  the  lakes,  but  the  history  of  this  part  of  the  world  during 
the  most  of  this  century  is  rather  monotonous,  business  and  gov- 
ernment remaining  about  the  same,  without  much  improvement. 
The  records  nearly  all  concern  Canada  east  of  the  lake  region.  It 
is  true,  there  was  almost  a  constant  change  of  commandants  at  the 
posts,  and  there  were  many  slight  changes  of  administrative  policy; 
but  as  no  great  enterprises  were  successfully  put  in  operation,  the 
events  of  the  period  have  but  little  prominence.  The  northwest- 
ern territory  during  French  rnie  was  simply  a  vast  ranging  ground 
for  the  numerous  Indian  tribes,  who  had  no  ambition  higher  than 
obtaining  an  immediate  subsistence  of  the  crudest  kind,  buying 
arms,  whisky,  tobacco,  blankets  and  jewelry  by  bartering  for  them 
the  peltries  of  the  chase.  Like  a  drop  in  the  ocean  was  the  mis- 
sionary work  of  the  few  Jesuits  at  the  half  dozen  posts  on  the 
great  waters.  The  forests  were  full  of  otter,  beaver,  bear,  deer, 
grouse,  quails,  etc.,  and  on  the  few  prairies  the  grouse,  or  "  prairie 
chickens,"  were  abundant.  Not  much  work  was  required  to  obtain 
a  bare  subsistence,  and  human  nature  generally  is  not  disposed  to 
lay  up  much  for  the  future.  The  present  material  prosperity  of 
America  is  really  an  exception  to  the  general  law  of  the  world. 

In  the  latter  part  of  1796  Winthrop  Sargent  went  to  Detroit  and 
organized  the  county  of  "Wayne,  forming  a  part  of  the  Indiana  Ter- 
ritory until  its  division  in  1805,  when  the  Territory  of  Michigan 
was  organized. 


Soon  after  the  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  by 
La  Salle  in  1682,  the  government  of  France  began  to  encourage  the 
policy  of  establishing  a  line  of  trading  posts  and  missionary  stations 
extending  through  the  West  from  Canada  to  Louisiana,  and  this 
policy  was  maintained,   with   partial   success,  for  about  75  years. 

The  river  St.  Joseph  of  Lake  Michigan  was  called  "  the  river 
Miamis  "  in  1679,  in  which  year  La  Salle  built  a  small  fort  on  its 
bank,  near  the  lake  shore.  The  principal  station  of  the  mission  for 
the  instruction  of  the  Miamis  was  established  on  the  borders  of  this 
river.  The  first  French  post  within  the  territory  of  the  Miamis 
was  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Miamis,  on  an  eminence  naturally 
fortified  on  two  sides  by  the  river,  and  on  one  side  by  a  deep  ditch 
made  by  a  fall  of  water.  It  was  of  triangular  form.  The  mission- 
ary Hennepin  gives  a  good  description  of  it,  as  he  was  one  of  the 
company  who  built  it,  in  1679.  Says  he:  "  We  felled  the  trees  that 
were  on  the  top  of  the  hill;  and  having  cleared  the  same  from 
bushes  for  about  two  musket  shot,  we  began  to  build  a  redoubt  of 
80  feet  long  and  40  feet  broad,  with  great  square  pieces  of  timber 
laid  one  upon  another,  and  prepared  a  great  number  of  stakes  of 
about  25  feet  long  to  drive  into  the  ground,  to  make  our  fort  more 



inaccessible  on  the  river  side.  "We  employed  the  whole  month  of 
November  about  that  work,  which  was  very  hard,  though  we  had 
no  other  food  but  the  bears'  flesh  our  savage  killed.  These  beasts 
are  very  common  in  that  place  because  of  the  great  quantity  of 
grapes  they  hud  there;  but  their  flesh  being  too  fat  and  luscious, 
our  men  began  to  be  weary  of  it  and  desired  leave  to  go  a  hunting 
to  kill  some  wild  goats.  M.  La  Salle  denied  them  that  liberty,  which 
caused  some  murmurs  among  them;  and  it  was  but  unwillingly 
that  the}'  continued  their  work.  This,  together  with  the  approach 
of  winter  and  the  apprehension  that  M.  La  Salle  had  that  his  vessel 
(the  Griffin)  was  lost,  made  him  very  melancholy,  though  he  con- 
cealed it  as  much  as  he  could.  We  made  a  cabin  wherein  we  per- 
formed divine  service  every  Sunda}',  and  Father  Gabriel  and  I,  who 
preached  alternately,  took  care  to  take  such  texts  as  were  suitable 
to  our  present  circumstances  and  fit  to  inspire  us  with  courage, 
concord  and  brotherly  love.  *  *  *  The  fort  was  at  last  per- 
fected, and  called  Fort  Miatnis." 

In  1765  the  Miami  nation,  or  confederacy,  was  composed  of  four 
tribes,  whose  total  number  of  warriors  was  estimated  at  only  1,050 
men.  Of  these  about  250  were  Twightwees,  or  Miamis  proper,  300 
Weas,  or  Ouiatenons,  300  Piankeshaws  and  200  Shockeys;  and  at 
this  time  the  principal  villages  of  the  Twightwees  were  situated 
about  the  head  of  the  Maumee  river  at  and  near  the  place  where 
Fort  Wayne  now  is.  The  larger  Wea  villages  were  near  the  banks 
of  the  Wabash  river,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Post  Ouiatenon;  and 
the  Shockeys  and  Piankeshaws  dwelt  on  the  banks  of  the  Vermillion, 
and  on  the  borders  of  the  Wabash  between  Vincennes  and  Ouiate- 
non. Branches  of  the  Pottawatomie,  Shawnee,  Delaware  and  Kicka- 
poo  tribes  were  permitted  at  different  times  to  enter  within  the 
boundaries  of  the  Miamis  and  reside  for  a  while. 

The  wars  in  which  France  and  England  were  engaged,  from  1688 
to  1697,  retarded  the  growth  of  the  colonies  of  those  nations  in 
North  America,  and  the  efforts  made  by  France  to  connect  Canada 
and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  by  a  chain  of  trading  posts  and  colonies 
naturally  excited  the  jealousy  of  England  and  gradually  laid  the 
foundation  for  a  struggle  at  arms.  After  several  stations  were  estab- 
lished elsewhere  in  the  West,  trading  posts  were  started  at  the 
Miami  villages,  which  stood  at  the  head  of  theMaumee,  at  the  Wea 
villages  about  Ouiatenon  on  the  Wabash,  and  at  the  Piankeshaw  vil- 
lages about  the  present  sight  of  Vincennes.  It  is  probable  that  before 
the  close  of  the  year  1719  temporary  trading  posts  were  erected  at 
the  sites  of  Fort  Wayne,  Ouiatenon  and  Vincennes.  These  points 
were  probably  often  visited  by  French  fur  traders  prior  to  1700. 
In  the  meanwhile  the  English  people  in  this  country  commenced 
also  to  establish  military  posts  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  and  thus 
matters  went  on  until  they  naturally  culminated  in  a  general  war, 
which,  being  waged  by  the  French  and  Indians  combined  on  one 
6ide,  was  called  "  the  French  and  Indian  war."  This  war  was  ter- 
minated in  1763  by  a  treaty  at  Paris,  by  which  France  ceded  to 


Great  Britain  all  of  North  America  east  of  the  Mississippi  except 
New  Orleans  and  the  island  on  which  it  is  situated;  and  indeed, 
France  had  the  preceding  autumn,  by  a  secret  convention,  ceded  to 
Spain  all  the  country  west  of  that  river. 

In  1762,  after  Canada  and  its  dependencies  had  been  surrendered 
to  the  English,  Pontiac  and  his  partisans  secretly  organized  a  pow- 
erful confederacy  in  order  to  crush  at  one  blow  all  English  power 
in  the  West.  This  great  scheme  was  skillfully  projected  and  cau- 
tiously matured. 

The  principal  act  in  the  programme  was  to  gain  admittance  into 
the  fort  at  Detroit,  on  pretense  of  a  friendly  visit,  with  shortened 
muskets  concealed  under  their  blankets,  and  on  a  given  signal  sud- 
denly break  forth  upon  the  garrison;  but  an  inadvertent  remark  of 
an  Indian  woman  led  to  a  discovery  of  the  plot,  which  was  conse- 
quently averted.  Pontiac  and  his  warriors  afterward  made  many 
attacks  upon  the  English,  some  of  which  were  successful,  but  the 
Indians  were  finally  defeated  in  the  general  war. 


In  1765  the  total  number  of  French  families  within  the  limits  of 
the  Northwestern  Territory  did  not  probably  exceed  600.  These 
were  in  settlements  about  Detroit,  along  the  river  Wabash  and  the 
neighborhood  of  Fort  Chartres  on  the  Mississippi.  Of  these  fami- 
lies, about  80  or  90  resided  at  Post  Vincennes,  14  at  Fort  Ouiate- 
non,  on  the  Wabash,  and  nine  or  ten  at  the  confluence  of  the  St. 
Mary  and  St.  Joseph  rivers. 

The  colonial  policy  of  the  British  government  opposed  any  meas- 
ures which  might  strengthen  settlements  in  the  interior  of  this 
country,  lest  they  become  self-supporting  and  independent  of  the 
mother  country;  hence  the  early  and  rapid  settlement  of  the  North- 
western Territory  was  still  further  retarded  by  the  short-sighted 
selfishness  of  England.  That  fatal  policy  consisted  mainly  in  hold- 
ing the  land  in  the  hands  of  the  government  and  not  allowing  it  to 
be  subdivided  and  sold  to  settlers.  But  in  spite  of  all  her  efforts 
in  this  direction,  she  constantly  made  just  such  efforts  as  provoked 
the  American  people  to  rebel,  and  to  rebel  successfully,  which  was 
within  15  years  after  the  perfect  close  of  the  French  and  Indian 


Thomas  Jefferson,  the  shrewd  statesman  and  wise  Governor  of 
Virginia,  saw  from  the  first  that  actual  occupation  of  Western  lands 
was  the  only  way  to  keep  them  out  of  the  hands  of  foreigners  and 
Indians.  Therefore,  directly  after  the  conquest  of  Vincennes  by 
Clark,  he  engaged  a  scientific  corps  to  proceed  under  an  escort  to 


the  Mississippi,  and  ascertain  by  celestial  observations  the  point  on 
that  river  intersected  by  latitude  36*  30',  the  southern  limit  of  the 
State,  and  to  measure  its  distance  to  the  Ohio.  To  Gen.  Clark  was 
entrusted  the  conduct  of  the  military  operations  in  that  quarter. 
He  was  instructed  to  select  a  strong  position  near  that  point  and 
establish  there  a  fort  and  garrison;  thence  to  extend  his  conquest 
northward  to  the  lakes,  erecting  forts  at  different  points,  which 
might  serve  as  monuments  of  actual  possession,  besides  affording 
protection  to  that  portion  of  the  country.  Fort  "  Jefferson  "  was 
erected  and  garrisoned  on  the  Mississippi  a  few  miles  above  the 
southern  limit. 

The  result  of  these  operations  was  the  addition,  to  the  chartered 
limits  of  Virginia,  of  that  immense  region  known  as  the  "  North- 
western Territory."  The  simple  fact  that  such  and  such  forts  were 
established  by  the  Americans  in  this  vast  region  convinced  the  Brit- 
ish Commissioners  that  we  had  entitled  ourselves  to  the  land.  But 
where  are  those  "  monuments  "  of  our  power  now? 

ORDINANCE     OF    1787. 

This  ordinance  has  a  marvelous  and  interesting  history.  Con- 
siderable controversy  has  been  indulged  in  as  to  who  is  entitled  to 
the  credit  for  framing  it.  This  belongs,  undoubtedly,  to  "Nathan 
Dane;  and  to  Rufus  King  and  Timothy  Pickering  belong  the  credit 
for  suggesting  the  proviso  contained  in  it  against  slavery,  and  also 
for  aids  to  religion  and  knowledge,  and  for  assuring  forever  the 
common  use,  without  charge,  of  the  great  national  highways  of  the 
Mississippi,  the  St.  Lawrence  and  their  tributaries  to  all  the  citi- 
zens of  the  United  States.  To  Thomas  Jefferson  is  also  due  much 
credit,  as  some  features  of  this  ordinance  were  embraced  in  his  or- 
dinance of  nSi.  But  the  part  taken  by  each  in  the  long,  laborious 
and  eventful  struggle  which  had  so  glorious  a  consummation  in 
the  ordinance,  consecrating  forever,  by  one  imprescriptible  and  un- 
changeable monument,  the  very  heart  of  our  country  to  freedom, 
knowledge  and  union,  will  forever  honor  the  names  of  those  illustri- 
ous statesmen. 

Mr.  Jefferson  had  vainly  tried  to  secure  a  system  of  government 
for  the  Northwestern  Territory.  He  was  an  emancipationist  and 
favored  the  exclusion  of  slavery  from  the  Territory,  but  the  South 
voted  him  down  every  time  he  proposed  a  measure  of  this  nature. 
In  1787,  as  late  as  July  10,  an  organizing  act  without  the  anti- 
slavery  clause  was  pending.  This  concession  to  the  South  was 
expected  to  carry  it.  Congress  was  in  session  in  New  York.  On 
July  5,  Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler,  of  Massachusetts,  came  into  New 
York  to  lobby  on  the  Northwestern  Territory.  Everything  seemed 
to  fall  into  his  hands.  Events  were  ripe.  The  state  of  the  public 
credit,  the  growing  of  Southern  prejudice,  the  basis  of  his  mission, 
his  personal  character,  all  combined  to  complete  one  of  those  sudden 



and  marvelous  revolutions  of  public  sentiment  that  once  in  five  or 
ten  centuries  are  seen  to  sweep  over  a  country  like  the  breath  of  the 

Cutler  was  a  graduate  of  Tale.  He  had  studied  and  taken  de- 
grees in  the  three  learned  professions,  medicine,  law,  and  divinity. 
He  had  published  a  scientific  examination  of  the  plants  of  New 
England.  As  a  scientist  in  America  his  name  stood  second  only  to 
that  of  Franklin.  He  was  a  courtly  gentleman  of  the  old  style,  a 
man  of  commanding  presence  and  of  inviting  face.  The  Southern 
members  said  they  had  never  seen  such  a  gentleman  in  the  North. 
He  came  representing  a  Massachusetts  company  that  desired  to 
purchase  a  tract  of  land,  now  included  in  Ohio,  for  the  purpose  of 
planting  a  colony.  It  was  a  speculation.  Government  money  was 
worth  eighteen  cents  on  the  dollar.  This  company  had  collected 
enough  to  purchase  1,500,000  acres  of  land.  Other  speculators  in 
New  York  made  Dr.  Cutler  their  agent,  which  enabled  him  to 
represent  a  demand  for  5,500,000  acres.  As  this  would  reduce  the 
national  debt,  and  Jefferson's  policy  was  to  provide  for  the  public 
credit,  it  presented  a  good  opportunity  to  do  something. 

Massachusetts  then  owned  the  territory  of  Maine,  which  she  was 
crowding  on  the  market.  She  was  opposed  to  opening  the  North- 
western region.  This  fired  the  zeal  of  Virginia.  The  South  caught 
the  inspiration,  and  all  exalted  Dr.  Cutler.  The  entire  South  ral. 
lied  around  him.  Massachusetts  could  not  vote  against  him,  be- 
cause many  of  the  constuitents  of  her  members  were  interested 
personally  in  the  Western  speculation.  Thus  Cutler,  making 
friends  in  the  Soutb,  and  doubtless  using  all  the  arts  of  the  lobby, 
was  enabled  to  command  the  situation.  True  to  deeper  convic- 
tions, he  dictated  one  of  the  most  compact  and  finished  documents 
of  wise  statesmanship  that  has  ever  adorned  any  human  law  book. 
He  borrowed  from  Jefferson  the  term  "Articles  of  Compact,"  which, 
preceding  the  federal  constitution,  rose  into  the  most  sacred  char- 
acter. He  then  followed  very  closely  the  constitution  of  Massa- 
chusetts, adopted  three  years  before.  Its  most  prominent  points 

1.  The  exclusion  of  slavery  from  the  territory  forever. 

2.  Provision  for  public  schools,  giving  one  township  for  a  semi- 
nary and  every  section  numbered  16  in  each  township;  that  is,  one 
thirty-sixth  of  all  the  land  for  public  schools. 

3.  A  provision  prohibiting  the  adoption  of  any  constitution  or 
the  enactment  of  any  law  that  should  nullify  pre-existing  contracts. 


Be  it  forever  remembered  that  this  compact  declared  that  "  re- 
ligion, morality,  and  knowledge  being  necessary  to  good  govern- 
ment and  the  happiness  of  mankind,  schools  and  the  means  of  edu- 
cation shall  always  be  encouraged."  Dr.  Cutler  planted  himself 
on  this  platform  and  would  not  yield.  Giving  his  unqualified  dec- 
laration that  it  was  that  or  nothing, — that  unless  they  could  make 
the  land  desirable  they  did  not  want  it, — he  took  his  horse  and  buggy 
and  started  for  the  constitutional  convention  at  Philadelphia.  On 
July  13,  17S7,  the  bill  was  put  upon  its  passage,  and  was  unani- 
mously adopted.  Thus  the  great  States  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois, 
Michigan  and  Wisconsin,  a  vast  empire,  were  consecrated  to  free 
dom,  intelligence,  and  morality.  Thus  the  great  heart  of  the  nation 
was  prepared  to  save  the  union  of  States,  for  it  was  this  act  that  was 
the  salvation  of  the  republic  and  the  destruction  of  slavery.  Soon 
the  South  saw  their  great  blunder  and  tried  to  have  the  compact 
repealed.  In  1S03  Congress  referred  it  to  a  committee,  of  which 
John  Randolph  was  chairman.  He  reported  that  this  ordinance 
was  a  compact  and  opposed  repeal.  Thus  it  stood,  a  rock  in  the 
way  of  the  on-rushing  sea  of  slavery. 

The  "  Northwestern  Territory  "  included  of  course  what  is  now 
the  State  of  Indiana;  and  Oct  5,  ITS",  Maj.  Gen.  Arthur  St.  Clair 
was  elected  by  Congress  Governor  of  this  territory.  Upon 
commencing  the  duties  of  his  office  he  was  instructed  to  ascertain 
the  real  temper  of  the  Indians  and  do  all  in  his  power  to  remove 
the  causes  for  controversy  between  them  and  the  United  States, 
and  to  effect  the  extinguishment  of  Indian  titles  to  all  the  land 
possible.  The  Governor  took  up  quarters  in  the  new  settlement  of 
Marietta,  Ohio,  where  he  immediately  began  the  organization  of 
the  government  of  the  territory.  The  first  session  of  the  General 
Court  of  the  new  territory  was  held  at  that  place  in  1TSS,  the 
Judges  being  Samuel  H.  Parsons,  James  M.  Varnuni  and  John  C. 
Symmes,  but  under  the  ordinance  Gov.  St.  Clair  was  President  of 
the  Court.  After  the  first  session,  and  after  the  necessary  laws  for 
government  were  adopted,  Gov.  St.  Clair,  accompanied  by  the 
Judges,  visited  Kaskaskia  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  a  civil  gov- 
ernment there.  Full  instructions  had  been  sent  to  Maj.  Hamtramck, 
commandant  at  Vincennes,  to  ascertain  the  exact  feeling  and  temper 
of  tLj  Indian  tribes  of  the  Wabash.  These  instructions  were  ac- 
companied by  speeches  to  each  of  the  tribes.  A  Frenchman  named 
Antoine  Gamelin  was  dispatched  with  these  messages  April  5,  1790, 
who  visited  nearly  all  the  tribes  on  the  Wabash.  St.  Joseph  and  St. 



Mary's  rivers,  but  was  coldly  received;  most  of  the  chiefs  being 
dissatisfied  with  the  policy  of  the  Americans  toward  them,  and 
prejudiced  through  English  misrepresentation.  Full  accounts  of 
his  adventures  among  the  tribes  reached  Gov.  St.  Clair  at  Kaskas- 
kia  in  June,  1790.  Being  satisfied  that  there  was  no  prospect  of 
effecting  a  general  peace  with  the  Indians  of  Indiana,  he  resolved 
to  visit  Gen.  Harmar  at  his  headquarters  at  Fort  Washington  and 
consult  with  him  on  the  means  of  carrying  an  expedition  against 
the  hostile  Indians;  but  before  leaving  he  intrusted  "Winthrop 
Sargent,  the  Secretary  of  the  Territory,  with  the  execution  of  the 
resolutions  of  Congress  regarding  the  lands  and  settlers  on  the 
"Wabash.  He  directed  that  officer  to  proceed  to  Vincennes,  lay 
out  a  county  there,  establish  the  militia  and  appoint  the  necessary 
civil  and  military  officers.  Accordingly  Mr.  Sargent  went  to  Vin- 
cennes and  organized  Camp  Knox,  appointed  the  officers,  and  noti- 
fied the  inhabitants  to  present  their  claims  to  lands.  In  establish- 
ing these  claims  the  settlers  found  great  difficulty,  and  concerning 
this  matter  the  Secretary  in  his  report  to  the  President  wrote  as 
follows : 

"  Although  the  lands  and  lots  which  were  awarded  to  the  inhabi- 
tants appeared  from  very  good  oral  testimony  to  belong  to  those 
persons  to  whom  they  were  awarded,  either  by  original  grants,  pur- 
chase or  inheritance,  yet  there  was  scarcely  one  case  in  twenty 
where  the  title  was  complete,  owing  to  the  desultory  manner  in 
which  public  business  had  been  transacted  and  some  other  unfor- 
tunate causes.  The  original  concessions  by  the  French  and  British 
commandants  were  generally  made  upon  a  small  scrap  of  paper, 
which  it  has  been  customary  to  lodge  in  the  notary's  office,  who 
has  seldom  kept  any  book  of  record,  but  committed  the  most  im- 
portant land  concerns  to  loose  sheets,  which  in  process  of  time 
have  come  into  possession  of  persons  that  have  fraudulently  de- 
stroyed them;  or,  unacquainted  with  their  consequence,  innocently 
lost  or  trifled  them  away.  By  French  usage  they  are  considered 
family  inheritances,  and  often  descend  to  women  and  children.  In 
one  instance,  and  during  the  government  of  St.  Auge  here,  a  royal 
notary  ran  off  with  all  the  public  papers  in  his  possession,  as  by  a 
certificate  produced  to  me.  And  I  am  very  sorry  further  to  observe 
that  in  the  office  of  Mr.  Le  Grand,  which  continued  from  1777  to 
1787,  and  where  should  have  been  the  vouchers  for  important  land 
transactions,  the  records  have  been  so  falsified,  and  there  is  such 
gross  fraud  and  forgery,  as  to  invalidate  all  evidence  and  informa- 
tion which  I  might  have  otherwise  acquired  from  his  papers." 


Mr.  Sargent  says  there  were  about  150  French  families  at  Vin- 
cennes  in  1790.  The  heads  of  all  these  families  had  been  at  one  time 
vested  with  certain  titles  to  a  portion  of  the  soil;  and  while  the 
Secretary  was  busy  in  straightening  out  these  claims,  he  received 
a  petition  signed  by  80  Americans,  asking  for  the  confirmation  of 
grants  of  land  ceded  by  the  Court  organized  by  Col.  John  Todd 
under  the  authority  of  Virginia.  "With  reference  to  this  cause, 
Congress,  March  3,1791,  empowered  the  Territorial  Governor,  in 
cases  where  land  had  been  actually  improved  and  cultivated  under 
a  supposed  grant  for  the  same,  to  confirm  to  the  persons  who  made 
such  improvements  the  lands  supposed  to  have  been  granted,  not, 
however,  exceeding  the  quantity  of  400  acres  to  any  one  person. 


Soon  after  the  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  in  1682, 
the  government  of  France  began  to  encourage  the  policy  of  estab- 
lishing a  line  of  trading  posts  and  missionary  stations  extending 
through  the  West  from  Canada  and  the  great  lakes  to  Louisiana; 
and  this  policy  was  maintained,  with  partial  success,  for  about  75 
years.  British  power  was  the  rival  upon  which  the  French  con- 
tinually kept  their  eye.  Of  course  a  collision  of  arms  would  re- 
sult in  a  short  time,  and  this  commenced  about  1755.  In  1760 
Canada,  including  the  lake  region,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British. 
During  the  war  occurred  Braddock's  defeat,  the  battles  of  N  iagara, 
Crown  Point  and  Lake  George,  and  the  death  of  brave  Wolfe  and 
Montcalm.  Sept.  12,  this  year,  Major  Robert  Rogers,  a  native  of 
New  Hampshire,  a  provincial  officer  and  then  at  the  height  of  his 
reputation,  received  orders  from  Sir  Jeffrey  Amherst  to  ascend  the 
lakes  with  a  detachment  of  rangers,  and  take  possession,  in  the 
name  of  his  Britannic  Majesty,  of  Detroit,  Michilimackinac,  and 
other  Western  posts  included  in  the  capitulation  of  Montreal.  He  left 
the  latter  place  on  the  following  day  with  200  rangers  in  15  whale 
boats.  Nov.  7  they  reached  the  mouth  of  a  river  ('"  Chogage  ")  on 
the  southern  coast  of  lake  Erie,  where  they  were  met  by  Pontiac, 
the  Indian  chief,  who  now  appears  for  the  first  time  upon  the  pages 
of  Michigan  history.  He  haughtily  demanded  of  Rogers  why  he 
should  appear  in  his  realm  with  his  forces  without  his  permission. 
The  Major  informed  him  that  the  English  had  obtained  permission 
of  Canada,  and  that  he  was  on  his  way  to  Detroit  to  publish  the 
fact  and  to  restore  a  general  peace  to  white  men  and  Indians  alike. 
The  next  day  Pontiac  signified  his  willingness  to  live  at  peace  with 
the  English,  allowing  them  to  remain  in  his  country,  provided  they 
paid  him  due  respect.  He  knew  that  French  power  was  on  the 
wane,  and  that  it  was  to  the  interest  of  his  tribes  to  establish  an 
early  peace  with  the  new  power.  The  Indians,  who  had  collected 
at  the  mouth  of  Detroit,  reported  400  strong,  to  resist  the  coming 
of  the  British  forces,  were  easily  influenced  by  Pontiac  to  yield  the 
situation  to  Rogers.     Even    the  French   commandant  at   Detroit, 


Capt.  Beletre,  was  in  a  situation  similar  to  that  of  the  Indians, 
and  received  the  news  of  the  defeat  of  the  French  from  Major 
Rogers.  He  was  indignant  and  incredulous,  and  tried  to  rouse  the 
fury  of  his  old-time  friends,  the  Indians,  but  found  them  "faith- 
less "  in  this  hour  of  his  need.  He  surrendered  with  an  ill  grace, 
amid  the  yells  of  several  hundred  Indian  warriors.  It  was  a  source 
of  great  amazement  to  the  Indians  to  see  so  many  men  surrender 
to  so  few.  Nothing  is  more  effective  in  gaining  the  respect  of  In- 
dians than  a  display  of  power,  and  the  above  proceedings  led  them 
to  be  overawed  by  English  prowess.  They  were  astonished  also  at 
the  forbearance  of  the  conquerors  in  not  killing  their  vanquished 
enemies  on  the  spot. 

This  surrender  of  Detroit  was  on  the  29th  of  November,  1760. 
The  posts  elsewhere  in  the  lake  region  north  and  west  were  not 
reached  until  some  time  afterward.  The  English  now  thought  they 
had  the  country  perfectly  in  their  own  hands  and  that  there  was 
but  little  trouble  ahead;  but  in  this  respect  they  were  mistaken. 
The  French  renewed  their  efforts  to  circulate  reports  among  the 
Indians  that  the  English  intended  to  take  all  their  land  from  them, 
etc.  The  slaughter  of  the  Monongahela,  the  massacre  at  Fort 
William  Henry  and  the  horrible  devastation  of  the  Western  fron- 
tier, all  bore  witness  to  the  fact  that  the  French  were  successful  in 
prejudicing  the  Indians  against  the  British,  and  the  latter  began  to 
have  trouble  at  various  points.  The  French  had  always  been  in 
the  habit  of  making  presents  to  the  Indians,  keeping  them  supplied 
with  arms,  ammunition,  etc.,  and  it  was  not  their  policy  to  settle 
upon  their  lands.  The  British,  on  the  other  hand,  now  supplied 
them  with  nothing,  frequently  insulting  them  when  they  appeared 
around  the  forts.  Everything  conspired  to  fix  the  Indian  popula- 
tion in  their  prejudices  against  the  British  Government.  Even  the 
seeds  of  the  American  Revolution  were  scattered  into  the  West  and 
heijaii  to  grow. 

The  first  Indian  chief  to  raise  the  war-whoop  was  probably  Kia- 
shuta,  of  the  Senecas,  but  Pontiac,  of  the  Ottawas,  was  the  great 
George  Washington  of  all  the  tribes  to  systemize  and  render  effect- 
ual the  initial  movements  of  the  approaching  storm.  His  home 
was  about  eight  miles  above  Detroit,  on  Pechee  Island,  which  looks 
out  upon  the  waters  of  Lake  St.  Clair.  He  was  a  well-formed  man, 
with  a  countenance  indicating  a  high  degree  of  intelligence.  In 
1746  he  had  successfully  defended  Detroit  against  the  northern 
tribes,  and  it  is  probablehe  was  present  and  assisted  in  the  defeat 
of  Braddock. 

About  the  close  of  1762  he  called  a  general  council  of  the  tribes, 
sending  out  embassadors  in  all  directions,  who  witli  the  war-belt  of 
wampum  and  the  tomahawk  went  from  village  to  village  and  camp 
to  camp,  informing  the  sachems  everywhere  that  war  was  impend- 
ing, and  delivering  to  them  the  message  of  Pontiac.  They  all 
approved  the  message,  and  April  27,  1763,  a  grand  council  was  held 
near  Detroit,  when  Pontiac  stood  forth  in  warpaint  and  delivered 


"  the  great  speech  of  the  campaign."  The  English  were  slow  to 
perceive  any  dangerous  conspiracy  in  progress,  and  when  the  blow 
was  struck,  nine  out  of  twelve  of  the  British  posts  were  surprised 
and  destroyed !  Three  of  these  were  within  the  bounds  of  this 

The  first  prominent  event  of  the  war  was  the 


on  the  northernmost  point  of  the  southern  peninsula,  the  site  of  the 
present  city  of  Mackinaw.  This  Indian  outrage  was  one  of  the  most 
ingeniously  devised  and  resolutely  executed  schemes  in  American 
history.  The  Chippewas  (or  Ojibways)  appointed  one  of  their  big 
ball  plays  in  the  vicinity  of  the  post,  and  invited  and  inveigled  as 
many  of  the  occupants  as  they  could  to  the  scene  of  play,  then  fell 
upon  the  unsuspecting  and  unguarded  English  in  the  most  brutal 
manner.  For  the  details  of  this  horrible  scene  we  are  indebted  to 
Alexander  Henry,  a  trader  at  that  point,  who  experienced  several 
most  blood-curdling  escapes  from  death  and  scalping  at  the  hands  of 
the  savages.  The  result  of  the  massacre  was  the  death  of  about  70 
out  of  90  persons.  The  Ottawa  Indians,  who  occupied  mainly  the 
eastern  portion  of  the  lower  peninsula,  were  not  consulted  by  the 
Chippewas  with  reference  to  attacking  Michilimackinac,  and"  were 
consequently  so  enraged  that  they  espoused  the  cause  of  the  English, 
through  spite;  and  it  was  through  their  instrumentality  that  Mr. 
Henry  and  some  of  his  comrades  were  saved  from  death  and  con- 
veyed east  to  the  regions  of  civilization. 

Of  Mr.  Henry's  narrow  escapes  we  give  the  following  succinct 
account.  Instead  of  attending  the  ball  play  of  the  Indians  he  spent 
the  day  writing  letters  to  his  friends,  as  a  canoe  was  to  leave  for  the 
East  the  following  day.  While  thus  engaged,  he  heard  an  Indian 
war  cry  and  a  noise  of  general  confusion.  Looking  out  of  the  win- 
dow, he  saw  a  crowd  of  Indians  withid^the  fort,  that  is,  within  the 
village  palisade,  who  were  cutting  down  and  scalping  every  English- 
man they  found.  He  seized  a  fowling-piece  which  he  had  at  hand, 
and  waited  a  moment  for  the  signal,  the  drum  beat  to  arms.  In 
that  dreadful  interval  he  saw  several  of  his  countrymen  fall  under 
the  tomahawk  and  struggle  between  the  knees  of  an  Indian  who 
held  him  in  this  manner  to  scalp  him  while  still  alive.  Mr.  Henry 
heard  no  signal  to  arms;  and  seeing  that  it  was  useless  to  under- 
take to  resist  400  Indians,  he  thought  only  of  shelter  for  himself. 
He  saw  many  of  the  Canadian  inhabitants  of  the  fort  calmly  look- 
ing on,  neither  opposing  the  Indians  nor  suffering  injury,  and  he 
therefore  concluded  he  might  find  safety  in  some  of  their  houses. 
He  stealthily  ran  to  one  occupied  by  Mr.  Langlade  and  family,  who 
were  at  their  windows  beholding  the  bloody  scene.  Mr.  L.  scarcely 
dared  to  harbor  him,  but  a  Pawnee  slave  of  the  former  concealed 
him  in  the  garret,  locked  the  stairway  door  and  took  away  the  key. 
In  this  situation  Mr.  Henry  obtained  through  an  aperture  a  view 


of  what  was  going  on  without.  He  saw  the  dead  scalped  and  man- 
gled, the  dying  in  writhing  agony  under  the  insatiate  knife  and 
tomahawk,  and  the  savages  drinking  human  blood  from  the  hollow 
of  their  joined  hands!  Mr.  Henry  almost  felt  as  if  he  were  a  vic- 
tim himself,  so  intense  were  his  sufferings.  Soon  the  Indian  fiends 
began  to  halloo,  "  All  is  finished!"  At  this  instant  Henry  heard 
some  of  the  Indians  enter  the  house  in  which  he  had  taken  shelter. 
The  garret  was  separated  from  the  room  below  by  only  a  layer  of 
single  boards,  and  Mr.  Henry  heard  all  that  was  said.  As  soon  as 
the'lndians  entered  they  inquired  whether  there  were  any  English- 
men in  the  house.  Mr.  Langlade  replied  that  he  could  not  say; 
they  might  examine  for  themselves.  He  then  conducted  them  to 
the  garret  door.  As  the  door  was  locked,  a  moment  of  time  was 
snatched  by  Mr.  Henry  to  crawl  into  a  heap  of  birch-bark  vessels 
in  a  dark  corner;  and  although  several  Indians  searched  around  the 
garret,  one  of  them  coming  within  arm's  length  of  the  sweating 
prisoner,  they  went  out  satisfied  that  no  Englishman  was  there. 

As  Mr.  Henry  was  passing  the  succeeding  night  in  this  room  he 
could  think  of  no  possible  chance  of  escape  from  the  country.  He 
was  out  of  provisions,  the  nearest  post  was  Detroit,  400  miles  away, 
and  the  route  thither  lay  through  the  enemy's  country.  The  next 
morning  he  heard  Indian  voices  below  informing  Mr.  Langlade  that 
they  had  not  found  an  Englishman  named  Henry  among  the  dead, 
and  that  they  believed  him  to  he  somewhere  concealed.  Mrs.  L., 
believing  that  the  safety  of  the  household  depended  on  giving  up 
the  refugee  to  his  pursuers,  prevailed  on  her  husband  to  lead  the 
Indians  up  stairs,  to  the  room  of  Mr.  H.  The  latter  was  saved  from 
instant  death  by  one  of  the  savages  adopting  him  as  a  "  brother," 
in  the  place  of  one  lost.  The  Indians  were  all  mad  with  liquor, 
however,  and  Mr.  II.  again  very  narrowly  escaped  death.  An  hour 
afterward  he  was  taken  out  of  the  fort  by  an  Indian  indebted  to  him 
for  goods,  and  was  under  the  uplifted  knife  of  the  savage  when  he 
suddenly  broke  away  from  Aim  and  made  back  to  Mr.  Langlade's 
house,  barely  escaping  the  knife  of  the  Indian  the  whole  distance. 
The  next  dajr  he,  with  three  other  prisoners,  were  taken  in  a  canoe 
toward  Lake  Michigan,  and  at  Fox  Point,  18  miles  distant,  the 
Ottawas  rescued  the  whites,  through  spite  at  the  Chippewas,  say- 
ing that  the  latter  contemplated  killing  and  eating  them;  but  the 
next  day  they  were  returned  to  the  Chippewas,  as  the  result  of  some 
kind  of  agreement  about  the  conduct  of  the  war.  He  was  rescued 
again  by  an  old  friendly  Indian  claiming  him  as  a  brother.  The 
next  morning  he  saw  the  dead  bodies  of  seven  whites  dragged  forth 
from  the  prison  lodge  he  had  just  occupied.  The  fattest  of  these 
dead  bodies  was  actually  served  up  and  feasted  on,  directly  before 
the  eyes  of  Mr.  Henry. 

Through  the  partiality  of  the  Ottawas  and  complications  of  mili- 
tary affairs  among  the  Indians,  Mr.  Henry,  after  severe  exposures 
and  many  more  thrilling  escapes,  was  finally  landed  within  terri- 
tory occupied  by  whites. 



For  more  than  a  year  after  the  massacre,  Michiliinackinac  was 
occupied  only  by  wood  rangers  and  Indians;  then,  after  the  treaty, 
Capt.  Howard  was  sent  with  troops  to  take  possession. 


In  the  spring  of  1763  Pontiac  determined  to  take  Detroit  by  an 
ingenious  assault.  He  had  his  men  tile  off  their  guns  so  that  they 
would  be  short  enough  to  conceal  under  their  blanket  clothing  as 
they  entered  the  fortification.  A  Canadian  woman  who  went  over 
to  their  village  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  to  obtain  some  venison, 
saw  them  thus  at  work  on  their  guns,  and  suspected  they  were  pre- 
paring for  an  attack  on  the  whites.  She  told  her  neighbors  what 
she  had  seen,  and  one  of  them  informed  the  commandant,  Major 
Gladwyn,  who  at  first  slighted  the  advice,  but  before  another  day 
passed  he  had  full  knowledge  of  the  plot.  There  is  a  legend  that  a 
beautiful  Chippewa  girl,  well  known  to  Gladwjm,  divulged  to  him 
the  scheme  which  the  Indians  had  in  view,  namely,  that  the  next 
day  Pontiac  would  come  to  the  fort  with  60  of  his  chiefs,,  each 
armed  with  a  gun  cut  short  and  hidden  under  his  blanket;  that 
Pontiac  would  demand  a  council,  deliver  a  speech,  offer  a  peace-belt 
of  wampum,  holding  it  in  a  reversed  position  as  the  signal  for 
attack;  that  the  chiefs,  sitting  upon  the  ground,  would  then  spring 
up  and  fire  upon  the  officers,  and  the  Indians  out  in  the  streets 
would  next  fall  upon  the  garrison,  and  kill  every  Englishman,  but 
sparing  all  the  French. 

Gladwyn  accordingly  put  the  place  in  a  state  of  defense  as  well  as 
he  could,  and  arranged  for  a  quiet  reception  of  the  Indians  and  a 
sudden  attack  upon  them  when  he  should  give  a  signal.  At  10 
o'clock,  May  7,  according  to  the  girl's  prediction,  the  Indians  came, 
entered  the  fort  and  proceeded  with  the  programme,  but  with  some 
hesitation,  as  they  saw  their  plot  had  been  discovered.  Pontiac 
made  his  speech,  professing  friendship  for  the  English,  etc.,  and 
without  giving  his  signal  for  attack,  sat  down,  and  heard  Major 
Gladwyn's  reply,  who  suffered  him  and  his  men  to  retire  unmo- 
lested. He  probably  feared  to  take  them  as  prisoners,  as  war  was 
not  actually  commenced.  The  next  day  Pontiac  determined  to  try 
again,  but  was  refused  entrance  at  the  gate  unless  he  should  come 
in  alone.  He  turned  away  in  a  rage,  and  in  a  few  minutes  some  of 
his  men  commenced  the  peculiarly  Indian  work  of  attacking  an 
innocent  household  and  murdering  them,  just  beyond  the  range  of 
British  guns.  Another  squad  murdered  an  Englishman  on  an 
island  at  a  little  distance.  Pontiac  did  not  authorize  these  pro- 
ceedings, but  retired  across  the  river  and  ordered  preparations  to 
be  made  for  taking  the  fort  by  direct  assault,  the  headquarters  of 
the  camp  to  be  on  li  Bloody  run"  west  of  the  river.  Meanwhile 
the  garrison  was  kept  in  readiness  for  any  outbreak.  The  very  next 
day  Pontiac,  having  received  reinforcements  from  the  Chippewas 
of  Saginaw  Bay,  commenced  the  attack,  but  was  repulsed;  no  deaths 


upon  either  side.  Gladwyn  sent  embassadors  to  arrange  for  peace, 
but  Pontiac,  although  professing  to  be  willing  in  a  general  way  to 
conclude  peace,  would  not  agree  to  any  particular  proposition.  A 
number  of  Canadians  visited  the  fort  and  warned  the  commandant 
to  evacuate,  as  1,500  or  more  Indians  would  storm  the  place  in  an 
hour;  and  soon  afterward  a  Canadian  came  with  a  summons  from 
Pontiac,  demanding  Gladwyn  to  surrender  the  post  at  once,  and 
promising  that,  in  case  of  compliance,  he  and  his  men  would  be 
allowed  to  go  on  board  their  vessels  unmolested,  leaving  their  arms 
and  effects  behind.  To  both  these  advices  Major  Gladwyn  gave  a 
flat  refusal. 

Only  three  weeks'  provisions  were  within  the  fort,  and  the  garri- 
son was  in  a  deplorable  condition.  A  few  Canadians,  however, 
from  across  the  river,  sent  some  provisions  occasionally,  by  night. 
Had  it  not  been  for  this  timely  assistance,  the  garrison  would 
doubtless  have  had  to  abandon  the  fort.  The  Indians  themselves 
soon  began  to  suffer  from  hunger,  as  they  had  not  prepared  for  a 
long  siege;  but  Pontiac,  after  some  maraudings  upon  the  French 
settlers  had  been  made,  issued  "  promises  to  pay"  on  birch  bark, 
with  which  he  pacified  the  residents.  He  subsequently  redeemed 
all  these  notes.  About  the  end  of  July  Capt.  Dalzell  arrived  from 
Niagara  with  re-enforcements  and  provisions,  and  persuaded  Glad- 
wyn to  undertake  an  aggressive  movement  against  Pontiac.  Dalzell 
was  detailed  for  the  purpose  of  attacking  the  camp  at  Parent's 
creek,  a  mile  and  a  half  away,  but  being  delayed  a  day,  Pontiac 
learned  of  his  movements  and  prepared  his  men  to  contest  his 
march.  On  the  next  morning,  July  31,  before  day-break,  Dalzell 
went  out  with  250  men,  but  was  repulsed  with  a  loss  of  59  killed 
and  wounded,  while  the  Indians  lost  less  than  half  that  number. 
Parent's  creek  was  afterward  known  as  "  Bloody  run." 

Shortly  afterward,  the  schooner  "  Gladwyn,"  on  its  return  from 
Niagara  with  ammunition  and  provisions,anchored  about  nine  miles 
below  Detroit  for  the  night,  when  in  the  darkness  about  300  Indians 
in  canoes  came  quietly  upon  the  vessel  and  very  nearly  succeeded 
in  taking  it.  Slaughter  proceeded  vigorously  until  the  mate  gave 
orders  to  his  men  to  blow  up  the  schooner,  when  the  Indians,  under- 
standing the  design,  fled  precipitately,  plunging  into  the  water  and 
swimming  ashore.  This  desperate  command  saved  the  crew,  and 
the  schooner  succeeded  in  reaching  the  post  with  the  much  needed 
supply  of  provisions. 

By  this  time,  September,  most  of  the  tribes  around  Detroit  were 
disposed  to  sue  for  peace.  A  truce  being  obtained,  Gladwyn  laid  in 
provisions  for  the  winter,  while  Pontiac  retired  with  his  chiefs  to 
the  Maumee  country,  only  to  prepare  for  a  resumption  of  war  the 
next  spring.  He  or  his  allies  the  next  season  carried  on  a  petty 
warfare  until  in  August,  when  the  garrison,  now  worn  out  and 
reduced,  were  relieved  by  fresh  troops,  Major  Bradstreet  com- 
manding. Pontiac  retired  to  the  Maumee  again,  still  to  stir  up 
hate  against  the  British.      Meanwhile  the  Indians  near  Detroit, 


scarcely  comprehending  what  they  were  doing,  were  induced  by 
Bradstreet  to  declare  themselves  subjects  of  Great  Britain.  An 
embassy  sent  to  Pontiac  induced  him  also  to  cease  belligerent 
operations  against  the  British. 

In  1769  the  great  chief  and  warrior,  Pontiac,  was  killed  in  Illi- 
nois by  a  Kaskaskia  Indian,  for  a  barrel  of  whisky  offered  by  an 
Englishman  named  Williamson. 

The  British  at  Detroit  now  changed  their  policy  somewhat,  and 
endeavored  to  conciliate  the  Indians,  paying  them  for  land  and 
encouraging  French  settlements  in  the  vicinity.  This  encourage- 
ment was  exhibited,  in  part,  in  showing  some  partiality  to  French 

At  this  time  the  fur  trade  was  considerably  revived,  the  princi- 
pal point  of  shipment  being  the  Grand  Portage  of  Lake  Superior. 
The  charter  boundaries  of  the  two  companies,  the  Hudson's  Bay 
and  the  Northwest,  not  having  been  very  well  defined,  the  employes 
of  the  respective  companies  often  came  into  conflict.  Lord  Selkirk, 
the  head  of  the  former  company,  ended  the  difficulty  by  uniting 
the  stock  of  both  companies.  An  attempt  was  also  made  to  mine 
and  ship  copper,  but  the  project  was  found  too  expensive. 


By  this  important  struggle  the  territory  of  the  present  State  of 
Michigan  was  but  little  affected,  the  posts  of  Detroit  and  Mackinaw 
being  the  principal  points  whence  the  British  operated  among  the 
Indians  to  prejudice  them  against  the  ''Americans,"  going  so  far 
as  to  pay  a  reward  for  scalps,  which  the  savages  of  course  hesitated 
not  to  take  from  defenseless  inhabitants.  The  expeditions  made  by 
the  Indians  for  this  purpose  were  even  supported  sometimes  by  the 
regular  troops  and  local  militia.  One  of  these  joint  expeditions, 
commanded  by  Capt.  Byrd,  set  out  from  Detroit  to  attack  Louis- 
ville, Ey.  It  proceeded  in  boats  as  far  as  it  could  ascend  the 
Maumee,  and  thence  crossed  to  the  Ohio  river,  on  which  stream 
Ruddle's  Station  was  situated,  which  surrendered  at  once,  without 
fighting,  under  the  promise  of  being  protected  from  the  Indians; 
but  this  promise  was  broken  and  all  the  prisoners  massacred. 

Another  expedition,  under  Gov.  Hamilton,  the  commandant  at 
Detroit,  started  out  in  1778,  and  appeared  at  Vincennes,  Ind.,  with 
a  force  of  30  regulars,  50  French  volunteers  and  about  400  Indians. 
At  this  fort  the  garrison  consisted  only  of  Capt.  Helm  and  one 
soldier,  named  Henry.  Seeing  the  troops  at  a  distance,  they  loaded 
a  cannon,  which  they  placed  in  the  open  gateway;  and  Capt.  Helm 
stood  by  the  cannon  with  a  lighted  match.  When  Hamilton  with 
his  army  approached  within  hailing  distance,  Helm  called  out  with  a 
loud  voice,  "Halt!"  This  show  of  resistance  made  Hamilton  stop 
and  demand  a  surrender  of  the  garrison.  "  No  man,"  exclaimed 
Helm,  with  an  oath,  "  enters  here  until  I  know  the  terms."  Ham- 
ilton replied,  "  You  shall  have  the  honors  of  war."    Helm  thereupon 


surrendered  the  fort,  and  the  whole  garrison,  consisting  of  the  two 
already  named  (!),  inarched  out  and  received  the  customary  marks 
of  respect  for  their  brave  defense.  Hamilton  was  soon  afterward 
made  to  surrender  this  place  to  Gen.  George  Rogers  Clark,  the 
ablest  American  defender  in  the  West.  The  British  soldiers  were 
allowed  to  return  to  Detroit;  but  their  commander,  who  was  known 
to  have  been  active  in  instigating  Indian  barbarities,  was  put  in 
irons  and  sent  to  Virginia  as  a  prisoner  of  war. 

The  English  at  Detroit  suspected  that  a  certain  settlement  of 
pious  Moravian  missionaries  on  the  Muskingum  river  were  aiding 
the  American  cause,  and  they  called  a  conference  at  Niagara  and 
urged  the  Iroquois  to  break  up  the  Indian  congregation  which  had 
collected  under  these  missionaries;  but  the  Iroquois  declined  to 
concern  themselves  so  deeply  in  white  men's  quarrels,  and  sent 
a  message  to  theChippewasand  Ottawas,  requesting  them  to"  make 
soup  "  of  the  Indian  congregation  on  the   Muskingum. 

These  Moravian  missionaries  came  to  Detroit  in  1781,  before  De 
Peyster,  the  commandant.  A  war  council  was  held,  and  the  council- 
house  completely  filled  with  Indians.  Capt.  Pike,  an  Indian  chief, 
addressed  the  assembly  and  told  the  commandant  that  the  English 
might  fight  the  Americans  if  they  chose;  it  was  their  cause,  not  his; 
that  they  had  raised  a  quarrel  among  themselves,  and  it  was  their 
business  to  fight  it  out.  They  had  set  him  on  the  Americans  as  the 
hunter  sets  his  dog  upon  the  game.  By  the  side  of  the  British 
commander  stood  another  war  chief,  with  a  stick  in  his  hand  four 
feet  in  length,  strung  with  American  scalps.  This  warrior  fol- 
lowed Capt.  Pike,  saying:  "  Now,  father,  here  is  what  has  been  done 
with  the  hatchet  you  gave  me.  I  have  made  the  use  of  it  you 
ordered  me  to  do,  and  found  it  sharp." 

The  events  just  related  are  specimens  of  what  occurred  at  and  in 
connection  with  Detroit  from  the  close  of  Pontiac's  war  until  a 
number  of  years  after  the  establishment  of  American  independence. 
When  the  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  at  Versailles  in  1783,  the  British 
on  the  frontier  reduced  their  aggressive  policy  somewhat,  but  they 
continued  to  occupy  the  lake  posts  until  1796,  on  the  claim  that 
tlie  lake  region  was  not  designed  to  be  included  in  the  treaty  by  the 
commissioners,  probably  on  account  of  their  ignorance  of  the  geog- 
raphy of  the  region.  Meanwhile  the  Indians  extensively  organized 
for  depredation  upon  the  Americans,  and  continued  to  harass  them 
at  every  point. 

During  this  period  Alex.  McKenzie,  an  agent  of  the  British  gov- 
ernment, visited  Detroit,  painted  like  an  Indian,  and  6aid  that  he 
was  just  from  the  upper  lakes,  and  that  the  tribes  in  that  region 
were  all  in  arms  against  any  further  immigration  of  Americans, 
and  were  ready  to  attack  the  infant  settlements  in  Ohio.  His  state- 
ments had  the  desired  effect;  and,  encouraged  also  by  an  agent  from 
the  Spanish  settlements  on  the  Mississippi,  the  Indians  organized  a 
<rreat  confederacy  against  the  United  States.  To  put  this  down, 
Gen.  Harmar  was  first  sent  ouU)y  the  Government,  with  1,400  men; 


but  he  imprudently  divided  his  army,  and  he  was  taken  by  surprise 
and  defeated  by  a  body  of  Indians  under  "  Little  Turtle."  Gen. 
Arthur  St.  Clair  was  next  sent  out,  with  2,000  men,  and  he  suf- 
fered a  like  fate.  Then  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne  was  sent  West  with 
a  still  larger  army,  and  on  the  Maumee  he  gained  an  easy  victory 
over  the  Indians,  within  a  few  miles  of  a  British  post.  He 
finally  concluded  a  treaty  with  the  Indians  at  Greenville,  which 
broke  up  the  whole  confederacy.  The  British  soon  afterward  gave 
up  Detroit  and  Mackinaw. 

"  It  was  a  considerable  time  before  the  Territory  of  Michigan, 
now  in  the  possession  of  the  United  States,  was  improved  or  altered 
by  the  increase  of  settlements.  The  Canadian  French  continued  to 
form  the  principal  part  of  its  population.  The  interior  of  the  coun- 
try was  but  little  known,  except  by  the  Indians  and  the  fur  traders. 
The  Indian  title  not  being  fully  extinguished,  no  lands  were 
brought  into  market,  and  consequently  the  settlements  increased 
but  slowly.  The  State  of  Michigan  at  this  time  constituted  simply 
the  county  of  Wayne  in  Northwest  Territory.  It  sent  one  Repre- 
sentative  to  the  Legislature  of  that  Territory,  which  was  held  at 
Chillicothe.  A  court  of  common  pleas  was  organized  for  the 
county,  and  the  General  Court  of  the  whole  Territory  sometimes 
met  at  Detroit.  No  roads  had  as  yet  been  constructed  through  the 
interior,  nor  were  there  any  settlements  except  on  the  frontiers. 
The  habits  of  the  people  were  essentially  military,  and  but  little 
attention  was  paid  to  agriculture  except  by  the  French  peasantry. 
A  representation  was  sent  to  the  General  Assembly  of  the  North- 
west Territory  at  Chillicothe  until  1800,  when  Indiana  was  erected 
into  a  separate  Territory.  Two  years  later  Michigan  was  annexed 
to  Indiana  Territory;  but  in  1S05  Michigan  separated,  and  William 
Hull  appointed  its  first  Governor." — TuttWs  Hist.  Mich. 

The  British  revived  the  old  prejudices  that  the  Americans  intended 
to  drive  the  Indians  out  of  the  country,  and  the  latter,  under 
the  lead  of  Tecumseh  and  his  brother  Elkswatawa,  "  the  prophet," 
organized  again  on  an  extensive  scale  to  make  war  upon  the  Amer- 
icans. The  great  idea  of  Tecumseh's  life  was  a  universal  confed- 
eracy of  all  the  Indian  tribes  north  and  south  to  resist  the  invasion 
of  the  whites;  and  his  plan  was  to  surprise  them  at  all  their  posts 
throughout  the  country  and  capture  them  by  the  first  assault.  At 
this  time  the  entire  white  population  of  Michigan  was  about  4,800, 
four-fifths  of  whom  were  French  and  the  remainder  Americans. 
The  settlements  were  situated  on  the  rivers  Miami  and  Raisin,  on  the 
Huron  of  Lake  Erie,  on  the  Ecorse,  Rouge  and  Detroit  rivers,  on 
the  Huron  of  St.  Clair,  on  the  St.  Clair  river  and  Mackinaw  island. 
Resides,  there  were  here  and  there  a  group  of  huts  belonging  to  the 
French  fur  traders.  The  villages  on  the  Maumee,  the  Raisin  and 
the  Huron  of  Lake  Erie  contained  a  population  of  about  1,300; 
the  settlements  at  Detroit  and  northward  had  about  2,200 ;  Mack- 
inaw about  1,000.  Detroit  was  garrisoned  by  D4  men  and  Mack- 
inaw by  79. 



If  one  should  inquire  who  has  been  the  greatest  Indian,  the  most 
noted,  the  "  principal  Indian  "  in  North  America  since  its  discov- 
ery by  Columbus,  we  would  be  obliged  to  answer,  Tecumseh.  For 
all  those  qualities  which  elevate  a  man  far  above  his  race;  for  talent, 
tact,  skill  and  bravery  as  a  warrior;  for  high-minded,  honorable  and 
chivalrous  bearing  as  a  man;  in  a  word,  for  all  those  elements  of 
greatness  which  place  him  a  long  way  above  his  fellows  in  savage 
life,  the  name  and  fame  of  Tecnmseh  will  go  down  to  posterity  in 
the  West  as  one  of  the  most  celebrated  of  the  aborigines  of  this 
continent, — as  one  who  had  no  equal  among  the  tribes  that  dwelt 
in  the  country  drained  by  the  Mississippi.  Born  to  command  him- 
self, he  used  all  the  appliances  that  would  stimulate  the  courage 
and  nerve  the  valor  of  his  followers.  Always  in  the  front  rank  of 
battle,  his  followers  blindly  followed  his  lead,  and  as  his  war-cry 
rang  clear  above  the  din  and  noise  of  the  battle-field,  the  Shawnee 
warriors,  as  they  rushed  on  to  victory  or  the  grave,  rallied  around 
him,  foemen  worthy  of  the  steel  of  the  most  gallant  commander 
that  ever  entered  the  lists  in  defense  of  his  altar  or  his  home. 

The  tribe  to  which  Tecumseh,  or  Tecumtha,  as  some  write  it,  be- 
longed, was  the  Shawnee,  or  Shawanee.  The  tradition  of  the  nation 
held  that  they  originally  came  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico;  that  they 
wended  their  way  up  the  Mississippi  and  the  Ohio,  and  settled  at 
or  near  the  present  site  of  Shawneetown,  111.,  whence  they  removed 
to  the  upper  Wabash.  In  the  latter  place,  at  any  rate,  they  were 
found  early  in  the  18th  century,  and  were  known  as  the  "  bravest 
of  the  brave."  This  tribe  has  uniformly  been  the  bitter  enemy  of 
the  white  man,  and  in  every  contest  with  our  people  has  exhibited 
a  degree  of  skill  and  strategy  that  should  characterize  the  most 
dangerous  foe. 

Tecumseh's  notoriety  and  that  of  his  brother,  the  Prophet,  mutu- 
ally served  to  establish  and  strengthen  each  other.  While  the 
Prophet  had  unlimited  power,  spiritual  and  temporal,  he  distributed 
his  greatness  in  all  the  departments  of  Indian  life  with  a  kind  of 
fanaticism  that  magnetically  aroused  the  religious  and  superstitious 
passions,  not  only  of  his  own  followers,  but  also  of  all  the  tribes  in 



this  part  of  the  country;  but  Tecumseh  concentrated  his  greatness 
upon  the  more  practical  and  business  affairs  of  military  conquest. 
It  is  doubted  whether  he  was  really  a  sincere  believer  in  the  preten- 
sions of  his  fanatic  brother;  if  he  did  not  believe  in  the  pretentious 
feature  of  them  he  had  the  shrewdness  to  keep  his  unbelief  to  him- 
self, knowing  that  religious  fanaticism  was  ODe  of  the  strongest  im- 
pulses to  reckless  bravery. 

During  his  sojourn  in  the  Northwestern  Territory,  it  was  Tecum- 
seh's  uppermost  desire  of  life  to  confederate  all  the  Indian  tribes  of 
the  country  together  against  the  whites,  to  maintain  their  choice 
hunting-grounds.  All  his  public  policy  converged  toward  this  sin- 
gle end.  In  his  vast  scheme  he  comprised  even  all  the  Indians  in 
the  Gulf  country, — all  in  America  west  of  the  Alleghany  moun- 
tains. He  held,  as  a  subordinate  principle,  that  the  Great  Spirit 
had  given  the  Indian  race  all  these  hunting-grounds  to  keep  in 
common,  and  that  no  Indian  or  tribe  could  cede  any  portion  of  the 
land  to  the  whites  without  the  consent  of  all  the  tribes.  Hence,  in 
all  his  councils  with  the  whites  he  ever  maintained  that  the  treaties 
were  null  and  void. 

When  he  met  Harrison  at  Vincennes  in  council  the  last  time, 
and,  as  he  was  invited  by  that  General  to  take  a  seat  with  him  on 
the  platform,  he  hesitated;  Harrison  insisted,  saying  that  it  was  the 
"wish  of  their  Great  Father,  the  President  of  the  United  States, 
that  he  should  do  so."  The  chief  paused  a  moment,  raised  his  tall 
and  commanding  form  to  its  greatest  height,  surveyed  the  troops 
and  crowd  around  him,  fixed  his  keen  eyes  upon  Gov.  Harrison, 
and  then  turning  them  to  the  sky  above,  and  pointing  toward 
heaven  with  his  sinewy  arm  in  a  manner  indicative  of  supreme 
contempt  for  the  paternity  assigned  him,  said  in  clarion  tones:  "  My 
father?  The  sun  is  my  father,  the  earth  is  my  mother,  and  on  her 
bosom  I  will  recline."  He  then  stretched  himself,  with  his  war- 
riors, on  the  green  sward.  The  effect  was  electrical,  and  for  some 
moments  there  was  perfect  silence.  , 

The  Governor,  then,  through  an  interpreter,  told  him  that  he  un- 
derstood he  had  some  complaints  to  make  and  redress  to  ask,  etc., 
and  that  he  wished  to  investigate  the  matter  and  make  restitution 
wherever  it  might  be  decided  it  should  be  done.  As  soon  as  the 
Governor  was  through  with  this  introductory  speech,  the  stately 
warrior  arose,  tall,  athletic,  manly,  dignified  and  graceful,  and  with 
a  voice  at  first  low,  but  distinct  and  musical,  commenced  a  reply. 
As  he  warmed  up  with  his  subject  his  clear  tones  might  be  heard, 


as  if  "  trumpet-tongued,"  to  the  utmost  limits  of  the  assembly. 
The  most  perfect  silence  prevailed,  except  when  his  warriors  gave 
their  guttural  assent  to  some  eloquent  recital  of  the  red  man's 
wrong  and  the  white  man's  injustice.  Tecumseh  recited  the  wrongs 
which  his  race  had  suffered  from  the  time  of  the  massacre  of  the 
Moravian  Indians  to  the  present;  said  he  did  not  know  how  he 
could  ever  again  be  the  friend  of  the  white  man;  that  the  Great 
Spirit  had  given  to  the  Indian  all  the  land  from  the  Miami  to  the 
Mississippi,  and  from  the  lakes  to  the  Ohio,  as  a  common  property 
to  all  the  tribes  in  these  borders,  and  that  the  land  could  not  and 
should  not  be  sold  without  the  consent  of  all;  that  all  the  tribes  on 
the  continent  formed  but  one  nation;  that  if  the  United  States 
would  not  give  up  the  lands  they  had  bought  of  the  Miamis  and 
the  other  tribes,  those  united  with  him  were  determined  to  annihi- 
late those  tribes;  that  they  were  determined  to  have  no  more  chiefs, 
but  in  future  to  be  governed  by  their  warriors;  that  unless  the 
whites  ceased  their  encroachments  upon  Indian  lands,  the  fate  of 
the  Indians  was  sealed ;  they  had  been  driven  from  the  banks  of 
the  Delaware  across  the  Alleghanies,  and  their  possessions  on  the 
Wabash  and  the  Illinois  were  now  to  be  taken  from  them;  that  in 
a  few  years  they  would  not  have  ground  enough  to  bury  their  war- 
riors on  this  side  of  the  "Father  of  Waters;"  that  all  would  perish, 
all  their  possessions  taken  from  them  by  fraud  or  force,  unless  they 
stopped  the  progress  of  the  white  man  westward;  that  it  must  be 
a  war  of  races  in  which  one  or  the  other  must  perish;  that  their 
tribes  had  been  driven  toward  the  setting  sun  like  a  galloping 
horse  (ne-kat  a-kush-e  ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The  Shawnee  language,  in  which  this  most  eminent  Indian  states- 
man spoke,  excelled  all  other  aboriginal  tongues  in  its  musical  ar- 
ticulation; and  the  effect  of  Tecumseh's  oratory  on  this  occasion 
can  be  more  easily  imagined  than  described.  Gov.  Harrison, 
although  as  brave  a  soldier  and  General  as  any  American,  was  over- 
come by  this  speech.  He  well  knew  Tecumseh's  power  and  influ- 
ence among  all  the  tribes,  knew  his  bravery,  courage  and  determi- 
nation, and  knew  that  he  meant  what  he  said.  When  Tecumseh 
was  done  speaking  there  was  a  stillness  throughout  the  assembly 
which  was  really  painful;  not  a  whisper  was  heard,  and  all  eyes  were 
turned  from  the  speaker  toward  Gov.  Harrison,  who  after  a  few 
moments  came  to  himself,  and  recollecting  many  of  the  absurd 
statements  of  the  great  Indian  orator,  began  a  reply  which  was 
more  logical,  if  not  so  eloquent.     The  Shawnees  were  attentive  un- 


til  Harrison's  interpreter  began  to  translate  his  speech  to  the  Mia- 
mis  and  Pottawatomies,  when  Tecumseh  and  his  warriors  sprang 
to  their  feet,  brandishing  their  war-clubs  and  tomahawks.  "Tell 
him,"  said  Tecumseh,  addressing  the  interpreter  in  Shawnee,  "  he 
lies."  The  interpreter  undertook  to  convey  this  message  to  the 
Governor  in  smoother  language,  but  Tecumseh  noticed  the  effort 
and  remonstrated,  "  No,  no;  tell  him  he  lies."  The  warriors  began 
to  grow  more  excited,  when  Secretary  Gibson  ordered  the  Ameri- 
can troops  in  arms  to  advance.  This  allayed  the  rising  storm,  and 
as  soon  as  Tecumseh's  "He  lies  "  was  literally  interpreted  to  the 
Governor,  the  latter  told  Tecumseh  through  the  interpreter  to  tell 
Tecumseh  he  would  hold  no  further  council  with  him. 

Thus  the  assembly  was  broken  up,  and  one  can  hardly  imagine  a 
more  exciting  scene.  It  would  constitute  the  finest  subject  for  a 
historical  painting  to  adorn  the  rotunda  of  the  capitol.  The  next 
day  Tecumseh  requested  another  interview  with  the  Governor, 
which  was  granted  on  condition  that  he  should  make  an  apology  to 
the  Governor  for  his  language  the  day  before.  This  he  made 
through  the  interpreter.  Measures  for  defense  and  protection  were 
taken,  however,  lest  there  should  be  another  outbreak.  Two  com- 
panies of  militia  were  ordered  from  the  country,  and  the  one  in 
town  added  to  them,  while  the  Governor  and  his  friends  went  into 
council  fully  armed  and  prepared  for  any  contingency.  On  this  oc- 
casion the  conduct  of  Tecumseh  was  entirely  different  from  that  of 
the  day  before.  Firm  and  intrepid,  showing  not  the  slightest  fear 
or  alarm,  surrounded  with  a  military  force  four  times  his  own,  he 
preserved  the  utmost  composure  and  equanimity.  No  one  would 
have  supposed  that  he  could  have  been  the  principal  actor  in  the 
thrilling  scene  of  the  previous  day.  He  claimed  that  half  the 
Americans  were  in  sympathy  with  him.  He  also  said  that  whites 
had  informed  him  that  Gov.  Harrison  had  purchased  land  from  the 
Indians  without  any  authority  from  the  Government;  that  he, 
Harrison,  had  but  two  years  more  to  remain  in  office,  and  that  if 
he,  Tecumseh,  could  prevail  upon  the  Indians  who  sold  the  lands 
not  to  receive  their  annuities  for  that  time,  and  the  present  Gover- 
nor displaced  by  a  good  man  as  his  successor,  the  latter  would  re- 
store to  the  Indians  all  the  lands  purchased  from  them. 

The  Wyandots,  Kickapoos,  Pottawatomies,  Ottawasand  theWin- 
nebagoes,  through  their  respective  spokesmen,  declared  their 
adherence  to  the  great  Shawnee  warrior  and  statesman.  Gov.  Harri- 
son then  told  them  that  he  would  send  Tecumseh's  speech  to  thePresi- 


dent  of  the  United  States  and  return  the  answer  to  the  Indians  as  soon 
as  it  was  received.  Tecumseh  then  declared  that  he  and  his  allies  were 
determined  that  the  old  boundary  line  should  continue;  and  that 
if  the  whites  crossed  it,  it  would  be  at  their  peril.  Gov.  Harrison  re- 
plied that  he  would  be  equally  plain  with  him  and  state  that  the 
President  would  never  allow  that  the  lands  on  the  Wabash  were  the 
property  of  any  other  tribes  than  those  who  had  occupied  them 
since  the  white  people  first  came  to  America;  and  as  the  title  to 
the  lands  lately  purchased  was  derived  from  those  tribes  by  a  fair 
purchase,  he  might  rest  assured  that  the  right  of  the  United  States 
would  be  supported  by  the  sword.  "  So  be  it,"  was  the  stern  and 
haughty  reply  of  the  Shawnee  chieftan,  as  he  and  his  braves  took 
leave  of  the  Governor  and  wended  their  way  in  Indian  file  to  their 
camping  ground. 

Thus  ended  the  last  conference  on  earth  between  the  chivalrous 
Tecumseh  and  the  hero  of  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe.  The  bones  of 
the  first  lie  bleaching  on  the  battle-field  of  the  Thames,  and  those 
of  the  last  in  a  mausoleum  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio;  each  strug- 
gled for  the  mastery  of  his  race,  and  each  no  doubt  was  equally 
honest  and  patriotic  in  his  purposes.  The  weak  yielded  to  the 
strong,  the  defenseless  to  the  powerful,  and  the  hunting-ground  of 
the  Shawnee  is  all  occupied  by  his  enemy. 

Tecumseh,  with  four  of  his  braves,  immediately  embarked  in  a 
birch  canoe,  descended  the  Wabash,  and  went  on  to  the  South  to 
unite  the  tribes  of  that  country  in  a  general  system  of  self-defense 
against  the  encroachment  of  the  whites.  His  emblem  was  a  dis- 
jointed snake,  with  the  motto,  "Join  or  die!"  In  union  alone  was 

Before  Tecumseh  left  the  Prophet's  town  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Tippecauoe  river,  on  his  excursion  to  the  South,  he  had  a  definite 
understanding  with  his  brother  and  the  chieftains  of  the  other  tribes 
in  the  Wabash  country,  that  they  should  preserve  perfect  peace 
with  the  whites  until  his  arrangements  were  completed  for  a  con- 
federacy of  the  tribes  on  both  sides  of  the  Ohio  and  on  the  Missis- 
sippi river;  but  it  seems  that  while  he  was  in  the  South  engaged 
in  his  work  of  uniting  the  tribes  of  that  country  some  of  the  North- 
ern tribes  showed  signs  of  fight  and  precipitated  Harrison  into  that 
campaign  which  ended  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe  and  the  total 
route  of  the  Indians.  Tecumseh,  on  his  return  from  the  South, 
learning  what  had  happened,  was  overcome  with  chagrin,  disappoint- 
ment and  anger,  and  accused  his  brother  of  duplicity  and  coward- 



ice;  indeed,  it  is  said  that  lie  never  forgave  him  to  the  day  of  his 
death.  A  short  time  afterward,  on  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  of 
Great  Britain,  he  joined  Proctor,  at  Maiden,  with  a  party  of  his 
warriors,  and  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  Oct.  5,  1813, 
by  a  Mr.  Wheatty,  as  we  are  positively  informed  by  Mr.  A.  J.  James, 
now  a  resident  of  La  Harpe  township,  Hancock  county,  111.,  whose 
father-in-law,  John  Pigman,  of  Coshocton  county,  Ohio,  was  an 
eye  witness.  Gen.  Johnson  has  generally  had  the  credit  of  killing 

"  Old  "  Okemos,  a  nephew  of  Pontiac  and  once  the  chief  of  the 
Chippewas,  was  born  at  or  near  Knagg's  Station,  on  the  Shiawassee 
river,  where  the  Chicago  and  Grand  Trunk  Eailroad  crosses  that 
stream.  The  date  is  shrouded  in  mystery.  At  the  time  of  his 
death  he  was  said  to  be  a  centenarian.  The  earliest  account  we  have 
of  him  is  that  he  took  the  war-path  in  1796.  Judge  Littlejohn,  in 
his  "  Legends  of  the  Northwest,"  introduces  him  to  the  reader  in 
1803.  The  battle  of  Sandusky,  in  which  Okemos  took  an  active 
part,  was  the  great  event  of  his  life,  and  this  it  was  that  gave  him 
his  chieftainship  and  caused  him  to  be  revered  by  his  tribe.  Con- 
cerning that  event  he  himself  used  to  say: 

"  Myself  and  cousin,  Man-a-to-corb-way,  with  16  other  braves 
enlisted  under  the  British  flag,  formed  a  scouting  or  war  party,  left 
the  upper  Raisin,  and  made  our  rendezvous  at  Sandusky.  One 
morning  while  lying  in  ambush  near  a  road  lately  cut  for  the  pas- 
sage of  the  American  army  and  supply  wagons,  we  saw  20  cavalry- 
men approaching  us.  Our  ambush  was  located  on  a  slight  ridge, 
with  brush  directly  in  our  front.  We  immediately  decided  to 
attack  the  Americans,  although  they  outnumbered  us.  Our  plan 
was  first  to  fire  and  cripple  them,  and  then  make  a  dash  with  the 
tomahawk.  We  waited  until  they  approached  so  near  that  we 
could  count  the  buttons  on  their  coats,  when  firing  commenced. 
Tbe  cavalry-men  with  drawn  sabers  immediately  charged  upon  the 
Indians.  The  plumes  upon  the  hats  of  the  cavalry-men  looked  like 
a  flock  of  a  thousand  pigeons  just  hovering  for  a  lighting." 

Okemos  and  his  cousin  fought  side  by  side,  loading  and  firing 
while  dodging  from  one  cover  to  another.  In  less  than  ten  minutes 
after  the  firing  began  the  sound  of  a  bugle  was  heard,  and  casting 
their  eyes  in  the  direction  of  the  sound,  they  saw  the  road  and 
woods  "filled  with  cavalry.  The  small  party  of  Indians  were 
immediately  surrounded  and  every  man  cut  down.  All  were  left 
for  dead  on  the  field.  Okemos  and  his  cousin  both  had  their  skulls 
cloven  and  their  bodies  gashed  in  a  fearful  manner.  The  cavalry- 
men, before  leaving  the  field,  in  order  to  be  sure  life  was  extinct, 
would  lean  forward  from  their  horses  and  pierce  the  chests  of  the 
Indians,  even  into  their  lungs.  The  last  that  Okemos  remembered 
was  that  after  emptying  one  saddle,  and  springing  toward   another 


soldier  with  clubbed  rifle  raised  to  strike,  his  head  felt  as  if  it  were 
pierced  with  red-hot  iron,  and  he  went  down  from  a  heavy  saber-cut. 
All  knowledge  ceased  from  this  time  until  many  moons  afterward, 
when  he  found  himself  being  nursed  by  the  squaws  of  his  friends, 
who  had  found  him  on  the  battle-field  two  or  three  days  afterward. 
The  squaws  thought  all  were  dead,  but  upon  moving  the  bodies  of 
Okemos  and  his  cousin,  signs  of  life  appeared,  and  they  were  taken 
to  a  place  of  safety  and  finally  restored  to  partial  health.  Okemos 
never  afterward  took  part  in  war,  this  battle  having  satisfied  him 
that  "  white  man  was  a  heap  powerful." 

Shortly  after  his  recovery  he  solicited  Col.  Godfroy  to  intercede 
with  Gen.  Cass,  and  he  and  other  chiefs  made  a  treaty  with  the 
Americans,  which  was  faithfully  kept. 

The  next  we  hear  of  the  old  chieftain,  he  had  settled  with  his 
tribe  on  the  banks  of  the  Shiawassee,  near  the  place  of  his  birth, 
where  for  many  years,  up  to  1837-'8,  he  was  engaged  in  the  peace- 
ful vocation  of  hunting,  fishing  and  trading  with  the  white  man. 
About  this  time  the  small-pox  broke  out  in  his  tribe,  which, 
together  with  the  influx  of  white  settlers  who  destroyed  their  hunt- 
ing-grounds, scattered  their  bands.  The  plaintive,  soft  notes  of  the 
wooing  young  hunter's  flute,  made  of  red  alder,  and  the  sound  of 
the  tom-tom  at  council  fires  and  village  feasts  were  heard  no  more 
along  the  banks  of  our  inland  streams.  Okemos  became  a  mendi- 
cant, and  many  a  hearty  meal  has  the  old  Indian  received  from  his 
friends  among  the  whites.  He  was  five  feet  four  inches  high,  lithe, 
wiry,  active,  intelligent  and  possessed  undoubted  bravery ;  but  in  con- 
versation he  hesitated  and  mumbled  his  words.  Previous  to  the 
breaking  up  of  his  band  in  lS37-'8,  his  usual  dress  consisted  of  a 
blanket  coat  with  belt,  steel  pipe,  hatchet,  tomahawk  and  a  heavy, 
long,  English  hunting-knife  stuck  in  his  belt  in  front,  with  a  large 
bone  handle  prominent  outside  the  sheath.  He  painted  his  cheeks 
and  forehead  with  vermilion,  wore  a  shawl  around  his  head  turban 
fashion,  and  leggins.  He  died  at  his  wigwam  a  few  miles  from 
Lansing,  and  was  buried  Dec.  5,  1858,  at  Shimnicon,  an  Indian 
settlement  in  Ionia  county.  His  coffin  was  extremely  rude,  and  in 
it  were  placed  a  pipe,  tobacco,  hunting-knife,  bird's  wings,  pro- 
visions, etc.  An  ambrotype  picture  was  taken  of  this  eminent 
Indian  in  1857,  and  has  ever  since  been  in  the  possession  of  O.  A. 
Jenisou  at  Lansing,  from  whom  we  obtain  the  above  account. 

hull's  surrender. 

Now  we  have  to  record  an  unexplained  mystery,  which  no  his- 
torian of  Michigan  can  omit,  namely,  the  surrender  of  Detroit  to 
the  British  by  Gen.  Hull,  when  his  forces  were  not  in  action  and 
were  far  more  powerful  than  the  enemy.  He  was  either  a  coward 
or  a  traitor,  or  both.  The  commander  of  the  British  forces,  Gen. 
Brock,  triumphantly  took  possession  of  the  fort,  left  a  small  garri- 
son under  Col.  Proctor,  and  returned  to  the  seat  of  his  government. 


In  12  days  he  had  moved  with  a  small  army  250  miles  against  the 
enemy,  effected  the  surrender  of  a  strong  fort  and  well  equipped 
army  of  2,300  effective  men,  and  one  of  the  Territories  of  the 
United  States.  Hull  and  the  regular  troops  were  taken  to  Mon- 
treal, and  the  militia  were  sent  to  their  homes. 

In  the  capitulation  Gen.  Hnll  also  surrendered  Fort  Dearborn  at 
Chicago,  commanding  Capt.  Heald  of  that  place  to  evacuate  and 
retreat  to  Fort  Wayne.  In  obedience  to  this  order  the  Captain 
started  from  the  fort  with  his  forces;  but  no  sooner  were  they  out- 
side the  walls  than  they  were  attacked  by  a  large  force  of  Indians, 
who  took  them  prisoners  and  then  proceeded  to  massacre  them, 
killing  38  out  of  the  6tf  soldiers,  even  some  of  the  women  and 
children,  two  of  the  former  and  12  of  the  latter.  Capt.  Wells,  a 
white  man  who  had  been  brought  up  among  the  Indians,  but 
espoused  the  white  man's  cause,  was  killed  in  the  massacre. 

Jan.  3, 1814,  Gen.  Hull  appeared  before  a  court-martial  at  Albany, 
N.  Y.,  where  Gen.  Dearborn  was  president.  The  accused  made  no 
objection  to  the  constitution  and  jurisdiction  of  this  court;  its  ses- 
sions were  protracted  and  every  facility  was  given  the  accused  to 
make  his  defense.  The  three  charges  against  him  were  treason, 
cowardice  and  neglect  of  duty.  Hull  was  finally  acquitted  of  the 
high  crime  of  treason,  but  he  was  found  guilty  of  the  other  charges 
and  sentenced  to  be  shot;  but  by  reason  of  his  services  in  the 
Revolution  and  his  advanced  age  the  court  recommended  him  to 
the  mercy  of  the  President,  who  approved  the  finding  of  the  court 
but  remitted  the  execution  of  the  sentence  and  dismissed  Hull 
from  the  service.  The  accused  wrote  a  long  defense,  in  which  he 
enumerates  many  things  too  tedious  to  relate  here.  Even  before 
he  was  sent  to  Detroit  he  was  rather  opposed  to  the  policy  of  the 
Government  toward  the  British  of  Canada;  and,  besides,  he  had 
been  kindly  treated  by  British  officers,  who  helped  him  across  the 
frontier.  Again,  the  general  Government  was  unreasonably  slow 
to  inform  the  General  of  the  declaration  of  war  which  had  been 
made  against  Great  Britain,  and  very  slow  to  forward  troops  and 
supplies.  Many  things  can  be  said  on  both  sides;  but  historians 
generally  approve  the  judgment  of  the  court  in  his  case,  as  well 
as  of  the  executive  clemency  of  the  President. 

The  lake  communication  of  Michigan  with  the  East,  having 
been  in  the  hands  of  the  British  since  Hull's  surrender,  was  cut  off 
by  Com.  Perry,  who  obtained  a  signal  naval  victory  over  the  British 
on  Lake  Erie  Sept.  10,  1813.  The  Commodore  built  his  fleet  at 
Erie,  Pa.,  under  great  disadvantages.  The  bar  at  the  mouth  of  the 
harbor  would  not  permit  the  vessels  to  pass  out  with  their  arma- 
ment on  board.  For  eome  time  after  the  fleet  was  ready  to  sail, 
the  British  commodore  continued  to  hover  off  the  harbor,  well  know- 
ing it  must  either  remain  there  inactive  or  venture  out  with  almost 


a  certainty  of  defeat.  During  this  blockade,  Com.  Perry  bad  no 
alternative  but  to  ride  at  anchor  at  Erie;  but  early  in  September 
the  enemy  relaxed  his  vigilance  and  withdrew  to  the  upper  end  of 
the  lake.  Terry  then  slipped  out  beyond  the  bar  and  fitted  his  ves- 
sels for  action.  The  British  fleet  opposed  to  Com.  Perry  consisted 
of  the  ships  "  Detroit,"  carrying  19  guns;  the  "Queen  Charlotte," 
17  guns;  the  schooner  "  Lady  Prevost,"  13  guns;  the  brig  "Hun- 
ter," ten  guns;  the  sloop  "Little  Belt,"  three  guns;  and  the 
schooner  "  Chippewa,"  one  gun  and  two  swivels;  and  this  fleet  was 
commanded  by  a  veteran  officer  of  tried  skill  and  valor. 

At  sunrise.  Sept.  10,  while  at  anchor  at  Ptit-in-Bay,  the  Commo- 
dore espied  the  enemy  toward  the  head  of  the  lake,  and  he  imme- 
diately sailed  up  and  commenced  action.  His  flag  vessel,  the 
Lawrence,  was  engaged  with  the  whole  force  of  the  enemy  for 
nearly  two  hours  before  the  wind  permitted  the  other  vessels  to 
come  in  proper  position  to  help.  The  crew  of  this  vessel  continued 
the  fight  until  every  one  of  them  was  either  killed  or  wounded,  all 
the  rigging  torn  to  pieces  and  every  gun  dismantled.  Now  comes 
the  daring  feat  of  the  engagement  which  makes  Perry  a  hero.  He 
caused  his  boat  to  be  lowered,  in  which  he  rowed  to  the  Niagara 
amid  the  storm  of  shot  and  shell  raging  around  him.  This  vessel 
he  sailed  through  the  enemy's  fleet  with  a  swelling  breeze,  pouring 
in  her  broadsides  upon  their  ships  and  forcing  them  to  surrender  m 
rapid  succession,  until  all  were  taken.  The  smaller  vessels  of  his 
fleet  helped  in  this  action,  among  which  was  one  commanded  by 
the  brave  and  faithful  Capt.  Elliott.  This  victory  was  one  of  the 
most  decisive  in  all  the  annals  of  American  history.  It  opened 
the  lake  to  Gen.  Wm.  H.  Harrison,  who  had  been  operating  in 
Indiana  and  Ohio,  and  who  now  crossed  with  his  army  to  Canada, 
where  he  had  a  short  campaign,  terminated  by  the  battle  of  the 
Moravian  towns,  by  which  the  enemy  were  driven  from  the  north- 
western frontier.  A  detachment  of  his  army  occupied  Detroit 
Sept.  29,  1813,  and  Oct.  18  an  armistice  was  concluded  with  the 
Indians,  thus  restoring  tranquillity  to  the  Territory  of  Michigan. 
Soon  afterward  Gen.  Harrison  left  Gen.  Cass  in  command  at 
Detroit  and  moved  with  the  main  body  of  his  army  down  to  the 
Niagara  frontier. 

Perry's  brilliant  success  gave  to  the  Americans  the  uncontrolled 
command  of  the  lake,  and  Sept.  23  their  fleet  landed  1,200 
men  near  Maiden.  Col.  Proctor,  however,  had  previously  evac- 
uated that  post,  after  setting  fire  to  the  fort  and  public  store- 
houses. Com.  Perry  in  the  meantime  passed  up  to  Detroit  with 
the  "Ariel"  to  assist  in  the  occupation  of  that  town,  while  Capt. 
Elliott,  with  the  "Lady  Prevost,"  the  "Scorpion,"  and  the 
"  Tigress,"  advanced  into  Lake  St.  Glair  to  intercept  the  enemy's 
stores.  Thus  Gen.  Harrison,  on  his  arrival  at  Detroit  and  Maiden, 
found  both  places  abandoned  by  the  enemy,  and  was  met  by  the 
Canadians  asking  for  his  protection.  Tecumseh  proposed  to  the 
British  commander  that  they  should  hazard  an  engagement  at  Mai- 


den;  but  the  latter  foresaw  that  he  should  be  exposed  to  the  fire  of 
the  American  fleet  in  that  position,  and  therefore  resolved  to  march 
to  the  Moravian  towns  upon  the  Thames,  near  St.  Clair  lake, 
above  Detroit,  and  there  try  the  chance  of  a  battle.  His  force  at 
this  time  consisted  of  about  900  regular  troops,  and  1,500  Indians 
commanded  by  Tecuraseh.  The  American  army  amounted  to 
about  2,700  men,  of  whom  120  were  regulars,  a  considerable  number 
of  militia,  about  30  Indians,  and  the  remainder  Kentucky  riflemen, 
well  mounted,  and  mainly  young  men,  full  of  ardor,  and  burning 
with  a  desire  to  revenge  the  massacre  of  their  friends  and  relatives 
at  the  River  Raisin. 

During  the  following  winter  there  were  no  military  movements, 
except  an  incursion  into  the  interior  of  the  upper  province  by 
Maj.  Holmes,  who  was  attacked  near  Stony  creek,  and  maintained 
his  ground  with  bravery. 

The  war  with  Great  Britain  was  now  (November,  1813)  practi- 
cally closed,  so  far  as  the  Northwest  was  concerned,  but  the  post  at 
Mackinaw  yet  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  and  active  steps 
were  taken  to  dispossess  the  English  of  this  point  and  drive  them 
wholly  from  the  domain  of  the  United  States.  The  first  effort  to 
start  an  expedition  failed;  but  in  the  summer  of  1814  a  well- 
equipped  force  of  two  sloops  of  war,  several  schooners  and  750 
land  militia,  under  the  command  of  Com.  Sinclair  and  Lieut.-Col. 
Croghan,  started  for  the  north.  Contrary,  however,  to  the  advice 
of  experienced  men,  the  commanders  concluded  to  visit  St.  Joseph 
first,  and  the  British  at  Mackinaw  heard  of  their  coming  and  pre- 
pared themselves.  The  consequence  was  a  failure  to  take  the  place. 
Major  Holmes  was  killed,  and  the  Winnebago  Indians,  from  Green 
Bay,  allies  of  the  British,  actually  cut  out  the  heart  and  livers 
from  the  American  slain  and  cooked  and  ate  them!  Com.  Sin- 
clair afterward  made  some  arrangements  to  starve  out  the  post,  but 
his  vessels  were  captured  and  the  British  then  remained  secure  in 
the  possession  of  the  place  until  the  treaty  of  peace  the  following 

The  war  with  England  formally  closed  on  Dec.  24,  1S14,  when  a 
treaty  of  peace  was  signed  at  Ghent.  The  9th  article  of  the  treaty 
required  the  United  States  to  put  an  end  to  hostilities  with  ail 
tribes  or  nations  of  Indians  with  whom  they  had  been  at  war;  to 
restore  to  such  tribes  or  nations  respectively  all  the  rights  and  pos- 
sessions to  which  they  were  entitled  in  1811,  before  the  war,  on 
condition  that  such  Indians  should  agree  to  desist  from  all  hostili- 
ties against  the  United  States.*  But  in  February,  just  before  the 
treaty  was  sanctioned  by  our  Government,  there  were  signs  of 
Indians  accumulating  arms  and  ammunition,  and  a  cautionary 
order  was  therefore  issued  to  have  all  the  white  forces  in  readiness 
for  an  attack  by  the  Indians;  but  the  attack  was  not  made.     During 


the  ensuing  summer  and  fall  the  United  States  Government  ac- 
quainted the  Indians  with  the  provisions  of  the  treaty,  and 
entered  into  subordinate  treaties  of  peace  with  the  principal  tribes. 
Just  before  the  treaty  of  Spring  Wells  (near  Detroit)  was  signed, 
the  Shawanee  Prophet  retired  to  Canada,  declaring  his  resolu- 
tion to  abide  by  any  treaty  which  the  chiefs  might  sign.  Some 
time  afterward  he  returned  to  the  Shawanee  settlement  in  Ohio, 
and  lastly  to  the  west  of  the  Mississippi,  where  he  died,  in  1834. 
The  British  Government  allowed  him  a  pension  from  1813  until 
his  death. 

Previous  to  the  formation  of  the  Northwestern  Territory,  the 
country  within  its  bounds  was  claimed  by  several  of  the  Eastern 
States,  on  the  ground  that  it  was  included  within  the  limits  indicated 
by  their  charters  from  the  English  crown.  In  answer  to  the  wishes  of 
the  Government  and  people,  these  States  in  a  patriotic  spirit 
surrendered  their  claims  to  this  extensive  territory,  that  it  might 
constitute  a  common  fund  to  aid  in  the  payment  of  the  national 
debt.  To  prepare  the  way  for  this  cession,  a  law  had  been  passed 
in  October,  1780,  that  the  territory  so  to  be  ceded  should  be  dis- 
posed of  for  the  common  benefit  of  the  whole  Union;  that  the 
States  erected  therein  should  be  of  suitable  extent,  not  less  than  100 
nor  more  than  150  miles  square;  and  that  any  expenses  that  might 
be  incurred  in  recovering  the  posts  then  in  the  hands  of  the 
British  should  be  reimbursed.  New  York  released  her  claims  to 
Congress  March  1,  17S1;  Virginia,  March  1,  1784;  Massachusetts, 
April  19,  1785,  and  Connecticut,  Sept.  4,  1786. 

Under  the  Erench  and  British  dominion  the  points  occupied  on 
the  eastern  boundary  of  what  is  now  the  State  of  Michigan  were 
considered  a  part  of  New  France,  or  Canada.  Detroit  was  known 
to  the  French  as  Fort  Pontchartrain.  The  military  commandant, 
under  both  governments,  exercised  a  civil  jurisdiction  over  the 
settlements  surrounding  their  posts.  In  179(5,  when  the  British 
garrisons  at  Detroit  and  Mackinaw  were  replaced  by  detachments 
by  Gen. Wayne,  Michigan  became  a  part  of  the  Northwestern  Ter- 
ritory and  was  organized  as  the  county  of  Wayne,  entitled  to  one 
Representative  in  the  General  Assembly,  held  at  Chillicothe. 

In  1800,  Indiana  was  made  a  separate  Territory,  embracing  all 
the  country  west  of  the  present  State  of  Ohio  and  of  an  extension 
of  the  western  line  of  that  State  due  north  to  the  territorial  limits 
of  the  United  States;  in  1S02,  the  peninsula  was  annexed  to  the 
Territory  of  Indiana,  and  in  1S0.3  Michigan  began  a  separate  exist- 
ence. That  part  of  the  Territory  that  lies  east  of  a  north  and  south 
line  through  the  middle  of  Lake  Michigan  was  formed  into  a  dis- 
tinct government,  and  the  provisions  of  the  ordinance  of  1787  con- 
tinued to  regulate  it.  Under  this  constitution  the  executive  power 
was  invested  in  a  governor,  the  judicial  in   three  judges,  and  the 


legislative  in  both  united;  the  officers  were  appointed  by  the  gen- 
eral Government,  and  their  legislative  authority  was  restricted  to 
the  adoption  of  laws  from  codes  of  the  several  States.  This  form  of 
government  was  to  continue  until  the  Territory  should  contain  5,000 
free  white  males  of  full  age.  It  then  became  optional  with  the  peo- 
ple to  choose  a  legislative  body,  to  be  supported  by  them;  but  sub- 
sequent legislation  by  Congress  more  liberally  provided  a  Legislature 
at  the  expense  of  the  general  Government  and  also  added  to  privi- 
leges in  the  elective  franchise  and  eligibility  to  office;  as,  for  exam- 
ple, under  the  ordinance  a  freehold  qualification  was  required,  both 
on  the  part  of  the  elector  and  of  the  elected. 

The  first  officers  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan  were:  Win.  Hull, 
Governor;  Augustus  B.  Woodward,  Chief  Judge;  Frederick  Bates, 
Sr.,  Assistant  Judge  and  Treasurer;  John  Griffin,  Assistant  Judge; 
Col.  James  May,  Marshal;  Abijah  Hull,  Surveyor;  Peter  Audrain, 
Clerk  of  the  Legislative  Board.  May  5,  1S07,  Joseph  Watson  was 
appointed  Legislative  secretary;  in  November,  1806,  Elijah  Brush 
was  appointed  treasurer,  to  succeed  Mr.  Bates,  and  the  books  of  the 
office  were  delivered  over  on  the  26th  of  that  month,  and  William 
McDowell  Scott  was  appointed  marshal  in  November,  1806,  to  suc- 
ceed Col.  May.  The  latter  never  held  the  office  of  judge  of  the 
Territory,  but  about  1800-'3  he  was  chief  justice  of  the  court  of 
common  pleas. 

Augustus  Brevoort  Woodward  was  a  native  of  Virginia;  was 
appointed  a  judge  of  the  Territory  in  1805,  his  term  of  office  expir- 
ing Feb.  1,  1824.  He  was  soon  after  appointed  judge  of  the  Terri- 
tory of  Florida,  and  three  years  after  that  he  died.  The  grand 
scheme  of  "  Catholepistemiad,"  or  State  University  of  Michigan, 
with  its  numerous  details  described  under  sesquipedalian  names 
from  the  Greek,  owed  its  origin  to  Judge  Woodward. 

Jolm  Griffin  was  appointed  assistant  judge  in  1807,  his  term  of 
office  expiring  Feb.  1,  1824.  He  was  a  native  of  Virginia,  and  died 
in  Philadelphia  about  1840. 

James  Witherell  was  a  native  of  Massachusetts;  was  appointed  a 
judge  of  the  Territory  April  23,  1808,  his  term  of  office  expiring 
Feb.  1,  1824,  when  he  was  re-appointed  for  four  years,  and  Feb.  1, 
1828,  he  was  appointed  Territorial  secretary. 

When  in  181S  Illinois  was  admitted  into  the  Union,  all  the  terri- 
tory lying  north  of  that  State  and  of  Indiana  was  annexed  to  Mich- 
igan. In  1819,  the  Territory  was  authorized  to  elect  a  delegate  to 
Congress,  according  to  the  present  usage  with  reference  to  Terri- 
tories; previous  to  this  time,  according  to  the  ordinance  1787,  a 
Territory  was  not  entitled  to  a  delegate  until  it  entered  upon  the 
"  second  grade  of  Government,"  and  the  delegate  was  then  to  be 
chosen  by  the  General  Assembly. 

In  1823  Congress  abolished  the  legislative  power  of  the  governor 
and  judges,  and  granted  more  enlarged  ones  to  a  council,  to  be 
composed  of  nine  persons  selected  by  the  President  of  the  United 


States  from  eighteen  chosen  by  the  electors  of  the  Territory;  and  by 
this  law,  also,  eligibility  to  office  was  made  co-extensive  with  the 
right  of  suffrage  as  established  by  the  act  of  1819;  also  the  judicial 
term  of  office  was  limited  to  four  years.  In  1825  all  county  officers, 
except  those  of  a  judicial  nature,  were  made  elective,  and  the 
appointments  which  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  executive  were 
made  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  legislative  council.  In  1827 
the  electors  were  authorized  to  choose  a  number  of  persons  for  the 
legislative  council,  which  was  empowered  to  enact  all  laws  not  incon- 
sistent with  the  ordinance  of  1787.  Their  acts,  however,  were  sub- 
ject to  abolishment  by  Congress  and  to  veto  by  the  territorial 

When  Gen.  Wm.  Hull  arrived  at  Detroit  to  assume  his  official 
duties  as  Governor,  he  found  the  town  in  ruins,  it  having  been 
destroyed  by  tire.  Whether  it  had  been  burned  by  design  or  acci- 
dent was  not  known.  The  inhabitants  were  without  food  and  shel- 
ter, camping  in  the  open  fields;  still  they  were  not  discouraged,  and 
soon  commenced  rebuilding  their  houses  on  the  same  site;  Congress 
also  kindly  granted  the  sufferers  the  site  of  the  old  town  of  Detroit 
and  10,000  acres  of  land  adjoining.  A  territorial  militia  was  organ- 
ized, and  a  code  of  laws  was  adopted  similar  to  those  of  the  original 
States.  This  code  was  signed  by  Gov.  Hull,  Augustus  B.  Wood- 
ward and  Frederick  Bates,  judges  of  the  Territory,  and  was  called 
the  "  Woodward  code." 

At  this  time  the  bounds  of  the  Territory  embraced  all  the  coun- 
try on  the  American  side  of  the  Detroit  river,  east  of  the  north  and 
south  line  through  the  center  of  Lake  Michigan.  The  Indian  land 
claims  had  been  partially  extinguished  previous  to  this  period.  By 
the  treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh  in  1785,  and  that  of  Fort  Harmar  in 
1787,  extensive  cessions  had  been  either  made  or  confirmed,  and  in 
1807  the  Indian  titles  to  several  tracts  became  entirely  extinct. 
Settlements  having  been  made  under  the  French  and  English  gov- 
ernments, with  irregularity  or  absence  of  definite  surveys  and 
records,  some  confusion  sprang  up  in  regard  to  the  titles  to  valuable 
tracts.  Accordingly  Congress  established  a  Board  of  Commission- 
ers to  examine  and  settle  these  conflicting  claims,  and  in  1S07 
another  act  was  passed,  confirming,  to  a  certain  extent,  the  titles 
of  all  such  as  had  been  in  possession  of  the  lands  then  occupied  by 
them  from  the  year  1796,  the  year  of  the  final  evacuation  by  the 
British  garrisons.  Other  acts  were  subsequently  passed,  extending 
the  same  conditions  to  the  settlements  on  the  upper  lakes. 

As  chief  among  the  fathers  of  this  State  we  may  mention  Gen. 
Lewis  Cass,  Stevens  T.  Mason,  Augustus  B.  Woodward,  John 
Norveli,  Wm.  Woodbridge,  John  Biddle,  Wm.  A.  Fletcher,  Elon 
Farnsworth,  Solomon  Sibley,  Benj.  B.  Kircheval,  John  B.  Wil- 
liams, George  Morrell.  Daniel  Goodwin,  Augustus  S.  Porter,  Benj. 
F.  H.  Witherell,  Jonathan  Shearer  and  Charles  C.  Trowbridge,  all 
of  Wayne  county;  Edmund  Munday,  James  Kingsley  and  Alpheus 
Felch,  of  Washtenaw;  Boss  Wilkins  and  John  J.  Adam,  of  Lena- 


wee;  Warner  "Wing,  Charles  Xoble  and  Austin  E.  Wing,  of  Monroe 
county;  Randolph  Manning,  O.  D.  Richardson  and  James  B.  Hunt, 
of  Oakland;  Henry  R.  Schoolcraft,  of  Chippewa;  Albert  Miller,  of 
the  Saginaw  Valley;  John  Stockton  and  Robert  P.  Eldridge,  of 
Macomb;  Lucius  Lyon,  Charles  E.  Stuart,  Edwin  H.  Lothrop, 
Epaphroditus  Ransom  and  Hezekiah  G.  Wells,  of  Kalamazoo;  Isaac 
E.  Crary,  John  D.  Pierce  and  Oliver  C.  Comstock,  of  Calhoun; 
Kinsley  S.  Bingham,  of  Livingston;  John  S.  Barry,  of  St.  Joseph; 
Charles  W.  Whipple,  Calvin  Britain  and  Thomas  Fitzgerald,  of 
Berrien;  and  George  Redfield,  of  Cass.  These  men  and  their  com- 
peers shaped  the  policy  of  the  State,  and  decided  what  should  be 
its  future.  They  originated  all  and  established  most  of  the  great 
institutions  which  are  the  evidences  of  our  advanced  civilization, 
and  of  which  we  are  so  justly  proud. 


At  the  close  of  the  war  with  Great  Britain  in  1814,  an  era  of 
prosperity  dawned  upon  the  infant  territory.  Gen.  Lewis  Cass,  who 
had  served  the  Government  with  great  distinction  during  the  war, 
was  appointed  Governor.  The  condition  of  the  people  was  very 
much  reduced,  the  country  was  wild,  and  the  British  flag  still  waved 
over  the  fort  at  Mackinaw.  There  was  nothing  inviting  to  immi- 
grants except  the  mere  facts  of  the  close  of  the  war  and  the  exist- 
ence of  a  fertile  soil  and  a  good  climate.  The  Indians  were  still 
dangerous,  and  the  country  was  still  comparatively  remote  from 
the  centers  of  civilization  and  government.  Such  a  set  of  circum- 
stances was  just  the  proper  environment  for  the  development  of 
all  those  elements  of  the  "  sturdy  pioneer "  which  we  so  often 
admire  in  writing  up  Western  history.  Here  was  the  field  for 
stout  and  brave  men;  here  was  the  place  for  the  birth  and  educa- 
tion of  real  Spartan  men, — men  of  strength,  moral  courage  and 
indomitable  perseverance. 

At  first.  Gen.  Cass  had  also  the  care  of  a  small  portion  of  Canada 
opposite  Detroit,  and  he  had  only  27  soldiers  for  defending  Detroit 
against  the  hostile  Indians  and  carrying  on  the  whole  government 
Believing  that  a  civil  governor  should  not  be  encumbered  also  with 
military  duty,  he  resigned  his  brigadier-generalship  in  the  army. 
But  as  Governor  he  soon  had  occasion  to  exercise  his  military 
power,  even  to  act  on  the  field  as  commander,  in  chasing  away 
marauding  bands  of  Indians.  The  latter  seemed  to  be  particularly 
threatening  at  this  time,  endeavoring  to  make  up  in  yelling  and 
petty  depredations  what  they  lacked  in  sweeping  victory  over  all 
the  pale-faces. 

In  times  of  peace  Gov.  Cass  had  high  notions  of  civilizing  the 
Indians,  encouraging  the  purchase  of  their  lands,  limiting  their 
hunting  grounds  to  a  narrow  compass,  teaching  them  agriculture 
and  mechanics  and  providing  the  means  for  their  instruction  and 
religious  training.     The  policy  of  the  French  and  English  had  been 


HISTORY    OF    MIC  UK,  \N. 

to  pacify  them  with  presents  and  gewgaws,  merely  to  obtain  a  tem- 
porary foothold  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  on  the  fur  trade.  Those 
benefited  by  the  trade  lived  thousands  of  miles  away  and  had  no 
interest  in  the  permanent  development  of  the  country.  The  United 
States  Government,  on  the  other  hand,  indorsed  Gov.  Cass'  policy, 
which  was  to  result  in  the  development  of  the  wealth  of  the  country 
and  the  establishment  of  all  the  arts  of  peace.  Gens.  Cass  and 
Harrison  were  accordingly  empowered  to  treat  with  the  Indians 
on  the  Miami  and  Wabash;  and  July  20  a  treaty  was  signed  with 
the  Wyandots,  Senecas,  Shawnees,  Miamis  and  Delawares,  which 
restored  comparative  tranquillity.  During  the  summer,  however, 
there  was  Indian  war  enough  to  call  out  all  of  Gov.  Cass'  men,  in 
aid  of  Gen.  Brown  on  the  Niagara.  Indians  can  never  remain  long 
at  peace,  whatever  may  be  the  obligations  they  assume  in  treaty- 
making.  Gov.  Cass  often  headed  his  forces  in  person  and  drove  the 
hostile  tribes  from  place  to  place  until  they  finally  retreated  to 

An  attempt  was  made  to  recover  Mackinaw  from  the  English  in 
July  of  this  year  (1814),  but  the  British  works  were  too  strong;  how- 
ever, the  establishments  at  St.  Joseph  and  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  were 
destroyed.  In  the  following  winter  the  final  treaty  of  peace  was 
ratified  between  England  and  the  United  States.  The  population 
of  the  territory  at  this  time  was  not  over  5,000  or  6,000,  scattered 
over  a  vast  extent,  and  in  a  state  of  great  destitution  on  account  of 
the  calamities  of  war.  Scarcely  a  family,  on  resuming  the  duties 
of  home,  found  more  than  the  remnants  of  former  wealth  and  com- 
fort. Families  had  been  broken  up  and  dispersed;  parents  had 
been  torn  from  their  children,  and  children  from  each  other;  some 
had  been  slain  on  the  battle-field,  and  others  had  been  massacred 
by  the  ruthless  savages.  Laws  had  become  a  dead  letter,  and 
morals  had  suffered  in  the  general  wreck.  Agriculture  had  been 
almost  abandoned  and  commerce  paralyzed;  food  and  all  necessa- 
ries of  life  were  scarce,  and  luxuries  unknown.  Money  was  difficult 
to  get,  and  the  bank  paper  of  Ohio,  which  was  almost  the  sole  cir- 
culating medium,  was  25  per  cent  below  par. 

Such  was  the  gloomy  state  of  domestic  affairs  when  Gen.  Cass 
assumed  the  office  of  governor.  Besides,  he  had  the  delicate  task 
of  aiding  in  legislation  and  of  being  at  the  same  time  the  sole  exec- 
utive of  the  law.  In  1817  he  made  an  important  treaty  with  the 
Indians,  by  which  their  title  was  extinguished  to  nearly  all  the  land 
in  Ohio,  and  a  great  portion  in  Indiana  and  Michigan.  This  treaty 
attached  the  isolated  population  of  Michigan  to  the  State  of  Ohio, 
made  theTerritorial  government  in  a  fuller  sense  an  integral  mem- 
ber of  the  federal  Union,  and  removed  all  apprehension  of  a  hostile 
confederacy  among  the  Indian  tribes  along  the  lake  and  river 

Hitherto  there  had  not  been  a  road  in  Michigan,  except  the  mili- 
tary road  along  the  Detroit  river;  but  as  the  Indian  settlements  and 
lands  could  not  now  be  interposed  as  a  barrier,  Gen.  Cass  called  the 


attention  of  Congress  to  the  necessity  of  a  military  road  from 
Detroit  to  Sandusky,  through  a  trackless  morass  called  the  black 

In  the  summer  of  this  year,  the  first  newspaper  published  in 
Michigan  was  started  at  Detroit.  It  was  called  the  Detroit  Gazette, 
and  was  published  by  Messrs.  Sheldon  &  Eeed,  two  enterprising 
young  men,  the  former  of  whom  published  an  interesting  and  val- 
uable early  history  of  Michigan. 

The  "  Western  Sun  "  was  the  first  newspaper  published  in  the 
Indiana  Territory,  now  comprising  the  four  great  States  of  Indiana, 
Illinois,  Michigan  and  Wisconsin,  and  the  second  in  all  that  country 
once  known  as  the  "  Northwestern  Territory."  It  was  commenced 
at  Vincennes  in  1803,  by  Elihu  Stout,  of  Kentucky,  and  first  called 
the  Indiana  Gazette,  and  July  4,  1S04,  was  changed  to  the  West- 
em  Sun.  Mr.  Stout  continued  the  paper  until  1S45,  amid  many 
discouragements,  when  he  was  appointed  postmaster  at  the  place, 
and  he  sold  out  the  office. 

May  6,  1812,  Congress  passed  an  act  requiring  that  2,000,000 
acres  of  land  should  be  surveyed  in  the  Territory  of  Louisiana,  the 
same  amount  in  the  Territory  of  Illinois,  and  the  same  amount  in 
the  Territory  of  Michigan,  in  all  6,000,000  acres,  to  be  set  apart  for 
the  soldiers  in  the  war  with  Great  Britain.  Each  soldier  was  to 
have  160  acres  of  land,  fit  for  cultivation.  The  surveyors  under  this 
law  reported  that  there  were  no  lands  in  Michigan  fit  for  cultiva- 
tion! This  unconscionable  report  deterred  immigration  for  many 
years,  and  the  Government  took  the  whole  6,000,000  acres  from 
Illinois  and  Missouri.  The  language  of  that  report  is  so  remark- 
able that  we  must  quote  it: 

"  The  country  on  the  Indian  boundary  line,  from  the  mouth  of 
the  Great  Auglaize  river  and  running  thence  for  about  50  miles,  is 
(with  some  few  exceptions)  low,  wet  land,  with  a  very  thick  growth 
of  underbrush,  intermixed  with  very  bad  marshes,  but  generally 
very  heavily  timbered  with  beech,  cottonwood,  oak,  etc.;  thence 
continuing  north  and  extending  from  the  Indian  boundary  east- 
ward, the  number  and  extent  of  the  swamps  increase,  with  the 
addition  of  numbers  of  lakes,  from  20  chains  to  two  and  three  miles 
across.  Many  of  the  lakes  have  extensive  marshes  adjoining  their 
margins,  sometimes  thickly  covered  with  a  species  of  pine  called 
'  tamarack,'  and  other  places  covered  with  a  coarse,  high  grass, 
and  uniformly  covered  from  six  inches  to  three  feet  (and  more  at 
times)  with  water.  The  margins  of  these  lakes  are  not  the  only 
places  where  swamps  are  found,  for  they  are  interspersed  through- 
out the  whole  country  and  tilled  with  water,  as  above  stated,  and 
varying  in  extent.  The  intermediate  space  between  these  swamps 
and  lakes,  which  is  probably  near  one-half  of  the  country,  is,  with  a 
very  few  exceptions,  a  poor,  barren,  sandy  land  on  which  scarcely 
any  vegetation  grows  except  very  small,  scrubby  oaks.  In  many 
places  that  part  which  may  be  called  dry  land  is  composed  of  little, 
short  sand-hills,  forming  a  kind  of  deep  basins,  the  bottoms  of  many 


of  which  are  composed  of  a  marsh  similar  to  the  above  described. 
The  streams  are  generally  narrow,  and  very  deep  compared  with 
their  width,  the  shores  and  bottoms  of  which  are.  with  a  very  few 
exceptions,  swampy  beyond  description;  and  it  is' with  the  utmost 
difficulty  that  a  place  can  be  found  over  which  horses  can  be  con- 
veyed with  safety. 

"A  circumstance  peculiar  to  that  country  is  exhibited  in  many 
of  the  marshes  by  their  being  thinly  covered  with  a  sward  of  grass, 
by  walking  on  which  evinced  the  existence  of  water  or  a  very  thin 
mud  immediately  under  their  covering,  which  sinks  from  six  to 
eighteen  inches  from  the  pressure  of  the  foot  at  every  step,  and  at 
the  same  time  rising  before  and  behind  the  person'passiug  over. 
The  margins  of  many  of  the  lakes  and  streams  are  in  a  similar 
situation,  and  in  many  places  are  literally  afloat.  On  approaching 
the  eastern  part  of  the  military  lands,  toward  the  private  claims  on 
the  straights  and  lake,  the  country  does  not  contain  so  many  swamps 
and  lakes,  but  the  extreme  sterility  and  barrenness  of  the  soil  con- 
tinues the  same.  Taking  the  country  altogether,  so  far  as  has  been 
explored,  and  to  all  appearances,  together  with  the  information 
received  concerning  the  balance,  it  is  so  bad  there  would  not  be 
more  than  one  acre  out  of  a  hundred,  if  there  would  be  one  out 
of  a  thousand,  that  would  in  any  case  admit  of  cultivation." 

It  is  probable  that  those  Government  surveyors  made  a  lazy  job 
of  their  duty  and  depended  almost  entirely  upon  the  fur  traders, 
who  were  interested  in  keeping  settlers  out  of  the  country.  But  we 
must  make  allowance,  too,  for  the  universal  ignorance  existing  at 
that  time  of  the  methods  of  developing  the  Western  country  which 
modern  invention  has  brought  to  bear  since  the  days  of  our  fore- 
fathers. We  must  remember  that  our  Western  prairies  were  counted 
worth  nothing,  even  by  all  the  early  settlers. 

By  the  year  ISIS  some  immigrants  crowded  in  and  further 
explored  and  tested  the  land;  and  in  March,  this  year,  Gov.  Cass 
called  for  the  views  of  the  inhabitants  upon  the  question  of  chang- 
ing the  civil  authority  by  entering  upon  the  second  grade  of  Terri- 
torial government.  A  vote  was  taken  and  a  majority  were  found 
to  he  against  it;  but  for  the  purpose  of  facilitating  immigration  and 
settlement.  Gov.  Cass  recommended  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury 
that  the  lands  in  the  district  of  Detroit  be  at  once  brouo-ht  into 
market.  The  department  immediately  complied,  and  the  lands 
were  offered  for  sale  the  following  autumn.  Immigration  was  now 
increased  more  than  ever  before,  and  the  permanent  growth  of  the 
country  became  fully  established. 

In  1819  the  people  were  allowed  to  elect  a  delegate  to  Congress. 
The  population  was  now  8,806  in  the  whole  Territory,  distributed  as 
follows:  Detroit,  1,450,  not  including  the  garrison;  the  Island  of 
Mackinaw,  still  the  entrepot  of  the  fur  trade,  a  stationary  popu- 
lation of  about  450,  sometimes  increased  to  2,000  or  over;  Sault 
Ste.  Marie,  15  or  20  houses,  occupied  by  French  and  English 


The  year  1819  was  also  rendered  memorable  by  the  appearance 
of  the  first  steamboat  on  the  lakes,  the  "  Walk-in-the-water,"  which 
came  up  Lake  Erie  and  went  on  to  Mackinaw. 

Up  to  this  time  no  executive  measures  had  been  taken  by  the 
people  to  avail  themselves  of  the  school  lands  appropriated  by  the 
ordinance  of  1787,  except  the  curious  act  passed  by  the  Governor 
and  judges  establishing  the  ''Catholepistemiad,"  or  University  of 
Michigan,  with  13  "  didaxia,"  or  professorships.  The  scheme  for 
this  institution  was  a  grand  one,  described  by  quaint,  sesquipe- 
dalian technicalities  coined  from  the  Greek  language,  and  the  whole 
devised  by  that  unique  man,  Judge  Woodward.  The  act  is  given 
in  full  in  theTerritorial  laws  of  Michigan,  compiled  and  printed  a 
few  years  ago.  It  was  Judge  Woodward,  also,  who  laid  out  the 
plan  of  Detroit,  in  the  form  of  a  cobweb,  with  a  ''campus  Martius" 
and  a  grand  circus,  and  avenues  radiating  in  every  direction,  grand 
public  parks  and  squares,  etc.  Centuries  would  be  required  to  ful- 
fill his  vast  design.  Like  authors  and  artists  of  ancient  Greece  and 
Rome,  he  laid  the  foundations  of  grand  work  for  posterity  more 
than  for  the  passing  generation. 

Settlements  now  began  to  form  at  the  points  where  now  are  the 
cities  of  Ann  Arbor,  Ypsilanti,  Jackson,  Tecumseh  and  Pontiac. 
There  were  still  some  annoyances  by  the  Indians.  The  Sacs  and 
Foxes  annually  made  their  appearance  to  receive  presents  from  the 
British  agents  at  Maiden,  and  as  they  passed  along  they  would 
commit  many  depredations.  This  practice  of  the  British  Govern- 
ment had  a  tendency  to  prejudice  the  Indians  against  the  Ameri- 
cans, and  it  thus  became  necessary  to  take  some  measures  for 
removing  the  Indians  beyond  British  influence  or  otherwise  putting 
a  stop  to  this  dangerous  custom.  Accordingly,  in  the  fall  of  1819, 
Gov.  Cass  desired  the  Government  at  Washington  to  cause  a  more 
thorough  exploration  to  be  made  of  the  lake  region,  estimating  the 
number  and  influence  of  the  Indians,  their  relations,  prejudices, 
etc.,  with  a  view  to  the  further  extinguishment  of  Indian  title  to 
land,  etc.;  but  the  Government  deemed  it  advisable  at  this  time 
only  to  take  10  miles  square  at  Sanlt  Ste.  Marie  for  military  pur- 
poses, and  some  islands  near  Mackinaw,  where  beds  of  plaster  had 
been  found  to  exist.  However,  the  general  Government  soon 
ordered  an  expedition  to  be  fitted  out  for  such  an  exploration  as 
Gov.  Cass  desired,  to  travel  witli  birch  canoes.  The  men  composing 
the  expedition  were  Gen.  Cass  and  Robert  A.  Forsyth,  his  private 
secretary;  Capt.  D.  B.  Douglass,  topographer  and  astronomer;  Dr. 
Alex.  Wolcot,  physician;  James  D.  Doty,  official  secretary;  and 
Charles  C.  Trowbridge,  assistant  topographer.  Lieut.  Evans  Mac- 
key  was  commander  of  the  escort,  which  consisted  of  10  U.  S. 
soldiers.  Besides  these  there  were  10  Canadian  voyageurs,  to 
manage  the  canoes,  and  10  Indians  to  act  as  hunters.  The  latter 
were  under  the  direction  of  James  Riley  and  Joseph  Parks,  who 
were  also  to  act  as  interpreters. 


This  party  left  Detroit  March  24,  1820,  and  readied  Michili- 
mackinac,  June  6.  On  leaving  this  place  June  14,  22  soldiers, 
under  the  command  of  Lieut.  John  S.  Pierce,  were  added  to  the  party, 
and  the  expedition  now  numbered  64  persons.  They  reached  the 
Sault  Ste.  Marie  the  16th,  where  Gen.  Cass  called  the  Indians  (Chip- 
pewas)  together,  in  order  to  have  a  definite  understanding  with 
them  concerning  the  boundary  lines  of  the  land  grants,  and  thereby 
renew  also  their  sanction  of  former  treaties.  At  first  the  Indians 
protested  against  the  Americans  having  any  garrison  at  the  place, 
and  some  of  them  grew  violent  and  almost  precipitated  a  general 
fight,  which  would  have  been  disastrous  to  Gen.  Cass'  party,  as  the 
Indians  were  far  more  numerous;  but  Cass  exhibited  a  great  degree 
of  coolness  and  courage,  and  caused  more  deliberate  counsels  to 
prevail  among  the  savages.     Thus  the  threatened  storm  blew  over. 

The  next  day  the  expedition  resumed  their  journey,  on  Lake 
Superior,  passing  the  "  pictured  rocks,"  and  landing  at  one  place 
where  there  was  a  band  of  friendly  Chippewas.  June  25  they  left 
Lake  Superior,  ascended  Portage  river  and  returned  home  by  way 
of  Lake  Michigan,  after  having  traveled  over  4,000  miles. 

The  results  of  the  expedition  were:  a  more  thorough  knowledge 
of  a  vast  region  and  of  the  numbers  and  disposition  of  the  various 
tribes  of  Indians;  several  important  Indian  treaties,  by  which  val- 
uable lands  were  ceded  to  the  United  States;  a  knowledge  of  the 
operations  of  the  Northwest  Fur  Company;  and  the  selection  of 
sites  for  a  line  of  military  posts. 

As  the  greatest  want  of  the  people  seemed  to  be  roads,  Congress 
was  appealed  to  for  assistance,  and  not  in  vain;  for  that  body 
immediately  provided  for  the  opening  of  roads  between  Detroit 
and  the  Miami  river,  from  Detroit  to  Chicago,  and  from  Detroit  to 
Fort  Gratiot,  and  for  the  improvement  of  La  Plaisance  Bay. 
Government  surveys  were  carried  into  the  Territory.  Two  straight 
lines  were  drawn  through  the  center  of  the  Territory, — east  and 
west,  and  north  and  south,  the  latter  being  denominated  the 
principal  meridian  and  the  former  the  base  line.  The  Territory  was 
also  divided  into  townships  of  six  miles  square. 

In  1821  there  was  still  a  tract  of  land  lying  south  of  Grand 
river  which  had  not  yet  been  added  to  the  United  States,  and  Gov. 
Cass  deemed  it  necessary  to  negotiate  with  the  Indians  for  it.  To 
accomplish  this  work  he  had  to  visit  Chicago;  and  as  a  matter  of 
curiosity  we  will  inform  the  reader  of  his  most  feasible  route  to 
that  place,  which  he  can  contrast  with  that  of  the  present  day. 
Leaving  Detroit,  he  descended  to  the  mouth  of  the  Maumee  river; 
lie  ascended  that  river  and  crossed  the  intervening  country  to  the 
Wabash;  descended  that  stream  to  the  Ohio;  down  the  latter  to 
the  Mississippi,  and  up  this  and  the  Illinois  rivers  to  Chicago! 

At  this  council  the  American  commissioners  were  Gen.  Cass 
and  Judge  Sibley,  of  Detroit.  They  were  successful  in  their 
undertaking,  and  obtained  a  cession  of  the  land  in  question.  On 
this  occasion  the  Indians  exhibited  in  a  remarkable  manner  their 


appetite  for  whisky.  As  a  preliminary  step  to  the  negotiations, 
the  commissioners  ordered  that  no  spirits  should  be  given  to  the 
Indians.  The  chief  of  the  latter  was  a  man  about  a  hundred  years 
old,  but  still  of  a  good  constitution.  The  commissioners  urged 
every  consideration  to  convince  him  and  the  other  Indians  of  the 
propriety  of  the  course  they  had  adopted,  but  in  vain.  "  Father," 
said  the  old  chieftain,  "  we  do  not  care  for  the  land,  nor  the  money, 
nor  the  goods:  what  we  want  is  whisky;  give  us  whisky."  But 
the  commissioners  were  inexorable,  and  the  Indians  were  forced  to 
content  themselves. 

This  year  (1821)  also  two  Indians  were  hung  for  murder.  There 
was  some  fear  that  the  event  would  be  made  by  the  British  an 
occasion  of  arousing  Indian  atrocities'  in  the  vicinity,  and  the  peti- 
tion for  the  pardon  of  the  wretches  was  considered  by  Gov.  Cass 
with  a  great  deal  of  embarrassment.  He  finally  concluded  to  let 
the  law  take  its  course,  and  accordingly,  Dec.  25,  the  murderers 
were  hung. 

In  1S22  six  new  counties  were  created,  namely,  Lapeer,  Sanilac, 
Saginaw,  Shiawassee,  Washtenaw  and  Lenawee;  and  they  contained 
much  more  territory  then  they  do  at  the  present  day.  This  year 
the  first  stage  line  was  established  in  the  Territory,  connecting  the 
county  seat  of  Macomb  county  with  the  steamer  "  Walk-in-the- 
Water"  at  Detroit. 

In  1823  Congress  changed  the  form  of  Territorial  government, 
abrogating  the  legislative  power  of  the  governor  and  judges  and 
establishing  a  "Legislative  Council,"  to  consist  of  nine  members, 
appointed  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  out  of  18  candi- 
dates elected  by  the  people.  By  the  same  act  the  term  of  judicial 
office  was  limited  to  four  years,  and  eligibility  to  office  was  made  to 
require  the  same  qualifications  as  the  right  to  suffrage.  The  peo- 
ple now  took  new  interest  in  their  government,  and  felt  encouraged 
to  lay  deeper  the  foundations  of  future  prosperity.  The  first 
legislative  council  under  the  new  regime  met  at  Detroit  June  7, 
1824,  when  Gov.  Cass  delivered  his  message,  reviewing  the  progress 
of  the  Territory,  calling  attention  to  the  needs  of  popular  education 
and  recommending  a  policy  of  governmental  administration.  Dur- 
ing this  year  he  also  called  the  attention  of  the  general  Government 
to  the  mineral  resources  of  the  Superior  region,  and  asked  for  gov- 
ernmental explorations  therein.  At  its  second  session  after  this, 
Congress  authorized  a  commission  to  treat  with  the  Indians  of  the 
upper  peninsula  for  permission  to  explore  that  country. 

In  1825  the  Erie  canal  was  completed  from  the  Hudson  river  to 
Buffalo,  X.  Y.,  and  the  effect  was  to  increase  materially  the  flow  of 
people  and  wealth  into  the  young  Territory  of  Michigan.  The  citi- 
zens of  the  East  began  to  learn  the  truth  concerning  the  agricult- 
ural value  of  this  peninsula,  and  those  in  search  of  good  and 
permanent  homes  came  to  see  for  themselves,  and  afterward  came 
with  their  friends  or  families  to  remain  as  industrious  residents,  to 
develop  a  powerful  State.     The  number  in    the  Territorial  council 



was  increased  to  13,  to  be  chosen  by  the  President  from  26  persons 
elected  by  the  people.  In  1S27  an  act  was  passed  authorizing  the 
electors  to  choose  their  electors  directly,  without  the  further  sanc- 
tion of  either  the  President  or  Congress.  The  power  of  enacting 
laws  was  given  to  the  council,  subject,  however,  to  the  approval  of 
Congress  and  the  veto  of  the  Governor.  This  form  of  Territorial 
government  remained  in  force  until  Michigan  was  organized  as  a 
State  in  1837.  William  Woodbridge  was  Secretary  of  the  Territory 
during  the  administration  of  Gov.  Cass,  and  deserves  great  credit 
for  the  ability  with  which  he  performed  the  duties  of  his  office.  In 
the  absence  of  the  chief  executive  he  was  acting  governor,  and  a 
portion  of  the  time  he  represented  the  Territory  as  a  delegate  to 
Congress.  In  1828  he  was  succeeded  by  James  Witherell,  and  in 
two  years  by  Gen.  John  T.  Mason. 

In  1831  Gen.  Cass  was  appointed  Secretary  of  War  in  the  cabi- 
net of  President  Jackson,  after  having  served  Michigan  as  its  chief 
executive  for  18  years.  He  had  been  appointed  six  times,  running 
through  the  presidency  of  Madison,  Monroe  and  John  Q.  Adams, 
without  any  opposing  candidate  or  a  single  vote  against  him  in  the 
senate.  He  faithfully  discharged  his  duties  as  Indian  commissioner 
and  concluded  19  treaties  with  the  Indians,  acquiring  large  cessions 
of  territory  in  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Wisconsin  and  Michigan. 
He  was  a  practical  patriot  of  whom  the  people  of  the  peninsular 
State  justly  feel  proud.  Probably  more  than  any  other  man,  Gen. 
Cass  was  the  father  of  Michigan. 


On  the  promotion  of  Gen.  Cass  to  a  seat  in  the  cabinet  of  Presi- 
dent Jackson  and  his  consequent  resignation  as  Governor  of  Michi- 
gan, Gen.  Geo.  B.  Porter  was  appointed  Governor  in  July,  1831, 
and  Sept.  22  following  he  entered  upon  the  duties  of  the  office. 
The  population  of  the  Territory  at  this  time  was  about  35,000,  pros- 
perity was  reigning  all  around  and  peace  everywhere  prevailed, 
except  that  in  1832  the  Black  Hawk  war  took  place  in  Illinois,  but 
did  not  affect  this  peninsula.  In  this  war,  however,  Gov.  Porter 
co-operated  with  other  States  in  furnishing  militia. 

While  Gov.  Porter  was  the  chief  executive,  Wisconsin  was  de- 
tached from  Michigan  and  erected  into  a  separate  Territory;  many 
new  townships  were  organized  and  wagon  roads  opened  and  im- 
proved; land  began  to  rise  rapidly  in  value,  and  speculators 
multiplied.  The  council  provided  for  the  establishment  and  regu- 
lation of  common  schools, incorporated  "The  Lake  Michigan  Steam- 
boat Company,"  with  a  capital  of  $40,000;  and  incorporated  the 
first  railroad  company  in  Michigan,  the  "  Detroit  &  St.  Joseph 
Railroad  Company,"  since  called  the  "  Michigan  Central."  The 
original  corporators  were,  John  Biddle,  John  It.  Williams,  Charles 
Larned,  E.  P.  Hastings,  Oliver  Newberry,  De  Garmo  James,  James 
Abbott,  John  Gilbert,  Abel  Millington,  Job  Gorton,   John  Allen, 


Anson  Brown,  Samuel  W.  Dexter.  "W.  E.  Perrine,  Win.  A.  Thomp- 
son, Isaac  Crary.  O.  W.  Colden,  Caleb  Eldred,  Cyrus  Lovell,  Calvin 
Brittain  and  Talman  AVheeler.  The  act  of  incorporation  required 
that  the  road  should  be  completed  within  30  years;  this  condition 
was  complied  with  in  less  than  one-third  of  that  time.  The  same 
council  also  incorporated  the  "Bank  of  the  Kiver  Kaisin,"  with  a 
branch  at  Pontiac.  Previous  to  this  two  other  banks  had  been 
chartered,  namely:  the  "  Bank  of  Michigan,"  in  1S17,  with  a  branch 
at  Bronson,  and  the  "  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  Bank  of  Michigan," 
with  a  branch  at  St.  Joseph. 

The  Legislative  Council  of  1834  also  authorized  a  vote  of  the 
residents  to  be  takeu  on  the  question  of  organizing  as  a  State  and 
becoming  a  member  of  the  Union;  but  the  vote  was  so  light  and 
the  majority  so  small  that  Congress  neglected  to  consider  the  matter 
seriously  until  two  years  afterward. 

During  Porter's  administration  a  change  was  made  in  the 
method  of  disposing  of  the  public  lands,  greatly  to  the  benefit  of 
the  actual  settlers.  Prior  to  1820  the  Government  price  of  land 
was  $2  an  acre,  one-fourth  to  be  paid  down  and  the  remainder  in 
three  annual  installments;  and  the  land  was  subject  to  forfeiture  if 
these  payments  were  not  promptly  made.  This  system  having 
been  found  productive  of  many  serious  evils,  the  price  of  land  was 
put  at  $1.25  an  acre,  all  to  be  paid  at  the  time  of  purchase.  This 
change  saved  a  deal  of  trouble. 

During  the  administration  of  Gov.  Porter  occurred  the  "Black 
Hawk"  war,  mainly  in  Illinois,  in  1832,  which  did  not  affect 
Michigan  to  any  appreciable  extent,  except  to  raise  sundry  fears  by 
the  usual  alarms  accompanying  war  gossip.  A  few  volunteers 
probably  went  to  the  scene  of  action  from  this  Territory,  but  if  any 
systematic  account  was  ever  kept  of  this  service,  we  fail  to   find  it. 

In  October,  1S31,  Edwin  Jerome  left  Detroit  with  a  surveying 
party  composed  of  John  Mullet,  surveyor,  and  Utter,  Brink  and 
Peck,  for  that  portion  of  Michigan  Territory  lying  west  of  Lake 
Michigan,  now  "Wisconsin.  Their  outfit  consisted  of  a  French 
pony  team  and  a  buffalo  wagon  to  carry  tent,  camp  equipage, 
blankets,  etc.  Most  of  the  way  to  the  southeast  corner  of  Lake 
Michigan  they  followed  a  wagon  track  or  an  Indian  trail,  and  a 
cabin  or  an  Indian  hut  to  lodge  in  at  night;  but  west  of  the  point 
mentioned  they  found  neither  road  nor  inhabitant.  They  arrived 
at  Chicago  in  a  terrible  rain  and  "  put-up"  at  the  fort.  This  far- 
famed  city  at  that  time  had  but  five  or  six  houses,  and  they  were 
built  of  logs.  Within  a  distance  of  three  or  four  miles  of  the  fort 
the  land  was  valued  by  its  owners  at  50  cents  an  acre. 

After  23  days'  weary  travel  through  an  uninhabited  country, 
fording  and  swimming  streams  and  exposed  to  much  rainy  weather, 
they  arrived  at  Galena,  where  they  commenced  their  survey,  but  in 
two  days  the  ground  froze  so  deep  that  further  work  was  abandoned 
until  the  next  spring.  The  day  after  the  memorable  Stillman  bat- 
tle with  Black  Hawk,  while  the  Mullet  party  were   crossing  the 


Blue  mounds,  they  met  an  Indian  half-chief,  who  had  just  arrived 
from  the  Menominee  camps  with  the  details  of  the  battle.  He 
stated  the  slain  to  be  three  Indians  and  11  whites.  The  long  shak- 
ing of  hands  and  the  extreme  cordiality  of  this  Indian  alarmed 
Mullet  for  the  safety  of  his  party,  but  he  locked  the  secret  in  his 
own  heart  until  the  next  day.  They  had  just  completed  a  town 
corner  when  Mullet,  raising  himself  to  his  full  height,  said,  "Boys, 
I'm  going  in;  I'll  not  risk  my  scalp  for  a  few  paltry  shillings."  This 
laconic  speech  was  an  electric  shock  to  the  whole  company.  Mr. 
Jerome,  in  describing  his  own  sensations,  said  that  the  hair  of  his 
head  then  became  as  porcupine  quills,  raising  his  hat  in  the  air  and 
himself  from  the  ground;  and  the  top  of  his  head  became  as  sore 
as  a  boil. 

July  6, 1834,  Gov.  Porter  died,  and  the  administration  devolved 
upon  the  secretary  of  the  Territory,  Stevens  T.  Mason,  during 
whose  time  occurred 

THE    "  TOLEDO    WAR." 

This  difficulty  was  inaugurated  by  a  conflict  of  the  acts  of  Con- 
gress from  time  to  time,  made  either  carelessly  or  in  ignorance  of 
the  geography  of  the  West  and  of  the  language  of  former  public  acts. 
Michigan  claimed  as  her  southern  boundary  a  line  running  from 
the  extreme  southern  point  of  Lake  Michigan  directly  east  to  Lake 
Erie,  which  would  include  Toledo,  an  important  point,  as  it  was 
the  principal  terminus  of  the  proposed  Wabash  &  Erie  canal.  This 
claim  was  made  by  virtue  of  clauses  in  the  ordinance  of  1787.  Ohio, 
on  the  other  hand,  claimed  that  the  ordinance  had  been  superseded 
by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  that  Congress  had 
the  right  to  regulate  the  boundary;  also,  that  the  constitution  of 
that  State,  which  had  been  accepted  by  Congress,  described  a  line 
different  from  that  claimed  by  Michigan.  Mr.  Woodbridge,  the 
delegate  from  Michigan,  ably  opposed  in  Congress  the  claim  of 
Ohio,  and  the  committee  on  public  lands  decided  unanimously  in 
favor  of  this  State;  but  in  the  hurry  of  business  no  action  was 
taken  by  Congress  and  the  question  remained  open. 

The  claim  of  Michigan  was  based  principally  upon  the  follow- 
ing points:  The  ordinance  of  1787  declares  the  acts  therein  con- 
tained "  articles  of  compact  between  the  original  States  and  the 
people  and  States  in  said  Territory  (northwest  of  the  river  Ohio), 
and  forever  to  remain  unalterable,  unless  by  common  consent." 
This  ordinance  defines  the  Territory  to  include  all  that  region  lying 
north  and  northwest  of  the  Ohio  and  east  of  the  Mississippi  rivers. 
In  the  fifth  article  it  is  provided  that  there  shall  be  formed  not  less 
than  three  nor  more  than  five  States  within  its  limits.  The  bound- 
aries of  the  three  States  are  defined  so  as  to  include  the  whole  Ter- 
ritory; conditioned,  however,  that  if  it  should  be  found  expedient 
by  Congress  to  form  the  one  or  two  more  States  mentioned,  Con- 
gress is  authorized  to  alter  boundaries  of  the  three  States  "  so  as 


to  form  one  or  two  States  in  that  part  of  the  said  Territory  which 
lies  north  of  the  east  and  west  line  drawn  through  the  southerly 
bend  or  extreme  of  Lake  Michigan." 

In  1802  Congress  enabled  the  people  of  Ohio  to  form  a  constitu- 
tion, and  in  that  act  the  boundary  of  that  State  is  declared  to  be 
"  on  the  north  by  an  east  and  west  line  drawn  through  the  southerly 
extreme  of  Lake  Michigan,  running  east,  after  intersecting  the  due 
north  line  aforesaid  from  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami,  until  it 
shall  intersect  Lake  Erie,  or  theTerritorial  line,  and  thence  with 
the  same  through  Lake  Erie  to  the  Pennsylvania  line."  The  con- 
stitution of  Ohio  adopted  the  same  line,  with  this  condition: 
"  Provided  always,  and  it  is  hereby  fully  understood  and  declared 
by  this  convention,  that  if  the  southerly  bend  or  extreme  of  Lake 
Michigan  should  extend  so  far  south  that  a  line  drawn  due  east 
from  it  should  not  intersect  Lake  Erie;  or,  if  it  should  intersect 
Lake  Erie  east  of  the  mouth  of  the  Miami  river,  then  in  that  case, 
with  the  assent  of  Congress,  the  northern  boundary  of  this  State 
shall  be  established  by  and  extend  to  a  direct  line  running  from  the 
southern  extremity  of  Lake  Michigan  to  the  most  northerly  cape 
of  the  Miami  bay,  after  intersecting  the  due  north  line  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Great  Miami,  as  aforesaid,  thence  northeast  of  the 
Territorial  line,  and  by  said  Territorial  line  to  the  Pennsylvania 

Congress  did  not  act  upon  this  proviso  until  1S05,  and  during 
this  interval  it  seems  that  Ohio  herself  did  not  regard  it  as  a  part 
of  her  accepted  constitution. 

Again,  this  section  of  the  act  of  1802  provides  that  all  that 
part  of  the  Territory  lying  north  of  this  east  and  west  line  "  shall 
be  attached  to  and  make  a  part  of  the  Indiana  Territory."  Still 
again,  the  act  of  1805,  entitled  "  an  act  to  divide  the  Indiana  Ter- 
ritory into  separate  governments,"  erects  Michigan  to  a  separate 
Territory,  and  defines  the  southern  boundary  to  be  "a  line  drawn 
east  from  the  southerly  bend  or  extreme  of  Lake  Michigan  until  it 
intersects  Lake  Erie." 

The  strip  of  territory  in  dispute  is  about  five  miles  wide  at  the 
west  end  and  eight  miles  at  the  east  end.  The  line  claimed  by  Mich- 
igan was  known  as  the  "  Fulton  line,"  and  that  claimed  by  Ohio 
was  known  as  the  "  Harris  line,"  from  the  names  of  the  surveyors. 
This  territory  was  valuable  for  its  rich  farming  land,  but  its  chief 
value  was  deemed  to  consist  at  that  time  in  its  harbor  on  the  Mau- 
mee  river,  where  now  stands  the  city  of  Toledo,  and  which  was  the 
eastern  terminus  of  the  proposed  Wabash  &  Erie  canal.  This 
place  was  originally  called  Swan  creek,  afterward  Port  Lawrence, 
then  Vistula  and  finally  Toledo.  The  early  settlers  generally 
acknowledged  their  allegiance  to  Michigan;  but  when  the  canal 
became  a  possibility,  and  its  termination  at  Toledo  being  dependent 
upon  the  contingency  whether  or  not  it  was  in  Ohio,  many  of  the 
inhabitants  became  desirous  of  being  included  within  the  latter 
State.  Then  disputes  grew  more  violent  and  the  Legislatures  of  the 


respective  commonwealths  led  off  in  the  fight.  In  February,  1835, 
the  Legislature  of  Ohio  passed  an  act  extending  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
State  over  the  territory  in  question,  directed  local  elections  to  be 
.held  and  a  re-survey  to  be  made  of  the  Harris  line.  Per  contra, 
Gov.  Mason  urged  the  Legislative  Council  of  Michigan  to  take  active 
measures  to  counteract  the  proceedings  of  the  Ohio  Legislature ;  and 
accordingly  that  body  passed  an  act  making  it  a  criminal  offense 
for  any  one  to  attempt  to  exercise  any  official  functions  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  Michigan  without  authority  from  the  Territory  or  the 
general  Government.  March  9,  1835,  Gov.  Mason  ordered  Gen. 
Brown  to  hold  the  Michigan  militia  in  readiness  to  meet  the  enemy 
in  the  field  in  case  an  attempt  was  made  by  the  agents  of  Ohio  to 
carry  out  the  provisions  of  the  Legislature  of  that  State.  On  the 
31st  Gov.  Lucas,  of  Ohio,  arrived  at  Perrysburg  with  his  commis- 
sioners, on  his  way  to  re-survey  the  Harris  line.  He  was  accom- 
panied by  a  militia  of  about  600  men.  In  the  meantime  Gov.  Mason 
mustered  about  1,200  men,  with  Gen.  Brown  commanding,  and 
was  in  possession  of  Toledo.  In  a  few  days  two  commissioners 
arrived  from  Washington  on  a  mission  of  peace,  and  remonstrated 
with  Gov.  Lucas.  After  several  conferences  with  the  two  Gover- 
nors they  submitted  propositions  of  a  temporary  nature,  virtually 
giving  the  disputed  territory  to  Ohio  until  the  following  session  of 
Congress,  to  which  Gov.  Lucas  assented,  but  Gov.  Mason  did  not. 
President  Jackson  asked  the  opinion  of  the  attorney  general,  Mr. 
Butler,  who  replied  in  favor  of  Michigan;  notwithstanding,  Gov. 
Lucas  proceeded  to  order  his  men  to  commence  the  survey,  but  as 
they  were  passing  through  Lenawee  county  the  under-sheriff  there 
arrested  a  portion  of  the  party,  while  the  rest  ran  away  like  Indi- 
ans, and  spread  an  exaggerated  report  of  actual  war.  This  being 
corrected  by  an  amusing  official  report  of  the  under-sheriff,  Gov. 
Lucas  called  an  extra  session  of  the  Ohio  Legislature,  which  passed 
an  act  "  to  prevent  the  forcible  abduction  of  the  citizens  of  Ohio!" 
It  also  adopted  measures  to  organize  the  county  of  "  Lucas,"  with 
Toledo  as  the  county-seat,  and  to  carry  into  effect  the  laws  of  the 
State  over  the  disputed  territory. 

In  the  meantime  the  Michigan  people  in  and  about  Toledo  busied 
themselves  in  arresting  Ohio  emissaries  who  undertook  to  force  the 
laws  of  their  State  upon  Michigan  Territory,  while  Ohio  partisans 
feebly  attempted  to  retaliate.  An  amusing  instance  is  related  of 
the  arrest  of  one  Major  Stickney.  He  and  his  whole  family  fought 
valiantly,  but  were  at  length  overcome  by  numbers.  The  Major 
had  to  be  tied  on  a  horse  before  he  would  ride  with  the  Michigan 
posse  to  jail.  An  attempt  was  then  made  to  arrest  a  son  of  the 
Major  called  "  Two  Stickney,"  when  a  serious  struggle  followed  and 
the  officer  was  stabbed  with  a  knife.  The  blood  flowed  pretty  freely, 
but  the  wound  did  not  prove  dangerous.  This  was  probably  the 
only  blood  shed  during  the  "  war."  The  officer  let  go  his  hold  and 
Stickney  fled  to  Ohio.  He  was  indicted  by  the  grand  jury  of  Mon- 
roe  county,  and  a  requisition  was  made  on  the  Governor  of  Ohio 


for  his  rendition,  but  the  Governor  refused  to  give  him  up.  An 
account  of  this  affair  reaching  the  ears  of  the  President,  he  recom- 
mended that  Gov.  Mason  interpose  no  obstacle  to  the  re-survey  of 
the  Harris  line;  but  the  Governor  refusing  to  abide  by  the  "  recom- 
mendation," the  President  superseded  him  by  the  appointment  of 
Charles  Shaler,  of  Pennsylvania,  as  his  successor.  He  also  advised 
Gov.  Lucas  to  refrain  from  exercising  any  jurisdiction  over  the  dis- 
puted territory  until  Congress  should  convene  and  act  upon  the 
matter.  This  was  humiliating  to  that  Governor,  and  he  resolved 
to  assert  the  dignity  of  his  State  in  Toledo  in  some  manner.  He 
hit  upon  the  plan  of  ordering  a  session  of  court  to  be  held  there, 
with  a  regiment  of  militia  for  the  protection  of  the  judges.  Accord- 
ingly the  judges  met  on  Sunday  afternoon,  Sept.  6,  at  Maumee,  a 
few  miles  from  Toledo.  Some  time  during  the  evening  a  scout 
sent  out  by  the  colonel  returned  from  Toledo  and  reported  that 
1,200  men,  under  command  of  Gen.  Brown,  were  in  Toledo  ready 
to  demolish  court,  soldiers  and  all;  but  this  report  turned  out  to  be 
false.  During  the  scare,  however,  the  judges  hesitated  to  proceed 
to  Toledo,  and  the  colonel  of  the  regiment  upbraided  them  for  their 
cowardice,  and  proposed  to  escort  them  with  his  militia  during  the 
dead  of  night  to  a  certain  school-house  in  Toledo,  where  they  might 
go  through  the  form  of  holding  court  a  few  minutes  in  safety. 
About  three  o'clock  Monday  morning  they  arrived  at  the  desig- 
nated place  and  "  held  court  "  about  two  minutes  and  then  fled  for 
dear  life  back  to  Maumee!  Thus  was  the  "honor  and  dignity  "  of 
the  great  State  of  Ohio  "  vindicated  over  all  her  enemies!" 


It  appears  that  Mr.  Shaler  did  not  accept  the  governorship  of 
Michigan,  and  John  S.  Horner,  of  Virginia,  was  soon  afterward 
appointed  secretary  and  Acting  Governor.  He  proved  to  be  rather 
unpopular  with  the  people  of  Michigan,  and  the  following  May  he 
was  appointed  secretary  of  Wisconsin  Territory.  He  carried  on  a 
lengthy  correspondence  with  Gov.  Lucas,  which  resulted  in  a  dis- 
continuance of  all  the  suits  that  had  grown  out  of  the  Toledo  war 
except  the  demand  for  Two  Stickney.  Gov.  Lucas  persisted  in  refus- 
ing to  deliver  him  up;  but  it  seems  that  flually  no  serious  trouble 
came  of  the  affair. 

The  first  Monday  in  October,  1835,  the  people  of  Michigan 
ratified  the  constitution  and  by  the  same  vote  elected  a  full  set  of 
State  officers.  Stevens  T.  Mason  was  elected  Governor,  Edward 
Mundy,  Lieutenant-Governor,  and  Isaac  E.  Crary,  Represenative  in 
Congress.  The  first  Legislature  under  the  constitution  was  held  at 
Detroit,  the  capital,  on  the  first  Monday  in  November,  and  John 
Norvell  and  Lucius  Lyon  were  elected  IT.  S.  Senators.  A  regular 
election  was  also  held  underthe  Territorial  law  for  delegate  to  Con- 
gress, and  Geo.  W.  Jones,  ot  Wisconsin,  received  the  certificate  of 
election,  although  it  is  said  that  Win.  Woodbridge  received  the  high- 


est  number  of  votes.  John  S.  Horner,  the  Territorial  Governor, 
was  still  in  office  here,  and  this  singular  mixture  of  Territorial  and 
State  government  continued  until  the  following  June,  when  Con- 
gress formally  admitted  Michigan  into  the  Union  as  a  State  and 
Horner  was  sent  to  Wisconsin,  as  before  noted.  This  act  of 
Congress  conditioned  that  the  celebrated  strip  of  territory  over 
which  the  quarrel  had  been  so  violent  and  protracted,  should  be  given 
to  Ohio,  and  that  Michigan  might  have  as  a  compensation  the 
upper  peninsula.  That  section  of  country  was  then  known  only  as 
a  barren  waste,  containing  some  copper,  no  one  knew  how  much. 
Of  course  this  decision  by  Congress  was  unsatisfactory  to  the  peo- 
ple of  this  State.  This  was  the  third  excision  of  territory  from 
Michigan,  other  clippings  having  been  made  in  1802  and  1816. 
In  the  former  year  more  than  a  thousand  square  miles  was  given  to 
Ohio,  and  in  the  latter  year  nearly  1,200  square  miles  was  given  to 
Indiana.  Accordingly,  Gov.  Mason  convened  the  Legislature  July 
11,  1836,  to  act  on  the  proposition  of  Congress.  The  vote  stood  21 
for  acceptance  and  28  for  rejection.  Three  delegates  were  appointed 
to  repair  to  Washington,  to  co-operate  with  the  representatives 
there  for  the  general  interest  of  the  State:  but  before  Congress  was 
brought  to  final  action  on  the  matter,  other  conventions  were  held 
in  the  State  to  hasten  a  decision.  An  informal  one  held  at  Ann 
Arbor  Dec.  14  unanimously  decided  to  accept  the  proposition  of 
Congress  and  let  the  disputed  strip  of  territory  go  to  Ohio,  and 
thereupon  Jan.  26,  1837,  Michigan  was  admitted" into  the  Union 
on  an  equal  footing  with  the  original  States. 


A  State!  This  word  contains  avast  amount  of  meaning.  Before  a 
community  becomes  a  State,  there  is  comparatively  a  dead  level  of 
homogeneity,  the  history  of  which  consists  simply  of  a  record  of 
independent  or  disconnected  events,  as  Indian  wars,  migration,  etc.; 
but  when  a  people  so  far  advance  in  civilization  that  thej7  must 
organize,  like  the  plant  and  animal  kingdoms,  they  must  assume 
"organs,"  having  functions;  and  the  more  civilized  and  dense  the 
population,  the  more  numerous  and  complicated  these  organs  must 
become, — to  use  the  language  of  modern  biology,  the  more  the 
organism  must  "differentiate." 

Correspondingly,  the  history  of  Michigan,  up  to  its  organization 
as  a  State,  like  that  of  all  our  Territories,  is  almost  a  disconnected 
series  of  events;  but  on  assuming  the  character  of  a  State,  its  organs 
and  functions  multiply,  becoming  all  the  while  more  and  more 
dependent  upon  one  another.  To  follow  up  the  history  of  the 
State,  therefore,  with  the  same  proportional  fullness  as  we  do  its 
Territorial  epoch,  would  swell  the  work  to  scores  or  hundreds  of 
volumes;  for  the  compiler  would  be  obliged  to  devote  at  first  a 
volume  to  one  feature,  say  the  educational,  and  then  soon  divide 
his  subject  into  the  various  departments  of  the  educational  work  of 



the  State,  devoting  a  volume  to  each,  and  then  subdivide,  taking 
each  local  institution  by  itself,  and  subdivide  still  farther,  and  so  on 
ad  infinitum,,  devoting  a  volume  to  each  movement  in  the  career 
of  every  institution. 

As  it  is  therefore  impracticable  to  preserve  the  proportion  of 
history  to  the  end,  the  writer  is  obliged  to  generalize  more  and 
more  as  he  approaches  the  termination  of  any  selected  epoch  in  the 
progress  of  a  growing  organism.  Accordingly,  from  this  point 
onward  in  the  history  of  Michigan,  we  will  treat  the  subject  mat- 
ter mainly  by  topics,  commencing  with  an  outline  of  the  several 
gubernatorial  administrations. 


Stevens  T.  Mason  was  the  first  Governor  of  this  State,  having 
been  elected  (Governor  of  the  State  prospectively)  in  1835,  as  before 
noted,  and  he  held  the  office  until  January,  1840.  This  State,  at 
the  time  of  its  admission  into  the  Union,  had  a  population  of  about 
200,000;  its  area  was  about  40,000  square  miles,  which  was  di- 
vided into  36  counties. 

Nearly  the  first  act  passed  by  the  Legislature  was  one  for  the 
organization  and  support  of  common  schools.  Congress  had  already 
set  apart  one  section  of  land  in  every  township  for  this  purpose, 
and  the  new  State  properly  appreciated  the  boon.  In  March  of 
the  same  year  (1837)  another  act  was  passed  establishing  the 
University  of  Michigan,  of  which  institution  we  speak  more  fully  on 
subsequent  pages.  This  Legislature  also  appropriated  $20,000  for 
a  geological  survey,  and  appointed  Dr.  Douglass  Houghton  State 
geologist.  For  the  encouragement  of  internal  improvements,  a 
board  of  seven  commissioners  was  appointed,  of  which  the  Gov- 
ernor was  made  president.  This  board  authorized  several  surveys 
for  railroads.  Three  routes  were  surveyed  through  the  State,  which 
eventually  became,  respectively,  the  Michigan  Central,  the  Mich- 
igan Southern,  and  the  Detroit  &  Milwaukee.  The  latter  road, 
however,  was  originally  intended  to  have  Port  Huron  for  its  east- 
ern terminus.  The  next  year  appropriations  were  made  for  the 
survey  of  the  St.  Joseph,  Kalamazoo  and  Grand  rivers,  for  the 
purpose  of  improving  the  navigation. 

In  1839  the  militia  of  the  State  was  organized,  and  eight  divisions, 
with  two  brigades  of  two  regiments  each,  were  provided  for.  This 
year,  also,  the  State  prison  at  Jackson  was  completed.  Nearly 
30,000  pupils  attended  the  common  schools  this  year,  and  for  school 
purposes  over  $18,  000  was  appropriated.  Agriculturally,  the  State 
yielded  that  year  21,944  bushels  of  rye,  1,116,910  of  oats.  6,422  of 
buckwheat,  43,826  pounds  of  flax,  524  of  hemp,  89,610  head  of  cat- 
tle,14,059  head  of  horses,  22,684  head  of  sheep  and  109,096  of  swine. 

Gov.  William  Woodbridge  was  the  chief  executive  from  January, 
1840,  to  February,  1841,  when  he  resigned  to  accept  a  seat   in  the 


U.  S.  Senate.  J.  "Wright  Gordon  was  Lieut-Governor,  and  became 
Acting  Governor  on  the  resignation  ofGov.Woodbridge. 

During  the  administration  of  these  men,  therailroad  from  Detroit 
to  Ann  Arbor,  a  distance  of  40  miles,  was  completed;  branches  of 
the  University  were  established  at  Detroit,  Pontiac,  Monroe,  Niles, 
Kalamazoo,  Grand  Rapids,  Jackson,  White  Pigeon  and  Tecumseh. 
The  material  growth  of  the  State  continued  to  increase,  propor- 
tionally more  rapidly  than  even  the  population,  which  now  amounted 
to  about  212,000. 

John  S.  Barry  succeeded  Gov.  Gordon  in  the  executive  chair, 
serving  from  1841  to  1S45.  Iu  1842  the  university  was  opened 
for  the  reception  of  students,  and  the  number  of  pupils  attending 
the  common  schools  was  officially  reported  to  be  nearly  58,000.  In 
1S43  a  land  office  was  established  at  Marshall,  for  the  whole  State. 
In  1844  the  taxable  property  of  the  State  was  found  to  be  in  value 
$28,554,282,  the  tax  being  at  the  rate  of  two  mills  on  the  dollar. 
The  expenses  of  the  State  were  only  $70,000,  while  the  income 
from  the  two  railroads  was  nearly  $300,000.  In  1845  the  number 
of  inhabitants  in  the  State  had  increased  to  more  than  300,000. 

Alpheus  Felch  served  as  Governor  from  1845  to  1847.  During 
his  time  the  two  railroads  belonging  to  the  State  were  sold  to  pri- 
vate corporations, — the  Central  for  $2,000,000,  and  the  Southern 
for  $500,000.  The  exports  of  the  State  amounted  in  1846  to  $4,647,- 
608.  The  total  capacity  of  vessels  enrolled  in  the  collection  dis- 
trict at  Detroit  wa3  26.928  tons,  the  steam  vessels  having  8,400  and 
the  sailing  vessels  18,528  tons,  the  whole  giving  employment  to 
18,000  seamen.  In  1847  there  were  39  counties  in  the  State,  con- 
taining 435  townships;  and  275  of  these  townships  were  supplied 
with  good  libraries,  containing  in  the  aggregate  37,000  volumes. 

In  the  spring  of  1846,  on  the  account  of  northern  and  eastern 
immigration  into  Texas,  with  tastes  and  habits  different  from  the 
native  Mexicans,  a  war  was  precipitated  between  the  United  States 
and  Mexico;  and  for  the  prosecution  of  this  war  Michigan  fur- 
nished a  regiment  of  volunteers,  commanded  by  Thomas  W.  Stock- 
ton, and  one  independent  company,  incurring  a  total  expense  of 
about  $10,500.  March  3,  1847,  Gov.  Felch  resigned  to  accept  a 
seat  in  the  U.  S.  Senate,  when  the  duties  of  his  office  devolved  upon 
"Win.  L.  Greenly,  under  whose  administration  the  Mexican  war 
was  closed. 

There  are  few  records  extant  of  the  action  of  Michigan  troops  in 
the  Mexican  war.  That  many  went  there  and  fought  well  are 
points  conceded;  but  their  names  and  country  of  nativity  are  hid- 
den away  in  U.  S.  archives  where  it  is  almost  impossible  to  find 

The  soldiers  of  this  State  deserve  much  of  the  credit  of  the 
memorable  achievements  of  Co.  K,  3d  Dragoons,  and  Cos.  A,  E, 
and  G  of  the  U.  S.  Inf.      The  two  former  of  these  companies,  re- 


cruited  in  this  State,  were  reduced  to  one-third  their  original  num- 

In  May,  1846,  our  Governor  was  notified  by  the  War  Department 
of  the  United  States  to  enroll  a  regiment  of  volunteers,  to  be  held 
in  readiness  for  service  whenever  demanded.  At  his  summons  13 
independent  volunteer  companies,  11  of  infantry  and  two  of  cav- 
alry, at  once  fell  into  line.  Of  the  infantry  four  companies  were 
from  Detroit,  bearing  the  honored  names  of  Montgomery,  Lafay- 
ette, Scott  and  Brady  upon  their  banners.  Of  the  remainder 
Monroe  tendered  two,  Lenawee  county  three,  St.  Clair,  Berrien  and 
Hillsdale  each  one,  and  Wayne  county  an  additional  company. 
Of  these  alone  the  veteran  Bradys  were  accepted  and  ordered 
into  service.  In  addition  to  thein  10  companies,  making  the  First 
Eegiment  of  Michigan  Volunteers,  springing  from  various  parts  of 
the  State,  but  embodying  to  a  great  degree  the  material  of  which 
the  first  volunteers  was  formed,  were  not  called  for  until  October 
following.  This  regiment  was  soon  in  readiness  and  proceeded  to 
the  seat  of  war. 

Epaphroditus  Ransom  was  Governor  from  1S47  to  November, 
1849.  During  his  administration  the  Asylum  for  the  Insane  was 
established  at  Kalamazoo,  and  also  the  Institute  for  the  Blind,  and 
the  Deaf  and  Dumb,  at  Flint.  Both  these  institutions  were  liber- 
ally endowed  with  lands,  and  each  entrusted  to  a  board  of  five 
trustees.  March  31,  1848,  the  first  telegraph  line  was  completed 
from  New  York  to  Detroit. 

John  S.  Barry,  elected  Governor  of  Michigan  for  the  third  time, 
succeeded  Gov.  Ransom,  and  his  term  expired  in  November,  1851. 
While  he  was  serving  this  term  a  Normal  school  was  established  at 
Ypsilanti,  which  was  endowed  with  lands,  placed  in  charge  of  a 
Board  of  Education,  consisting  of  six  persons;  a  new  State  con- 
stitution was  adopted,  and  the  great  "  railroad  conspiracy  "  case 
was  tried.  This  originated  in  a  number  of  lawless  depredations 
upon  the  property  of  the  Michigan  Central  Railroad  Company,  ter- 
minating with  the  burning  of  their  depot  at  Detroit  in  1S50.  The 
next  year  37  men  were  brought  to  trial,  and  12  of  them  were  con- 
victed. The  prosecution  was  conducted  by  Alex.  D.  Fraser,  of 
Detroit,  and  the  conspirators  were  defended  by  Win.  H.  Seward,  of 
New  York.     Judge  Warner  Wins;  presided. 

Robert  McClelland  followed  Barry  as  Governor,  serving  until 
March,  1853,  when  he  resigned  to  accept  the  position  of  Secretary 
of  the  Interior,  in  the  cabinet  of  President  Pierce.  Lieut.-Gov. 
Andrew  Parsons  consequently  became  Acting  Governor,  his  term 
expiring  in  November,  1854. 

In  the  soring  of  1854,  during  the  administration  of  Acting  Gov. 
Parsons,  the  "  Republican  party,"  at  least  as  a  State  organization, 
was  first  formed  in  the  United  States  "  under  the  oaks  "  at  Jackson, 
by  an ti -slavery  men  of  both  the  old  parties.  Great  excitement 
prevailed  at  this  time,  occasioned  by  the  settling  of  Kansas  and 
the  issue  thereby  brought  up   whether  slavery  should  exist  there. 


For  the  purpose  of  permitting  slavery  there,  the  "Missouri  com- 
promise" (which  limited  slavery  to  the  south  of  36°  30')  was  re- 
pealed, under  the  lead  of  Stephen  A.  Douglas.  This  was  repealed 
by  a  bill  admitting  Kansas  and  Nebraska  into  the  Union  as  Terri- 
tories, and  those  who  were  opposed  to  this  repeal  measure  were 
in  short  called  "anti-Nebraska  "  men.  The  epithets  "  Nebraska" 
and  "anti-Nebraska"  were  temporarily  employed  to  designate  the 
slavery  and  anti-slavery  parties,  pending  the  dissolution  of  the  old 
Democratic  and  Whig  parties  and  the  organization  of  the  new 
Democratic  and  Republican  parties.  At  the  next  State  election 
Kinsley  S.  Bingham  was  elected  by  the  Republicans  Governor  of 
Michigan,  and  this  State  has  ever  since  then  been  under  Republi- 
can control,  the  State  officers  of  that  party  being  elected  by  major- 
ities ranging  from  5,000  to  55,000.  And  the  people  of  this  State 
generally,  and  the  Republicans  in  particular,  claim  that  this  com- 
monwealth has  been  as  well  taken  care  of  since  1S55  as  any  State 
in  the  union,  if  not  better,  while  preceding  1S55  the  Democrats 
administered  the  government  as  well  as  any  other  State,  if  not 

As  a  single  though  signal  proof  of  the  high  standard  of  Michi- 
gan among  her  sister  States,  we  may  mention  that  while  the  taxes 
in  the  New  England  States,  New  York,  New  Jersey  and  Pennsyl- 
vania average  $10.09  per  capita,  while  in  Massachusetts  the  average 
is  $17.10  per  inhabitant,  and  while  in  the  West  the  average  is 
§6.50,  in  Michigan  it  is  only  $4.57.  At  the  same  time  it  is  gen- 
erally believed  even  by  the  citizens  of  sister  States,  that  Michigan 
is  the  best  governed  commonwealth  in  the  Union. 

Kinsley  S.  Bingham  was  Governor  from  1854  to  1858.  The 
most  notable  event  during  his  administration  was  the  completion  of 
the  ship  canal  at  the  falls' of  St.  Mary,  May  26,  1855.  An  act  of 
Congress  was  approved,  granting  to  the  State  of  Michigan  750,000 
acres  of  land  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  this  canal.  The 
"  sault,"  or  rapids,  of  the  St.  Mary,  have  a  fall  of  17  feet  in  one 
mile.  The  canal  is  one  mile  long,  100  feet  wide  and  about  12  feet 
deep.  It  has  two  locks  of  solid  masonry.  The  work  was  commenced 
in  1853  and  finished  in  May,  1855,  at  a  cost  of  $999,802.  This  is 
one  of  the  most  important  internal  improvements  ever  made  in  the 

Moses  Wisner  was  the  next  Governor  of  Michigan,  serving  from 
1858  to  November,  1S60,  at  which  time  Abraham  Lincoln  was 
elected  President  of  the  United  States.  National  themes  began  to 
grow  exciting,  and  Michigan  affairs  were  almost  lost  in  the  warring 
elements  of  strife  that  convulsed  the  nation  from  center  to  circum- 
ference with  a  life-and-death  struggle. 

Austin  Blair  was  the  13th  Governor  of  Michigan,  serving  during 
the  perilous  times  of  rebellion  from  1861  to  1865,  and  by  his  patri- 
otic and  faithful  execution  of  law  and  prompt  aid  of  the  general 
Government,  earning  the  well  deserved    titte  of  "  the  War  Gov- 


ernor."     The  particulars  of  the  history  of  this  State  in  connection 
with  that  war  we  will  reserve  for  the  next  section. 

Henry  H.  Crapo  succeeded  Gov.  Blair,  serving  one  term.  He 
was  elected  during  the  dark  hours  just  before  the  close  of  the  war, 
when  he  found  the  political  sky  overcast  with  the  most  ominous 
clouds  of  death  and  debt.  The  bonded  debt  of  the  State  was  $3,- 
541,149.80,  witli  a  balance  in  the  treasury  of  $440,047.29.  In  the 
single  year  just  closed  the  State  had  expended  $823,216.75,  and  by 
the  close  of  the  first  year  of  his  term  this  indebtedness  had  increased 
more  than  $400,000  more.  But  the  wise  administration  of  this 
Governor  began  materially  to  reduce  the  debt  and  at  the  same  time 
till  the  treasury.  The  great  war  closed  during  the  April  after  his 
election,  and  he  faithfully  carried  out  the  line  of  policy  inaugurated 
by  his  predecessor.  The  other  prominent  events  during  his  time 
of  office  are  systematically  interwoven  with  the  history  of  the  vari- 
ous institutions  of  the  State,  and  they  will  be  found  under  heads  in 
their  rt6pective  places. 

Henry  P.  Baldwin  was  Governor  two  terms,  namely,  from  January, 
1868,  to  the  close  of  1872.  The  period  of  his  administration  was  a 
prosperous  one  for  the  State.  In  1869  the  taxable  valuation  of  real 
and  personal  property  in  the  State  amounted  to  $400,000,000,  and 
in  1871  it  exceeded  $630,000,000. 

During  Gov.  Baldwin's  time  a  step  was  taken  to  alter  the  State 
constitution  so  as  to  enable  counties,  townships,  cities  and  incorpo- 
rated villages,  in  their  corporate  capacity,  to  aid  in  the  construction 
of  railroads.  Bonds  had  been  issued  all  over  the  State  by  these  mu- 
nicipalities in  aid  of  railroads,  under  laws  which  had  been  enacted 
by  the  Legislature  at  five  different  sessions,  but  a  case  coming  before 
the  Supreme  Court  involving  the  constitutionality  of  these  laws, 
the  Ben:h  decided  that  the  laws  were  unconstitutional,  and  thus  the 
railroads  were  left  to  the  mercy  of  "soul-less"  corporations.  Gov. 
Baldwin,  in  this  emergency,  called  an  extra  session  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, which  submitted  the  desired  constitutional  amendment  to  the 
people;  but  it  was  by  them  defeated  in  November,  1870. 

The  ninth  census  having  been  officially  published,  it  became  the 
duty  of  the  States  in  1872  to  make  a  re-apportionment  of  districts 
for  the  purpose  of  representation  in  Congress.  Since  1863  Michi- 
gan had  had  six  representatives,  but  the  census  of  1870  entitled  it 
to  nine. 

During  the  last  two  years  of  Gov.  Baldwin's  administration  the 
preliminary  measures  for  building  a  new  State  capitol  engrossed 
much  of  his  attention.  His  wise  counsels  concerning  this  much- 
needed  new  building  were  generally  adopted  by  the  Legislature, 
which  was  convened  in  extra  session  in  March,  1872. 

Ample  provision  having  been  made  for  the  payment  of  the  funded 
debt  of  the  State  by  setting  apart  some  of  tha  trust-fund  receipts, 
and  such  portion  of  the  specific  taxes  as  were  not  required  for  the 
payment  of  interest  on  She  public  debt,  the  one-eighth  mill  tax  for 
the  sinking  fund  was  abolished  in  1870. 


The  fall  of  1S71  is  noted  for  the  many  destructive  conflagrations 
in  the  Northwest,  including  the  great  Chicago  fire.  Several  villages 
in  this  State  were  either  wholly  or  partially  consumed,  and  much 
property  was  burned  up  nearly  all  over  the  country.  This  was  due 
to  the  excessive  dryness  of  the  season.  In  this  State  alone  nearly 
3,000  families,  or  about  18,000  persons,  were  rendered  houseless 
and  deprived  of  the  necessaries  of  life.  Eelief  committees  were 
organized  at  Detroit,  Grand  Rapids  and  elsewhere,  and  in  a  short 
time  $462,106  in  money  and  about  8250,000  worth  of  clothing  were 
forwarded  to  the  sufferers.  Indeed,  so  generous  were  the  people 
that  the}'  would  have  given  more  than  was  necessary  had  they  not 
been  informed  by  the  Governor  in  a  proclamation  that  a  sufficiency 
had  been  raised. 

The  dedication  of  the  soldiers'  and  sailors' monument  at  Detroit, 
April  9,  1872,  was  a  notable  event  in  Gov.  Baldwin's  time.  This 
grand  structure  was  designed  by  Randolph  Rogers,  formerly  of  Michi- 
gan, and  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  American  sculptors  now  living. 
The  money  to  defray  the  expenses  of  this  undertaking  was  raised  by 
subscription,  and  persons  in  all  parts  of  the  State  were  most  liberal 
in  their  contributions.  The  business  was  managed  by  an  associa- 
tion incorporated  in  186S.  The  monument  is  46  feet  high,  and  is 
surmounted  by  a  colossal  statue  of  Michigan  in  bronze,  10  feet  in 
height.  She  is  represented  as  a  semi-civilized  Indian  queen,  with 
a  sword  in  her  right  hand  and  a  shield  in  her  left.  The  dedicatory 
lines  in  front  are:  "Erected  by  the  people  of  Michigan,  in  honor 
of  the  martyrs  who  fell  and  the  heroes  who  fought  in  defense  of 
liberty  and  union."  On  the  monument  are  many  beautiful  designs. 
At  the  unveiling  there  was  a  large  concourse  of  people  from  all 
parts  of  the  State,  and  the  address  was  delivered  by  ex-Governor 

John  J.  Bagley  succeeded  to  the  governorship  Jan.  1,  1873,  and 
served  two  terms.  During  his  administration  the  new  capital  was 
principally  built,  which  is  a  larger  and  better  structure  for  the 
money  than  perhaps  any  other  public  building  in  the  United  States. 
Under  Gov.  Bagley's  counsel  and  administration  the  State  pros- 
pered in  all  its  departments.  The  Legislature  of  1873  made  it  the 
duty  of  the  Governor  to  appoint  a  commission  to  revise  the  State 
constitution,  which  duty  he  performed  to  the  satisfaction  of  all 
parties,  and  the  commission  made  thorough  work  in  revising  the 
fundamental  laws  of  this  commonwealth. 

Charles  M.  Croswell  was  next  the  chief  executive  of  this  State, 
exercising  the  functions  of  the  office  for  two  successive  terms, 
1S77-'81.  During  his  administration  the  public  debt  was  greatly 
reduced,  a  policy  adopted  requiring  State  institutions  to  keep 
within  the  limit  of  appropriations,  laws  enacted  to  provide  more 
effectually  for  the  punishment  of  corruption  and  bribery  in  elec- 
tions, the  State  House  of  Correction  at  Ionia  and  the  Eastern 
Asylum  for  the  Insane  at  Pontiac  were  opened,  and  the  now  capi- 
tol  at  Lansing  was  completed  and  occupied.     The  first  act  of  his 


second  term  was  to  preside  at  the  dedication  of  this  building.  The 
great  riot  of  1877  centered  at  Jackson.  During  those  two  or 
three  fearful  days  Gov.  Croswell  was  in  his  office  at  Lansing,  in 
correspondence  with  members  of  the  military  department  in  differ- 
ent parts  of  the  State,  and  within  48  hours  from  the  moment  when 
the  danger  became  imminent  the  rioters  found  themselves  sur- 
rounded by  a  military  force  ready  with  ball  and  cartridge  for  their 
annihilation.  Were  it  not  for  this  promptness  of  the  Governor 
there  would  probably  have  been  a  great  destruction  of  property,  if 
not  also  of  life. 

At  this  date  (February,  1881),  Hon.  David  II.  Jerome  has  just 
assumed  the  duties  of  the  executive  chair,  while  all  the  machinery 
of  the  Government  is  in  good  running  order  and  the  people  gener- 
ally are  prosperous. 


As  soon  as  the  President  called  for  troops  to  suppress  the  Rebel- 
lion  in  April,  1861,  the  loyal  people  of  the  Peninsular  State 
promptly  responded  and  furnished  the  quota  assigned.  Austin 
Blair,  a  man  peculiarly  fitted  for  the  place  during  the  emergency, 
was  Governor,  aud  John  Robertson,  Adjutant  General.  The  people 
of  Michigan  have  ever  since  been  proud  of  the  record  of  these  two 
men  during  the  war,  but  thfs  does  not  exclude  the  honor  due  all  the 
humble  soldiery  who  obediently  exposed  their  lives  in  defense  of 
the  common  country.  Michigan  has  her  full  share  of  the  buried 
dead  in  obscure  and  forgotten  places  all  over  the  South  as  well  as 
in  decent  cemeteries  throughout  the  North.  It  was  Michigan  men 
that  captured  Jeff.  Davis,  namely:  the  4th  Cavalry,  under  Col.  13. 
F.  Pritchard;  and  it  was  Michigan  men  that  materially  aided  in  the 
successful  capture  of  Wilkes  Booth,  the  assassin  of  the  martyred 

The  census  of  this  State  for  1860  showed  a  population  of  751,- 
110.  The  number  of  able-bodied  men  capable  of  military  service 
was  estimated  in  official  documents  of  that  date  at  110,000.  At  the 
same  time  the  financial  embarrassment  of  the  State  was  somewhat 
serious,  and  the  annual  tax  of  §226,250  was  deemed  a  grievous  bur- 
den. But  such  was  the  patriotism  of  the  people  that  by  Dec.  23, 
1862,  an  aggregate  of  45,569  had  gone  to  battle,  besides  1,400  who 
had  gone  into  other  States  and  recruited.  By  the  end  of  the  war 
Michigan  had  sent  to  the  front  90,747,  or  more  than  four-fifths  the 
estimated  number  of  able-bodied  men  at  the  beginning! 


Michigan  has  as  good  a  public-school  system  as  can  be  found 
anywhere  in  the  Union.  Ever  since  1785  the  acts  of  Congress,  as 
well  as  the  acts  of  this  State  since  its  organization,  have  encouraged 
popular  education   by  land  grants  and    liberal    appropriations    of 


money.  The  16th.  section  of  each  township  was  early  placed  in  the 
custody  of  the  State  for  common-school  purposes,  and  all  the  pro- 
ceeds of  the  sale  of  school  lands  go  into  the  perpetual  fund.  In 
184:3  the  superintendent  of  public  instruction  reported  a  dis- 
crepancy of  over  $22,000  in  the  funds,  owing  to  imperfect  records, 
probably,  rather  than  dishonesty  of  officials.  Sept.  30,  1878,  the 
primary-school  fund  amounted  to  §2,890,090.73,  and  the  swamp- 
land school  fund  to  $30 1.237.20. 

The  qualification  of  teachers  and  the  supervision  of  schools  were 
for  many  years  in  the  hands  of  a  board  of  three  inspectors,  then 
the  county  superintendency  system  was  adopted  for  many  years, 
and  since  1875  the  township  system  has  been  in  vogue.  The 
township  Board  of  School  Inspectors  now  consists  of  the  township 
clerk,  one  elected  inspector  and  a  township  superintendent  of 
schools.  The  latter  officer  licenses  the  teachers  and  visits  the 

In  1877  the  school  children  (5  to  20  years  of  age)  numbered 
469,504;  the  average  number  of  months  of  school,  7.4;  number  of 
graded  schools,  295;  number  of  school-houses,  6,078,  valued  at 
$9,190,175;  amount  of  two-mill  tax,  $492,646.94;  district  taxes, 
$2,217,961;  total  resources  for  the  year,  $3,792,129.59;  total 
expenditures,  $3,179,976.06. 


By  an  act  of  Congress  in  1804,  a  township  of  land  was  to  be 
reserved  in  the  territory  now  constituting  the  lower  peninsula  "  for 
the  use  of  seminaries  of  learning;"  but  the  mostof  this  reservation 
in  1841  went  to  a  Catholic  institution  at  Detroit.  In  1824,  through 
the  exertions  of  Austin  E.  Wing,  delegate  to  Congress,  Gov.  Wood- 
bridge  and  others,  a  second  township  was  granted,  witii  permission 
to  select  the  sections  in  detached  localities,  and  about  this  time 
Judge  Woodward  devised  that  novel  and  extensive  scheme  for 
the  "catholepistemiad."  elsewhere  referred  to  in  this  volume.  In 
1837  the  Legislature  established  the  University  at  Ann  Arbor,  and 
appropriated  the  72  sections  to  its  benefit;  916  acres  of  this  land 
were  located  in  what  is  now  the  richest  part  of  Toledo,  O.,  from 
which  the  University  finally  realized  less  than  $18,000! 

But  the  State  in  subsequent  years  made  many  liberal  appropria- 
tions to  this  favorite  institution,  until  it  has  become  the  greatest  seat 
of  learning  west  of  New  England,  if  not  in  all  America.  It  is  a 
part  of  the  public-school  system  of  the  State,  as  tuition  is  free,  and 
pupils  graduating  at  the  high  schools  are  permitted  to  enter  the 
freshman  class  of  the  collegiate  department.  It  now  has  an  average 
attendance  of  1,200  to  1,400  students,  450  of  whom  are  in  the  college 
proper.  In  1879  there  were  406  in  the  law  department,  329  in  the 
medical,  71  in  pharmacy,  62  in  dental  surgery  and  63  in  the  homeo- 
pathic department.  There  are  over  50  professors  and  teachers. 
The  University  is  under  the  control  of  eight  regents,  elected  by  the 

people,  two  every  second  year.  Kev.  Henry  B.  Tappan,  D.  D., 
was  president  from  1852  to  1863,  then  Erastus  O.  Haven,  D.  D., 
LL.  D.,  to  1S69,  then  Prof.  H.  S.  Frieze  (acting)  until  1871,  since 
which  time  the  reins  have  been  held  by  Hon.  James  B.  Angell, 
LL.  D. 

The  value  of  the  buildings  and  grounds  was  estimated  in  1879 
at  $319,000,  and  the  personal  property  at  $250,000. 


John  D.  Pierce,  the  first  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  in 
his  first  report  to  the  Legislature,  urged  the  importance  of  a  normal 
school.  In  this  enterprise  he  was  followed  by  his  successors  in  office 
until  1849,  when  Ira  Mayhew  was  State  Superintendent,  and  the 
Legislature  appropriated  72  sections  of  land  for  the  purpose;  and 
among  the  points  competing  for  the  location  of  the  school,  Ypsi- 
lanti  won,  and  in  that  place  the  institution  was  permanently  located. 
The  building  was  completed  and  dedicated  with  appropriate  cere- 
monies Oct.  5,  ]  852 ;  next  year  the  Legislature  appropriated  $7,000 
in  money,  for  expenses.  Prof.  A.  S.  Welch,  now  President  of  Iowa 
Agricultural  College,  was  elected  the  first  principal.  In  October, 
1859,  the  building  with  contents  was  burned,  and  a  new  building 
was  immediately  erected.  In  1878  the  main  building  was  enlarged 
at  an  expense  of  $43,347.  This  enlargement  was  88x90  feet,  and 
has  a  hall  capable  of  seating  1,200  persons.  The  value  of  buildings 
and  other  property  at  the  present  time  is  estimated  at  $111,100. 
Number  of  students,  016,  including  144  in  the  primary  depart- 

Each  member  of  the  Legislature  is  authorized  by  the  Board  of 
Education  to  appoint  two  students  from  his  district  who  may  attend 
one  year  free  of  tuition ;  other  students  pay  $10  per  annum.  Grad- 
uates of  this  school  are  entitled  to  teach  in  this  State  without  re-ex- 
amination by  any  school  officer. 


The  Michigan  Agricultural  College  owes  its  establishment  to  a 
provision  of  the  State  constitution  of  1850.  Article  13  says,  '-The 
Legislature  shall,  as  soon  as  practicable,  provide  for  the  establish- 
ment of  an  agricultural  school."  For  the  purpose  of  carrying  into 
practice  this  provision,  legislation  was  commenced  in  1855,  and  the 
act  required  that  the  school  should  be  within  10  miles  of  Lansing, 
and  that  not  more  than  $15  an  acre  should  be  paid  for  the  farm  and 
college  grounds.  The  college  was  opened  to  students  in  May,  1S57, 
the  first  of  existing  agricultural  colleges  in  the  United  States. 
Until  the  spring  of  1861  it  was  under  the  control  of  the  State  Board 
of  Education;  since  that  time  it  has  been  under  the  management 
of  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture,  created  for  the  purpose. 



In  its  essential  features  of  combining  study  and  labor,  and  of 
uniting  general  and  professional  studies  in  its  course,  tbe  college 
has  remained  virtually  unchanged  from  the  first.  It  has  had  a 
steady  growth  in  number  of  students,  in  means  of  illustration  and 
efficiency  of  instruction. 

An  act  of  Congress,  approved  July  2,  1S62,  donated  to  each  State 
public  lands  to  the  amount  of  30,000  acres  for  each  of  its  Senators 
and  Representatives  in  Congress,  according  to  the  census  of  1860, 
for  the  endowment,  support  and  maintenance  of  at  least  one  college 
where  the  leading  object  should  be,  without  excluding  other  scien- 
tific and  classical  studies,  and  including  military  tactics,  to  teach 
such  branches  of  learning  as  are  related  to  agriculture  and  the 
mechanic  arts.  The  Legislature  accepted  this  grant  and  bestowed 
it  upon  the  Agricultural  College.  By  its  provisions  the  college  has 
received  235,673.37  acres  of  land.  These  lands  have  been  placed  in 
market,  and  about  74,000  acres  sold,  yielding  a  fund  of  $237,174, 
the  interest  of  which  at  seven  per  cent,  is  applied  to  the  support  of 
the  college.  The  sale  is  under  the  direction  of  the  Agricultural 
Land  Grant  Board,  consisting  of  the  Governor,  Auditor  General, 
Secretary  of  State,  State  Treasurer,  Attorney  General  and  Commis- 
sioner of  the  State  Land  Office. 

The  Agricultural  College  is  three  miles  east  of  Lansing,  com- 
prising several  fine  buildings;  and  there  are  also  very  beautiful, 
substantial  residences  for  the  professors.  There  are  also  an  exten- 
sive, well-filled  green-house,  a  very  large  and  well-equipped  chemi- 
cal laboratory,  one  of  the  most  scientific  apiaries  in  the  United 
States,  a  general  museum,  a  museum  of  mechanical  inventions, 
another  of  vegetable  products,  extensive  barns,  piggeries,  etc.,  etc., 
in  fine  trim  for  the  purposes  designed.  The  farm  consists  of  676 
acres,  of  which  about  300  are  under  cultivation  in  a  systematic 
rotation  of  crops. 


At  Albion  is  a  flourishing  college  under  the  control  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  The  grounds  comprise  about  15 
acres.  There  are  three  college  buildings,  each  three-stories  high, 
having  severally  the  dimensions  of  46  by  80,  40  by  100,  and  47  by 
80  feet.  The  attendance  in  1878  was  205.  Tuition  in  the  prepara- 
tory and  collegiate  studies  is  free.  The  faculty  comprises  nine 
members.     The  value  of  property  about  $S5.000. 

Adrian  College  was  established  by  the  "Wesleyan  Methodists  in 
1859,  now  under  the  control  of  the  "  Methodist  Church."  The 
grounds  contain  about  20  acres.  There  are  four  buildings,  capable 
of  accommodating  about  225  students.  Attendance  in  1S75  was 
179;  total  number  of  graduates  for  previous  years,  121;  10  profes- 
sors and  teachers  are  employed.  Exclusive  of  the  endowment  fund 
(§80,000),  the  assets  of  the  institution,  including  grounds,  build- 
ings, furniture,  apparatus,  musical  instruments,  outlying  lands, 
etc.,  amount  to  more  than  $137,000. 


Hope  College,  at  Holland,  is  under  the  patronage  of  the  Dutch 
Reformed  Church.  It  was  begun  in  1851,and  in  connection  with  the 
ordinary  branches  of  learning,  it  has  a  theological  department.  In 
1877  it  had  10  professors  and  teachers  and  110  pupils.  Up  to  1S75 
there  had  graduated,  in  the  preparatory  department,  begun  in  1863, 
95;  in  the  academic,  beginning  in  1866,  53;  and  in  the  theological, 
beginning  in  1869,  24.  Value  of  real  estate,  $25,000;  of  other  prop- 
erty, above  incumbrance,  about  $10,000;  the  amount  of  endow- 
ment paid  in  is  about  $56,000. 

Kalamazoo  College,  headed  by  Baptists,  is  situated  on  a  five-acre 
lot  of  ground,  and  the  property  is  valued  at  $35,000;  investments, 
$88,000.  There  are  six  members  of  the  faculty,  and  in  1878  there 
■were  169  pupils. 

Hillsdale  College  was  established  in  1855  by  the  Free  Baptists. 
The  "  Michigan  Central  College,"  at  Spring  Arbor,  was  incorpo- 
rated in  1845.  It  was  kept  in  operation  until  it  was  merged  into 
the  present  Hillsdale  College.  The  site  comprises  25  acres,  beauti- 
fully situated  on  an  eminence  in  the  western  part  of  the  city  of 
Hillsdale.  The  large  and  imposing  building  first  erected  was 
nearly  destroyed  by  fire  in  1874,  and  in  its  place  five  buildings  of 
a  more  modern  style  have  been  erected.  They  are  of  brick, 
three  stories  with  basement,  arranged  on  three  sides  of  a  quad- 
rangle. Their  size  is,  respectively,  80  by  80,  48  by  72,  48  by  72, 
80  by  60,  52  by  72,  and  they  contain  one-half  more  room  than  the 
original  building.  Ex-Lieut. -Gov.  E.  B.  Fairfield  was  the  first 
president.  The  present  president  is  Rev.  D.  W.  C.  Durgin,  D.  D. 
Whole  number  of  graduates  up  to  1878,  375;  number  of  students 
in  all  departments,  506;  number  of  professors  and  instructors,  15; 
productive  endowment,  about  $100,000;  buildings  and  grounds, 
$80,000;  library,  6,200  volumes. 

Olivet  College,  in  Eaton  county,  is  a  lively  and  thorough  literary 
and  fine-art  institution,  under  the  joint  auspices  of  the  Presbyterian 
and  Congregational  denominations.  Value  of  buildings  and 
grounds,  about  $S5,000.  Fourteen  professors  and  teachers  are  em- 
ployed, and  the  attendance  in  1878  was  190,  the  sexes  in  about 
equal  proportion.  There  are  five  departments,  namely:  the  colle- 
giate, preparatory,  normal,  music  and  art. 

Battle  Creek  College,  conducted  by  the  Seventh-Day  Adventists, 
was  established  in  1874,  with  four  departments,  11  professors  and 
teachers,  and  an  attendance  of  2S9.  It  is  practically  connected 
with  a  large  health  institution,  where  meat  and  medicines  are 
eschewed.  In  1878  there  were  15  instructors  and  478  students. 
Special  attention  is  paid  to  hygiene  and  hygienic  medication. 

Grand  Traverse  College  was  opened  at  Benzonia  in  1S63,  as  the 
result  of  the  efforts  of  Rev.  Dr.  J.  B.  Walker,  a  prominent  divine 
of  the  Congregational  Church.  The  friends  of  this  institution 
have  met  with  serious  discouragements:  their  lands  have  not  risen 
in  value  as  anticipated  and  they  have  suffered  a  heavy  loss  from 
fire;  but  the  college  has  been  kept  open  to  the  present  time,  with 


an  average  of  70  pupils.  The  curriculum,  however,  has  so  far  been 
only  "preparatory."  The  land  is  valued  at  $25,000,  and  the  build- 
ings, etc.,  $6,000.  The  school  has  done  a  good  work  in  qualifying 
teachers  for  the  public  schools. 

Besides  the  foregoing  colleges,  there  are  the  German- American 
Seminary  in  Detroit,  a  Catholic  seminary  at  Monroe,  the  Michigan 
Female  Seminary  at  Kalamazoo,  the  Military  Academy  at  Orchard 
Lake,  near  Pontiac,  and  others. 


No  State  in  the  union  takes  better  care  of  her  poor  than  does 
Michigan.  For  a  number  of  years  past,  especially  under  the 
administrations  of  Govs.  Bagley  and  Croswell,  extraordinary  efforts 
have  been  made  to  improve  and  bring  to  perfection  the  appoint- 
ments for  the  poor  and  dependent. 

According  to  the  report  of  the  Board  of  State  Commissioners 
for  the  general  supervision  of  charitable,  penal,  pauper  and  reform- 
atory institutions  for  1876,  the  total  number  in  poor-houses  of  the 
State  was  5,282.  For  the  five  years  preceding,  the  annual  rate  of 
increase  was  four  times  greater  than  the  increase  of  population 
during  that  period;  but  that  was  an  exceptionally  "hard"  time. 
The  capacity  of  the  public  heart,  however,  was  equal  to  the  occa- 
sion, 'and  took  such  measures  as  were  effectual  and  almost  beyond 
criticism  for  the  care  of  the  indigent. 

At  the  head  of  the  charity  department  of  the  State  stands 


In  the  year  1870  a  commission  appointed  by  the  Governor  for 
that  purpose,  visited  many  of  the  poor-houses  in  the  State,  and 
found  a  large  number  of  children  in  them  under  16  years  of  age, 
indiscriminately  associated  with  idiots,  maniacs,  prostitutes  and 
vagrants.  Their  report  recommended  the  classification  of  paupers) 
and  especially,  that  children  in  the  county  houses,  under  16  years, 
should  be  placed  in  a  State  school.  The  act  establishing  the  school 
was  passed  in  1871,  in  conformity  with  the  recommendation.  As 
amended  in  1873, it  provides,  in  substance,  that  there  shall  be  received 
as  pupils  in  such  school  all  neglected  and  dependent  children  that 
are  over  four  and  under  16  years  of  age,  and  that  are  in  suitable 
condition  of  body  or  mind  to  receive  instruction,  especially  those 
maintained  in  the  county  poor-houses,  those  who  have  been  deserted 
by  their  parents,  or  are  orphans,  or  whose  parents  have  been  con- 
victed of  crime.  It  is  declared  to  be  the  object  of  the  act  to  pro- 
vide for  such  children  temporary  homes  only,  until  homes  can  be 
procured  for  them  in  families.  The  plans  comprehend  the  ulti- 
mate care  of  all  children  of  the  class  described,  and  it  is  made 
unlawful  to  retain  such  children  in  poor-houses  when  there  is  room 
for  them  in  the  State  Public  School.    Dependent  orphans  and  half 


orphans  of  deceased  soldiers  and  sailors  have  the  preference  of 
admission  should  there  be  more  applications  than  room.  Provi- 
sion is  made  for  perserving  a  record  of  the  parentage  and  history 
of  each  child. 

The  general  supervision  of  the  school  is  delegated  to  a  Board  of 
Control,  consisting  of  three  members,  who  are  appointed  by  the 
Governor,  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate.  The  Board 
appoints  the  superintendent,  officers  and  teachers  of  the  school. 
One  officer  is  appointed  to  look  up  homes  for  the  children,  to 
apprentice  them,  and  to  keep  a  general  oversight  of  them  by  visita- 
tion or  correspondence.  To  complete  the  work  of  this  institution, 
an  agent  is  appointed  in  each  county. 

The  internal  government  of  this  school  is  that  known  as  the 
"  family  "  and  "  congregate  "  combined,  the  families  consisting  of 
about  30  members  each,  and  being  under  the  care  of  "  cottage 
managers,"  ladies  whom  the  children  call  "  aunties,"  and  who  are 
supposed  to  care  for  the  children  as  mothers.  Each  child  of  suffi- 
cient years  is  expected  to  work  three  hours  every  day;  some  work 
ou  the  farm,  some  in  the  dining-room  and  kitchen,  while  others 
make  shoes,  braid  straw  hats,  make  their  own  clothing,  work  in  the 
bakery,  engine  room,  laundry,  etc.  They  are  required  to  attend 
school  three  to  five  hours  a  day,  according  to  their  ages,  and  the 
school  hours  are  divided  into  sessions  to  accommodate  the  work. 

The  buildings,  10  in  number,  comprise  a  main  building,  eight 
cottages  and  a  hospital,  all  of  brick.  The  buildings  are  steam 
heated,  lighted  with  gas  and  have  good  bathing  facilities.  There 
are  41  acres  of  land  in  connection  with  the  school,  and  the  total 
value  of  all  the  property  is  about  $150,000,  furnishing  accommoda- 
tions for  240  children. 


This  was  established  at  Lansing  in  1855,  in  the  northeastern  por- 
tion of  the  city,  as  the  "  House  of_  Correction  for  Juvenile  Offend- 
ers," having  about  it  many  of  the  features  of  a  prison.  In  1859 
the  name  was  changed  to  "  The  State  Reform  School."  The  gov- 
ernment and  discipline  have  undergone  many  and  radical  changes 
until  all  the  prison  features  have  been  removed  except  those  that 
remain  in  the  walls  of  the  original  structure,  and  which  remain 
only  as  monuments  of  instructive  history.  No  bolts,  bars  or  guards 
are  employed.  The  inmates  are  necessarily  kept  under  the  surveil- 
lance of  officers,  but  the  attempts  at  escape  are  much  fewer  than 
under  the  more  rigid  regime  of  former  days.  This  school  is  for  the 
detention,  education  and  reformation  of  boys  between  the  ages  of 
eight  and  16  years,  who  are  convicted  of  light  offenses. 

The  principal  building  is  four-stories  high,  including  basement, 
and  has  an  extreme  length  of  246  feet,  the  center  a  depth  of  48 
feet,  and  the  wings  a  depth  of  33  feet  each.  Besides,  there  are  two 
"  family  houses,"  where  the  more  tractable  and  less  vicious  boys 


form  a  kind  of  family,  as  distinguished  from  the  congregate  life  of 
the  institution  proper.  The  boys  are  required  to  work  a  half  a  day 
and  attend  school  a  half  a  day.  A  farm  of  328  acres  belonging  to 
the  school  furnishes  work  for  many  of  the  boys  during  the  working 
season.  Some  are  employed  in  making  clothing  and  shoes  for  the 
inmates.  The  only  shop-work  now  carried  on  is  the  cane-seating 
of  chairs;  formerly,  cigars  were  manufactured  here  somewhat  exten- 
sively. There  is  no  contract  labor,  but  all  the  work  is  done  by  the 
institution  itself. 

The  number  of  inmates  now  averages  about  200,  and  are  taken 
care  of  by  a  superintendent  and  assistant,  matron  and  assistant,  two 
overseers  and  six  teachers. 


This  is  located  at  Flint,  60  miles  nearly  northwest  of  Detroit. 
The  act  establishing  it  was  passed  in  184S,  and  the  school  was  first 
opened  in  1854,  in  a  leased  building,  it  is  a  school  in  common  for 
deaf  mutes  and  the  blind,  rather  from  motives  of  economy  than 
from  any  relation  which  the  two  classes  bear  to  one  another. 
The  buildings  were  commenced  in  1853.  The  principal  ones  now 
are:  front  building,  43  by  72  feet,  with  east  and  west  wings,  each 
28  by  60  feet;  center  building,  40  by  60,  and  east  and  west  wings, 
each  50  by  70  feet;  main  school  building,  52  by  54,  with  two 
wings,  each  25  by  60  teet.  All  of  these  buildings  are  four  stories 
high  ;  center  of  the  front  building  is  five  stories,  including  base- 
ment. There  are  also  a  boiler  and  engine  house,  barns,  etc.,  etc. 
The  total  value  of  the  buildings  is  estimated  at  $358,045,  and  of 
the  88  acres  of  land  occupied,  $17,570. 

The  number  of  inmates  has  increased  from  94  in  1865  to  225 
in  1875.  Including  the  principal,  there  are  10  teachers  employed 
in  the  deaf  and  dumb  department,  and  four  in  the  blind,  besides 
the  matron  and  her  assistants.  Tuition  and  board  are  free  to  all 
resident  subjects  of  the  State,  and  the  trustees  are  authorized  to 
assist  indigent  subjects  in  the  way  of  clothing,  etc.,  to  the  amount 
of  $40  a  year.  An  annual  census  of  all  deaf  mutes  and  blind  per- 
sons in  the  State  is  officially  taken  and  reported  to  the  overseers 
of  the  poor,  who  are  to  see  that  these  unfortunate  members  of  the 
human  family  are  properly  cared  for. 


This  institution  was  established  in  1S48,  and  now  consists  of  two 
departments,  one  for  males  and  the  other  for  females.  The  capacity 
of  the  former  is  2S0and  of  the  latter  300  patients.  In  their  general 
construction  both  buildings  are  arranged  in  accordance  with  the 
principles  laid  down  by  the  Association  of  Medical  Superintendents 
of  American  Institutions  i'or  the  Insane.  The  buildings  are  of 
brick,  with  stone   trimmings,  and  are   very  substantial,  as  well  as 


beautiful.  The  entire  cost  of  both  buildings,  with  all  the  auxiliary 
structures,  and  195  acres  of  land,  is  about  $727,173.90.  The 
buildings  were  constructed  during  the  war  and  immediately  after- 
ward. The  asylum  was  opened  in  1859  for  the  care  of  patients, 
and  up  to  Oct.  1,  1875,  there  had  been  expended  for  the  care  and 
maintenance  of  patients,  exclnsive  of  the  cost  of  construction, 
$994,711.32.  Indigent  patients  are  received  and  treated  at  the 
asylum  at  the  expense  of  the  counties  to  which  they  belong,  on  the 
certification  of  the  county  authorities,  the  average  cost  of  main- 
tenance being  about  $4.12^  per  week.  Pay  patients  are  received 
when  there  is  room  for  them,  the  minimum  price  of  board  being 
$5  per  week. 


These  large,  beautiful  and  verv  modern  structures  are  located 
upon  a  farm  of  upward  of  300  acres,  and  were  erected  in  1873-?6at 
a  cost  of  about  $400,000.  The  general  plans  are  similar  to  those 
at  Kalamazoo.  They  are  built  of  brick,  with  stone  window  caps, 
belt-conrses,  etc.  There  are  accommodations  for  not  less  than  300 

Michigan  pursues  a  very  enlightened  policy  toward  the  chronic 
insane.  Provisions  have  been  made  for  the  treatment  even  of 
the  incurable,  so  that  as  much  good  as  possible  may  be  done  even 
to  the  most  unfortunate.  The  design  is  to  cure  whenever  the 
nature  of  the  mental  malady  will  permit;  but  failing  this,  to  cease 
no  effort  which  could  minister  to  the  comfort  and  welfare  of  the 


The  Detroit  House  of  Correction,  although  a  local  institution,  is 
used  to  a  considerable  extent  as  an  intermediate  prison,  to  which 
persons  are  sentenced  by  the  courts  throughout  the  State  for  minor 
offenses.  Women  convicted  of  felonies  are  also  sentenced  to  this 
place.  The  whole  number  in  confinement  at  this  prison  for  the  past 
decade  has  averaged  a  little  over  400  at  any  one  time,  more  males 
than  females.  The  average  term  of  confinement  is  but  alittlemore 
than  two  months,  and  the  institution  is  very  faithfully  conducted. 

The  State  Prison  at  Jackson  is  one  of  the  best  conducted  in  the 
Union.  The  total  value  of  the  property  is  valued  at  $552,113.  The 
earnings  of  the  prison  in  1S78  were  $92,378;  number  of  prisoners; 
800.  Their  work  is  let  to  contractors,  who  employ  450  men  at 
different  trades.  A  coal  mine  has  been  recently  discovered  on  the 
prison  property,  which  proves  a  saving  of  several  thousand  dollars 
per  annum  to  the  State.  The  earnings  of  this  prison  since  Gen. 
Wm.  Humphrey  has  been  warden  (1875)  has  exceeded  its  current 



The  State  Prison  at  Ionia  was  established  a  few  years  ago  for  the 
reception  of  convicts  whose  crimes  are  not  of  the  worst  type,  and 
those  who  are  young,  but  too  old  for  the  Reform  School.  The 
ground  comprises  53  acres  of  land,  13£  of  which  is  enclosed  by  a 
brick  wall  18  feet  high.  Estimated  value  of  property,  $277,490; 
current  expenses  for  1S7S,  $45,744;  earnings  for  187S,  $5,892;  num- 
ber of  prisoners  Dec.  31,  1878,  250;  number  received  during  the 
year,  346. 


is  distinct  from  the  State  Agricultural  Board,  the  latter  being  sim- 
ply an  executive  over  the  Agricultural  College  under  the  laws  of 
the  State.  The  former  was  organized  at  Lansing  March  23,  1849, 
and  was  specially  incorpqrated  by  act  of  April  2  following,  since 
which  time  it  has  numbered  among  its  officers  and  executive  mem- 
bers some  of  the  foremost  men  of  the  State.  It  has  held  annual 
fairs  in  various  places,  and  the  number  of  entries  for  premiums  has 
risen  from  623  to  several  thousand,  and  its  receipts  from  $S08.50  to 
$58,780.  The  premiums  offered  and  awarded  have  increased  pro- 


At  an  informal  meeting  of  several  gentlemen  in  Grand  Rapids 
Feb.  11,  1S70,  it  was  resolved  to  organize  a  State  pomological 
society,  and  at  an  adjourned  meeting  on  the  26th  of  the  same  month, 
the  organization  was  perfected,  and  the  first  officers  elected  were:  H. 
G.  Saunders,  President;  S.  L.  Fuller,  Treasurer;  and  A.  T.  Linder- 
man,  Secretary.  The  society  was  incorporated  April  15, 1871,  "  for 
the  purpose  of  promoting  the  interest  of  pomology,  horticulture, 
agriculture,  and  kindred  sciences  and  arts."  During  the  first  two 
years  monthly  meetings  were  required,  but  in  1S72  quarterly  meet- 
ings were  substituted.  It  now  has  a  room  in  the  basement  of  the 
new  capitol.  T.  T.  Lyon,  of  South  Haven,  is  President,  and  Charles 
W.  Garfield,  of  Grand  Rapids,  Secretary.  Under  the  supervision  of 
this  society,  Michigan  led  the  world  in  the  centennial  exposition  at 
Philadelphia  in  the  exhibition  of  winter  apples.  The  contributions 
of  this  society  to  pomological  literature  are  also  richer  than  can  be 
found  elsewhere  in  the  United  States. 


Very  naturally,  tbe  denser  population  of  the  white  race,  as  it 
took  possession  of  this  wild  country,  consumed  what  they  found 
already  abundant  long  before  they  commenced  to  renew  the  stock. 
It  was  so  with  the  forests;  it  was  so  with  the  fish.  An  abundance 
of  a  good  variety  offish  was  found  in  all  our  rivers  and  little  lakes 
by  the  early  settlers,  but  that  abundance  was  gradually  reduced 
until  these  waters  were  entirely  robbed  of  their  useful  inhabitants. 


Scarcely  a  thought  of  re-stocking  the  inland  waters  of  this  State 
was  entertained  until  the  spring  of  1873,  when  a  board  of  fish 
commissioners  was  authorized  by  law;  and  while  the  people  gen- 
erally still  shook  their  heads  in  skepticism,  the  board  went  on  with 
its  duty  until  these  same  people  are   made  glad  with  the  results. 

Under  the  efficient  superintendency  of  Geo.  H.  Jerome,  of  Niles, 
nearly  all  the  lakes  and  streams  within  the  lower  peninsula  have 
been  more  or  less  stocked  witli  shad,  white-fish,  salmon  or  lake 
trout,  land-locked  or  native  salmon,  eel,  etc.,  and  special  efforts  are 
also  made  to  propagate  that  beautiful  and  useful  fish,  the  grayling, 
whose  home  is  in  the  Manistee  and  Muskegon  rivers.  Much  more 
is  hoped  for,  however,  than  is  yet  realized.  Like  every  other  great 
innovation,  many  failures  must  be  suffered  before  the  brilliant  crown 
of  final  success  is  won. 

The  value  of  all  the  property  employed  in  fish  propagation  in 
the  State  is  but  a  little  over  $4,000,  and  the  total  expenses  of  con- 
ducting the  business  from  Dec.  1,  1876,  to  July  1,  1877,  were 

The  principal  hatcheries  are  at  Detroit  and  Pokagon. 


was  organized  April  13,  1S75,  at  Battle  Creek,  for  "  the  protection 
and  promotion  of  the  best  interests  of  the  firemen  of  Michigan,  the 
compilation  of  fire  statistics,  the  collection  of  information  concern- 
ing the  practical  working  of  different  systems  of  organization;  the 
examination  of  the  merits  of  the  different  kinds  of  fire  apparatus 
in  use,  and  the  improvement  in  the  same;  and  the  cultivation  of  a 
fraternal  fellowship  between  the  different  companies  in  the  State." 
The  association  holds  it  meetings  annually,  at  various  places  in  the 
State,  and  as  often  publish  their  proceedings,  in  pamphlet   form. 


This  Board  was  established  in  1873,  and  consists  of  seven  mem- 
bers, appointed  by  the  Governor,  the  secretary  ex  officio  a  member 
and  principal  executive  officer.  It  is  the  duty  of  this  Board  to 
make  sanitary  investigations  and  inquiries  respecting  the  causes  of 
disease,  especially  of  epidemics;  the  causes  of  mortality,  and  the 
effects  of  localities,  emplo}Traents,  conditions,  ingesta,  habits  and 
circumstances  on  the  health  of  the  people;  to  advise  other  officers 
in  regard  to  the  location,  drainage,  water  supply,  disposal  of  ex- 
creta, heating  and  ventilation  of  any  public  building;  and  also  to 
advise  all  local  health  officers  concerning  their  duties;  and  to 
recommend  standard  works  from  time  to  time  on  hygiene  for  the 
nse  of  public  schools.  The  secretary  is  required  to  collect  informa- 
tion concerning  vital  statistics,  knowledge  respecting  diseases  and 
all  useful  information  on  the  subject  of  hygiene,  and  through  an 
annual  report,  and  otherwise,  as  the  Board  may  direct,  to  dissemi- 


nate  such  information  among  the  people.  These  interesting  duties 
have  been  performed  by  Dr.  Henry  B.  Baker  from  the  organization 
of  the  Board  to  the  present  time.  The  Board  meets  quarterly  at 


of  this  State  has  a  great  deal  of  business  to  transact,  as  it  has  within 
its  jurisdiction  an  immense  amount  of  new  land  in  market,  and 
much  more  to  come  in.  During  the  fiscal  year  ending  Sept.  30, 
1877,  the  total  number  of  acres  sold  was  50,835.72,  for  $87,968.05, 
of  which  $69,800.54  was  paid  in  hand.  At  that  time  the  amount  of 
land  still  owned  by  the  State  was  3,049,905.46,  of  which  2,430,050.- 
47  acres  were  swamp  land,  447,270.89  primary  school,  164,402.55 
Agricultural  College,  310.26  University,  160  Normal  School,  2,- 
115.63  Salt  Spring,  1,840  Asylum,  32.40  State  building,  3,342.75 
asset,  and  3S0.31  internal  improvement.  But  of  the  foregoing, 
1,817,084.25  acres,  or  more  than  half,  are  not  in  market. 


Territorial  Library ,  1828-1 835.— The  first  knowledge  that  we 
have  of  this  library,  is  derived  from  the  records  found  in  the  printed 
copies  of  the  journals  and  documents  of  the  Legislative  Councils  of 
the  Territory,  and  in  the  manuscript  copies  of  the  executive  jour- 

The  library  was  established  by  an  act  of  the  Legislative  Council, 
approved  June  16,  1S28,  authorizing  the  appointment  of  a  librarian 
by  the  Governor,  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Council. 

The  librarian  so  appointed  was  required  to  take  an  oath  of  office 
and  give  bond  to  the  treasurer  of  the  Territory  in  the  sum  of  $1,- 
000,  for  the  faithful  performance  of  his  duties;  his  time  of  service 
was  for  two  years  or  until  another  be  appointed. 

The  librarian  was  also  required  to  take  charge  of  the  halls  and 
committee  room,  and  other  property  appertaining  to  the  Legislative 
Council.  lie  was  also  required  to  make  an  annual  report  to  the 
Council,  upon  the  state  of  the  library,  and  upon  all  such  branches 
of  duty  as  might  from  time  to  time  be  committed  to  his  charge. 
For  his  services  he  was  to  receive  annually  the  sum  of  $100. 

The  library  seemed  to  have  been  kept  open  only  during  the  actual 
sittings  of  the  Legislative  Council. 

The  executive  journal  by  its  records  shows  that  under  the  pro- 
visions of  this  act,  William  B.  Hunt  was  appointed  librarian  July 
3,  1828,  by  Gov.  Lewis  Cass,  for  the  term  of  two  years.  Mr.  Hunt 
continued  to  act  as  librarian  until  March  7,  1834,  when  Gersham 
Mott  Williams  was  appointed  by  Gov.  Porter.  Mr.  Williams  seems 
to  have  acted  as  librarian  until  the  organization  of  the  institution 
as  a  State  library. 

The  honored  names  of  Henry  B.  Schoolcraft,  Charles  Moran, 
Daniel  S.  Bacon, Calvin  Brittain,  Elon  Farnsworth,  Charles  C.  Has- 


call  and  others  are  found  in  the  list  of  the  members  of  the  Library 

March,  1S36,  the  State  library  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  Secre- 
tary of  State;  in  February,  1S37.  it  was  given  to  thecareof  the  pri- 
vate secretary  of  the  Governor;  Dec.  28  following  its  custody  was 
given  to  the  Governor  and  Secretary  of  State,  with  power  to  appoint 
a  librarian  and  make  rules  and  regulations  for  its  government.  C. 
C.  Jackson  acted  as  the  first  librarian  for  the  State.  Lewis  Bond 
also  had  the  care  of  the  books  for  a  time.  Oren  Marsh  was  appointed 
librarian  in  1S37,  and  had  the  office  several  years.  In  March,  1S40, 
the  law  was  again  changed,  and  the  library  was  placed  in  the  care 
of  the  Secretary  of  State,  and  the  members  of  the  Legislature  and 
executive  officers  of  the  State  were  to  have  free  access  to  it  at  all 

State  Library. — The  library  was  of  course  increased  from  time 
to  time  by  Legislative  appropriations.  In  18-14,  as  the  result  of  the 
efforts  of  Alexandre  Vattemare,  from  Paris,  a  system  of  interna- 
tional exchanges  was  adopted. 

April  2,  1850,  an  act  was  passed  requiring  the  Governor  to 
appoint  a  State  librarian  with  the  consent  of  the  Senate,  and  it  was 
made  the  duty  of  the  librarian  to  have  the  sole  charge  of  the  library. 
This  act,  with  some  amendments,  still  remains  in  force.  It  requires 
the  librarian  to  make  biennial  reports  and  catalogues.  The  libra- 
rians under  this  act  have  been:  Henry  Tisdale,  April  2,  1850,  to 
Jan.  27,  1851;  Charles  J.  Fox,  to  July  1,  1853;  Charles  P.  Bush, 
to  Dec.  5.1854;  John  James  Bush,  to  Jan.  6.  1S55;  DeWitt  C. 
Leach,  to  Feb.  2,  1857;  George  W.  Swift,  to  Jan.  27,  1859;  J. 
Eugene  Tenney,  to  April  5,  1869;  and  Mrs.  Harriet  A.  Tenney  to 
the  present  time.  This  lady  has  proved  to  be  one  of  the  best  libra- 
rians in  the  United  States.  She  has  now  in  her  charge  about  60,- 
000  volumes,  besides  thousands  of  articles  in  the  new  and  rapidly 
growing  museum  department.  She  is  also  Secretary  of  the  "  Pio- 
neer Society  of  the  State  of  Michigan,"  and  has  charge  of  the  books, 
papers  and  relics  collected  by  that  society.  The  library  and  these 
museums  are  now  kept  in  the  new  State  capitol  at  Lansing,  in  a 
series  of  rooms  constructed  for  the  purpose,  and  are  all  arranged  in 
the  most  convenient  order  and  with  the  neatest  taste. 

The  earliest  effort  for  the  establishment  of  a  bank  within  the  pres- 
ent limits  of  the  State  of  Michigan  was  in  1805.  The  act  of  Con- 
gress establishing  the  Territory  of  Michigan  conferred  legislative 
Sowers  on  the  Governor  and  judges;  and  at  their  first  session  as  a 
oard,  a  petition  for  an  act  incorporating  a  bank  was  presented  to 
them.  This  was  at  a  time  when  the  local  business  could  scarcely 
have  demanded  a  banking  institution,  or  have  afforded  much  prom- 
ise of  its  success.  The  small  town  of  Detroit  had  just  been  laid  in 
ashes,  and  the  population  of  the  entire  Territory  was  inconsidera- 



Mill  .u.    UCi.KlInI'.l  . 



ble,  being  reckoned  five  years  previously  at  only  551;  in  1810,  it 
was  less  than  5,000;  the  country  was  possessed  mainly  by  the 
Indians,  and  the  few  French  in  the  State  were  neither  enterprising 
nor  prosperous.  No  road  pierced  the  forests  of  the  interior;  no 
manufactories  existed;  agriculture  yielded  nothing  for  market,  and 
navigation  had  scarcely  begun  to  plow  our  rivers  and  lakes.  In 
general  commerce  the  fur  trade  was  almost  the  only  element. 

The  petition  tor  a  bank  charter  was  presented,  not  by  citizens  of 
Detroit,  but  by  capitalists  of  Boston,  Kussell  Sturges  and  others, 
who  were  engaged  in  the  fur  trade.  This  petition  was  granted  Sept. 
15,  1806,  incorporating  the  "  Bank  of  Detroit,"  with  a  capital  of 
$■100,000.  The  great  distance  of  this  locality  from  New  England 
gave  those  capitalists  the  advantage  of  circulating  inland  bills  of 
credit  against  their  Western  banks  for  a  long  time  before  their 
redemption.  Judge  Woodward,  one  of  the  judges  who  granted  the 
act  of  incorporation,  was  appointed  its  president,  and  the  bank  went 
into  immediate  operation;  but  imputations  unfavorable  to  Judge 
Woodward  in  regard  to  this  and  other  matters  led  to  a  Congres- 
sional investigation  of  the  act  incorporating  the  bank,  and  the  act 
was  disapproved  by  that  body.  The  bank,  however,  continued  to  do 
business;  but  in  September,  1808,  the  Governor  and  judges,  in  the 
absence  of  Woodward,  passed  an  act  making  it  punishable  as  a  crime 
to  carr}'  on  an  unauthorized  banking  business,  and  this  put  an  end 
to  the  brief  existence  of  the  institution.  Its  bills  were  quietly  with- 
drawn from  circulation  the  following  year. 

The  next  bank  established  in  the  Territory  was  the  "  Bank  of 
Michigan,"  incorporated  by  the  Board  of  Governor  and  Judges, 
Dec.  19,  1817,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000.  The  validity  of  this  act 
was  fully  established  by  the  courts  in  1830.  By  the  terms  of  its 
charter,  the  corporation  was  to  expire  on  the  first  Monday  in  June, 
1839;  but  the  Legislative  Council,  Feb.  25, 1831,  extended  its  life 
twenty-five  years  longer,  and  subsequently  it  was  allowed  to  increase 
its  capital  stock  and  establish  a  branch  at  Bronson,  now  Kalamazoo. 

The  two  above  named  are  all  the  banks  which  derived  their  cor- 
porate existence  from  the  Governor  and  judges. 

The  first  bank  charter  granted  by  the  "  Legislative  Council  "was 
to  the  Merchants'  and  Mechanics'  Bank  of  Michigan,"  approved 
April  2,  1827.  The  bank  was  to  be  established  at  Detroit,  with  a 
capital  of  $200,000,  with  liberty  to  increase  it  to  $500,000.  This 
corporation  was  also  made  an  insurance  company;  but  it  does  not 
appear  a  company  was  ever  organized  under  this  charter.  March 
29,  1827,  the  "  Bank  of  Monroe  "  was  incorporated,  its  capital  stock 
to  be  $100,000  to  $500,000,  and  to  continue  in  existence  20  years. 
The  "  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  Bank  of  Michigan  "  was  chartered 
Nov.  5,  1829,  and  March  7,  1S34,  it  was  allowed  to  increase  its 
capital  stock,  and  establish  a  branch  at  St.  Joseph.  The  "  Bank  of 
Kiver  Raisin  "  was  chartered  June  29,  1S32,  and  allowed  to  have  a 
branch  at  Pontiac.  The  "  Bank  of  Wisconsin  "  was  chartered  Jan. 
23,  1835,  and  was  to  be  located  in  the  Green  Bay  country,  but  on 


the  organization  of  the  State  of  Michigan  it  was  thrown  outside  of 
its  jurisdiction. 

March  26,  1835,  there  were  incorporated  four  banks,  namely: 
"  Michigan  State  Bank"  at  Detroit,  "  Bank  of  Washtenaw"  at  Ann 
Arbor,  "  Bank  of  Pontiac,"  and  the  "  Erie  and  Kalamazoo  Railroad 
Bank"  at  Adrian.  The  ''Bank  of  Pontiac"  was  also  a  railroad 
bank,  its  establishment  being  an  amendment  to  the  charter  of  the 
"  Detroit  and  Pontiac  Railroad  Company/' 

The  nine  banks  last  above  named  are  all  that  were  created  by  the 
"Legislative  Council." 

Next,  the  State  Legislature  in  1836  chartered  the  Bank  of  Man- 
hattan, Calhoun  County  Bank.  Bank  of  St.  Clair,  Bank  of  Clinton, 
Bank  of  Ypsilanti,  Bank  of  Macomb,  Bank  of  Tecumseh  and  Bank 
of  Conetantine.  The  same  Legislature  passed  "an  act  to  create  a 
fund  for  the  benefit  of  the  creditors  of  certain  moneyed  corpora- 
tions," which  was  in  fact  the  famous  safety-fund  system  of  the  State 
of  New  York.  It  required  each  bank  to  deposit  with  the  State 
Treasurer,  at  the  beginning  of  each  year,  a  sum  equal  to  one-half  of 
one  per  cent,  on  the  capital  stock  paid  in;  and  the  fund  so  created 
was  to  be  held  and  used  for  the  benefit  of  the  creditors  whenever 
any  bank  subject  to  its  provisions  should  become  insolvent;  but  this 
statute  was  destined  to  have  but  little  practical  effect.  The  system 
in  New  York  proved  inadequate  for  the  security  of  the  public 
interests,  and  it  was  practically  abandoned  here. 

By  this  time,  the  financial  affairs  of  the  whole  country  had 
become  sadly  deranged,  consequent  upon  a  wild  and  reckless  spirit 
of  speculation.  The  currency  became  greatly  inflated,  fabulous 
prices  given  to  property,  and  the  masses  of  the  people  subjected  to 
the  cruel  mercies  of  shrewd  financiers.  The  session  of  1837  was 
flooded  with  petitions  for  the  creation  of  banks,  and  the  Legislature 
met  the  emergency  by  adopting  a  system  of  free  banking,  under 
which  were  organized  a  great  number  of  those  institutions  since 
known  as  "  wild-cat  banks."  The  statute  authorized  any  12  free- 
holders of  any  county  who  desired  to  do  banking,  to  apply  to  the 
treasurer  and  clerk  of  the  county  for  that  purpose,  and  books  were 
to  be  opened  for  subscriptions  to  the  capital  stock,  $50,000  to  $300,- 
000.  Ten  per  cent,  on  each  share  was  required  to  be  paid  in  specie 
at  the  time  of  subscribing,  and  30  per  cent,  of  the  entire  capital 
stock  in  like  funds  before  the  association  should  commence  opera- 
tions. The  president  and  directors  were  also  required  to  furnish 
securities  for  the  payment  of  all  debts  and  redemption  of  all  notes 
issned  by  the  association. 

This  new  law  was  popularly  received  with  great  enthusiasm. 
On  its  final  passage  in  the  House,  only  four  members  were  bold 
enough  to  vote  against  it,  namely:  Almy,  of  Kent;  Monfore,  of 
Macomb;  Purdy,  of  Washtenaw,  and  Felch  of  Monroe.  This 
Legislature  closed  its  session  March  22,  1837,  by  adjournment  to 
Nov.  9, following;  but  the  financial  embarrassments  of  the  country 
increased  so  rapidly  that  the  Governor  called   an    extra  session  of 


the  Legislature  for  June  12,  arid  in  bis  message  he  attributed  these 
embarrassments,  in  a  great  measure,  to  the  error  of  over-banking, 
over-trading,  and  a  want  of  providence  and  economy.  The  banks 
east  and  south  had  already  suspended  specie  payments,  and  Mich- 
igan was  of  necessity  drawn  into  the  vortex.  The  report,  to  this 
Legislature,  by  a  special  commissioner  appointed  by  the  Governor, 
held  forth,  however,  that  the  banks  of  Michigan  were  solvent,  but 
that  a  little  time  may  be  granted  them  as  a  defense  against  the 
results  of  suspensions  in  New  York  and  elsewhere.  The  number 
of  banks  doing  business  in  this  State  at  that  time  was  13  in  num- 
ber, previously  mentioned.  The  Legislature  granted  them  time 
until  May  16,  1838.  The  session  of  the  winter  following  under- 
took to  secure  the  public  by  appointing  three  bank  commissioners 
to  visit  all  the  banks  in  the  State  at  least  once  in  every  three 
months,  to  examine  the  specie  held  by  them,  inspect  their  books, 
and  inform  themselves  generally  of  their  affairs  and  transactions; 
monthly  statements  of  the  condition  of  the  banks  were  required  to 
be  made  and  published,  and  no  bills  were  to  be  issued  without 
bearing  the  endorsement  of  a  bank  commissioner,  etc.  Under  the 
general  banking  law,  as  already  stated,  every  subscriber  to  the  stock 
was  to  pay  in  10  per  cent,  in  specie  on  each  share  at  the  time  of 
subscribing,  and  10  every  six  months  thereafter,  and  30  per  cent, 
of  the  whole  capital  stock  was  required  to  be  paid  in  like  manner 
before  the  bank  should  commence  operations.  The  specie  thus 
paid  in  was  to  be  the  capital  of  the  bank  and  the  basis  of  its  busi- 
ness operations.  The  requirement  of  it  involved  the  priuciple 
that  banking  could  not  be  carried  on  without  hona-fide  capital,  and 
without  it  no  bank  could  be  permitted  to  flood  the  country  with  its 
bills;  but  the  investigations  of  the  commissioners  showed  a  very 
general  violation  of  the  law  in  this  respect.  In  many  cases,  instead 
of  specie,  a  kind  of  paper  denominated  "  specie  certificates  "  was 
used;  in  some  cases,  specie  borrowed  for  the  occasion  was  used  and 
immediately  returned  to  the  owner;  sometimes,  even,  a  nail-keg 
filled  with  old  iron,  or  gravel,  or  sand  and  covered  over  the  top 
with  specie,  was  employed  to  deceive  the  commissioners;  and 
sometimes  the  notes  of  individual  subscribers  or  others,  usually 
denominated  "stock  notes,"  were  received  and  counted  as  specie. 
The  books  of  the  banks  were  also  kept  in  so  imperfect  a  manner, 
sometimes  through  incompetency,  sometimes  with  fraudulent  de- 
sign, as  frequently  to  give  little  indication  of  the  transactions  of 
the  bank  or  of  the  true  condition  of  its  affairs.  By  proprietorship  of 
several  banks  in  one  company  of  men,  by  frequent  sale  and  trans- 
fer of  the  stock,  and  by  many  other  tricks  and  turns,  a  little  specie 
was  made  to  go  a  great  way  in  flooding  the  country  with  worthless 

It  is  manifest  that  this  conditon  of  things  could  not  have  existed 
without  a  fearful  amount  of  fraud  and  perjury.  In  the  excitement 
and  recklessness  of  the  times,  amid  ruined  fortunes  and  blighted 
hopes,  the  moral  sense  had  become  callous.     The  general  banking 


law  was  not  without  some  good  features,  but  it  came  into  existence 
at  a  most  unfortunate  time,  and  the  keenness  and  unscrupulous- 
ness  of  desperate  men,  taking  advantage  of  its  weak  points  and 
corruptly  violating  its  salutary  provisions,  used  it  to  the  public 

Under  this  law  about  40  banks  went  into  operation,  many  of 
them  in  remote  and  obscure  places,  and  before  the  commissioners 
could  perfect  their  work  of  reform  the  crisis  came  and  the  catas- 
trophe could  not  be  averted.  Failure  rapidly  succeeded  failure, 
and  legitimately  chartered  banks  were  drawn  into  the  same  vortex 
with  the  "wild-cat"  institutions.  Only  seven  banks  escaped  the 
whirlpool,  and  the  worthless  paper  afloat  represented  more  than  a 
million  dollars.     .As  ex-Gov.  Alpheus  Felch  well  says: 

"Thus  ends  the  history  of  that  memorable  financial  epoch. 
Forty  years  have  passed  since  these  events,  and  few  remain  who  can 
remember  the  excitement  and  distrust,  the  fear  and  despondency, 
the  hopes  and  disappointments  which  agitated  the  community, 
in  those  days  of  inflation  and  speculation,  of  bankruptcy  and 
financial  distress;  and  fewer  still  remain  who  bore  part  in  the 
transactions  connected  with  them.  We  look  back  upon  them  to 
read  the  lessons  which  their  history  teaches.  The  notion  that 
banks  without  real  capital,  or  a  currency  which  can  never  be 
redeemed,  can  relieve  from  debts  or  insolvency,  is  tried  and 
exploded.  We  are  led  to  the  true  principle,  that  prosperity,  both 
public  and  individual,  awaits  upon  industry  and  economy,  judicious 
enterprise  and  honest  productive  labor,  free  from  wild  speculation 
and  unprofitable  investments,  and  a  wise  and  prudent  use  of  our 
abundant  resources." 

In  1875  there  were  77  national  banks  in  this  State,  doing  an 
annual  business  of  about  $20,000,000;  15  State  banks,  with  a  busi- 
ness of  nearly  $4,000,000,  and  12  savings  banks,  with  a  business  of 


The  lower  peninsula  occupies  the  central  part  of  a  great  synclinal 
basin,  toward  which  the  strata  dip  from  all  directions,  and  which 
are  bounded  on  all  sides  by  anticlinal  swells  and  ridges.  The 
limits  of  this  basin  exceed  those  of  the  peninsula,  extending  to 
London,  Out,  Madison,  Wis.,  Marquette  and  Sault  Ste.  Marie. 
The  whole  series  of  strata  may  therefore  be  compared  to  a  nest  of 
dishes,  the  lower  and  exterior  ones  representing  the  older  strata. 

The  upper  peninsula  is  divided  by  the  Marquette-Wisconsin 
anticlinal  into  two  geological  areas,  the  eastern  belonging  to  the 
great  basin  above  alluded  to,  and  the  western  being  lacustrine  in 
its  character,  and  largely  covered  by  Lake  Superior.  The  southern 
rim  of  the  latter  is  seen  uplifted  along  Keweenaw  Point  and  the 
south  shore  of  the  lake,  and  these  strata  re-appear  at  Isle  Royale. 


Between  the  Michigan  and  lacustrine  basins  the  metalliferous  Mar- 
quette-Wisconsin  axis  interposes  a  separating  belt  of  about  50 

The  palfeozoic  great  system  of  this  State  measures  about  2,680 
feet  in  thickness,  of  which  the  Silurian  division  is  920  feet,  the 
Devonian  1,040  feet,  and  the  carboniferous  720  feet. 

The  coal-bearing  group  occupies  the  central  portion  of  the 
peninsula,  extending  from  Jackson  to  township  20  north,  and  from 
range  8  east  to  10  west. 

Of  iron,  hematite  and  magnetite,  in  immense  lenticular  masses 
of  unsurpassed  purity,  abound  in  the  Huronian  rocks  of  the  upper 
peninsula.  The  former  of  these,  under  the  action  of  water, 
becomes  soft,  and  is  called  Limonite,  and  is  abundant  throughout 
the  State  as  an  earthy  ore  or  ochre,  bog  ore,  shot  ore,  yellow  ochre, 
etc.  Sometimes  it  is  deposited  in  stalactitic.  mammillary, 
botryoidal  and  velvety  forms  of  great  beauty.  Kidney  ore  abounds 
in  the  Huron  clays,  and  "  black-band"  in  the  coal  measures. 

Of  copper,  native,  in  the  "  trap  "  of  Lake  Superior,  abounds  in 
the  form  of  sheets,  strings  and  masses.  Gold,  silver  and  lead  are 
also  found  in  unimportant  quantities  in  the  Lake  Superior  region. 

Salt  abounds  in  the  Saginaw  region,  gypsum,  or  "  land  plaster  " 
in  the  vicinity  of  Grand  Rapids,  building  stone  throughout  the 
State,  manganese  in  many  places,  and  many  other  valuable  earths, 
ores  and  varieties  of  stone  in  many  places. 


There  are  about  275  newspapers  and  periodical  publications  in 
Michigan,  of  all  classes.  Of  these  224  are  published  weekly,  17 
daily  and  weekly,  two  daily,  seven  semi-weekly,  onetri-weekly,  four 
semi-monthly,  19  monthly,  one  quarterly,  and  one  yearly;  112  are 
Republican,  46  Democratic,  73  independent  and  neutral,  14  relig- 
ious, and  15  miscellaneous.  Among  the  latter  are  two  Methodist, 
seven  Adventist  (two  Dutch  or  Hollandisch),  one  Episcopal,  one 
Catholic  and  one  Baptist;  four  mining,  five  educational,  one 
Masonic,  one  Odd-Fellow,  one  Grange,  three  medical  and  one  agri- 
cultural. Five  are  printed  in  the  German  language,  six  in  the 
Dutch,  one  in  the  Swedish  and  one  in  the  Danish. 

The  present  population  of  Michigan,  according  to  the  census  of 
1880,  is  as  follows:  Male,  862.278;  females,  774,057;  native  born, 
1,247,989;  foreign,  3S8,346;  white,  1,614,087;  colored,  22,248; 
total,  1,636,335.  ' 



Govs.  During  French  Rule.  Ap'd. 

Sieur  de  Mesey 1663 

Sieur  de  Courcelles 16(55 

Sieur  de  Frontenac 1672 

Sieur  de  LaBarre 1682 

Marquis  de  Deuonville 1685 

Sieur  de  Frontenac 1689 

Chevalier  de  Callieres  1699 

Marquis  de  Vaudreuil 1703 

Marquis  de  Beauharnois 1726 

Compt  de  la  Galissoniere 1747 

Sieur  de  la  Jonquiere 1749 

Marquis  du  Quesne  de  Menneville.1752 

Sieur  de  Vaudreuil  de  Cavagnal 1755 

Govs.  During  British  Rule- 

James  Murray 1765 

Paulus  E.  Irving  1766 

Guy  Carleton 1766 

Hector  T.  Cramahe 1770 

Guy  Carleton 1774 

Frederick  Haldiuiand 1778 

Henry  Hamilton 1784 

Henry  Hope 1785 

Lord  Dorchester 1786 

Alured  Clarke 1791 

Lord  Dorchester 1798 

Governors  of  Michigan  Territory. 

William  Hull 1805 

Lewis  Cass 1813 

George  B.  Porter 1831 

Stevens  T.  Mason,  ex  officio 1834 

John  T.  Horner,  ex  officio 1835 

State   Governors.  Elected. 

Stevens  T.  Mason 1835 

William  Woodbridge 1840 

J.  Wright  Gordon,  acting 1841 

John  S  Barry 1842 

Alpheus  Felch 1846 

Win.  L.  Greenly,  acting 1847 

Epaphroditus  Hansom 1848 

John  S.  Barrv 1850 

Robert  McClelland 1852 

Andrew  Parsons,  acting 1853 

Kinsley  S.  Bingham 1855 

Moses  Wisner 1859 

Austin  Blair 1861 

Henry  H.  Crapo 1865 

Henry  P.    Baldwin 1869 

John  J.  Bagley 1873 

Charles  M.  Croswell 1877 

David  H .  Jerome 1881 

Lieut-Governors  of  Michigan. 

Edward  Mundy 1835 

J.  Wright  Gordon 1840 

Origen  D.  Richardson 1842 

Wm.  L.  Greenly 1846 

Wm.  M.  Fenton 1848 

Wm.  L.  Greenly. ....   1849 

Calvin  Britain X852 

Andrew  Parsons !l853 

George  A.  Coe !l855 

Edmund  B  Fairfield 1359 

James  Biruey iggj 

Joseph  R.  Williams,  acting .1861 

Henry  T.  Backus,  acting 1862 

Charles  S.  May 1863 

E.  (J.  Grosvenor 1865 

Dwight  May '.  .'i867 

Morgan  Bates 1869 

Henry  H.  Holt ..1873 

Alonzo  Sessions 1877 

Moreau  S.  Crosby !l88l 

Secretaries  of  State. 

Kintzing  Pritchette 1835 

Randolph  Manning 1838 

Thomas  Rowland 1840 

Robert  P  Eldridge 1842 

G.  O.  Wnittemore 1846 

George  W.  Peck 1848 

George   Redfield 1850 

Charles  II .  Taylor 1850 

William  Graves 1853 

John  McKinney 1855 

Nelson  G.  Isbell 1859 

James  B.  Porter 1861 

O.  L.  Spaulding 1867 

Daniel  Striker 1871 

E.  G.  D.  Holden 1875 

William  Jenney 1879 

State  Treasurers. 

Henry  Howard 1836 

Peter  Desnoyers 1839 

Robert  Stuart 1840 

George  W.  Germain 1841 

John  J.  Adam 1842 

George  Redfield     1845 

George  B.  Cooper 1846 

Barnard  C.  Whi ttemore 1850 

Silas  M.   Holmes 1855 

John   McKinney 1859 

John  Owen 1861 

E.  O.   Grosvenor 1867 

Victory  P.  Collier 1871 

Wm.  B.  McCreery 1875 

Benj.  D.  Pritchard 1879 


Daniel  Le  Roy 1836 

Peter  Morev 1837 

Zephaniah  Piatt 1841 

Elon  Farnsworth 1843 

Henry  N.  Walker 1845 

Edward  Mundy 1847 

Geo.  V.  N.  Lothrop 1848 

William  Hale 1851 


Jacob  M.  Howard 1855 

Charles  Upson 1861 

Albert  Williams 1863 

Wm.  L.  Stoughtou 1867 

Dwight    May 1869 

Byron  D.  Ball 1873 

Isaac   Marston 1874 

Andrew  J.  Smith 1875 

OttoKirchner 1877 


Robert  Abbott 1836 

Henry  Howard 1839 

Eurotas  P.  Hastings 1840 

Alpheus  Felch 1843 

Henry  L.  Whipple 1842 

Charles  G.  Hammond 1845 

John  J.  Adam 1845 

Digby  V .  Bell 1846 

John  J.  Adam  1848 

John  Swegles,  Jr 1851 

Whitney  Jones ,1855 

Daniel  L.  Case 1859 

Langford  G .  Berry 1861 

Emil  Anneke 1863 

William  Humphrey 1867 

Ralph  Ely 1875 

W.  Irving  Latimer 1879 

Supts.  Pub.  Inst. 

John  D.  Pierce 1838 

Franklin  Sawyer,  Jr 1841 

Oliver  C.  Comstock 1843 

Ira  Mayhew 1845 

Francis  W.  Shearman 1849 

Ira  Mayhew 1855 

John  M.   Gregory 1859 

Oramel  Hosford 1865 

Daniel  B.  Briggs 1873 

Horace  S.  Tarbell 1877 

Cornelius  A.  Gower .1878 

Judges  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

Augustus  B.  Woodward 1805-24 

Frederick  Bates 1805-8 

John  Griffin 1806-24 

James  Witherell 1808-28 

Solomon  Sibley 1824-36 

Henry  Chipman 1827-32 

Wm.   Woodbridge 1828-32 

Ross  Wilkins 1832-6 

Wm.  A.  Fletcher 1836-42 

Epaphroditus  Ransom 1836-47 

George  Morell 1836-42 

Charles  W.  Whipple 1843-52 

Alpheus  Felch 1842-5 

David  Goodwin 1843  6 

Warner   Wing 1845  56 

George  Miles.' 1846-50 

Edward  Mundy 1848-51 

Sanford  M.  Green 1848-57 

George  Martin 1851-2 

Joseph  T.  Copeland 1862-1 

Samuel  T.  Douglas 1852-7 

David  Johnson 1852-7 

Abner  Pratt 1851-7 

Charles  W.  Whipple 1852-5 

Nathaniel  Bacon 1855-8 

Sandford  M.  Green 1856-8 

E.  H.  C.  Wilson 1856-8 

Benj.  F.  H.  Witherell,  Benj.  F. 

Graves,  Josiah  Turner  and  Ed- 
win Lawrence,  to  fill  vacancies 

in  the  latter  part  of 1857 

George  Martin 1858-68 

Randolph  Manning 1858-64 

Isaac  P.  Christiancy 1858-77 

James  V.  Campbell 1858 

Thomas  M.  Cooley 1864 

Benj.  F.  Graves 1868 

Isaac  Marston 1875 

U.  8.  Senators- 

John  Norvell 1835-41 

Lucius  Lyon 1836^0 

Augustus  S.  Porter 1840-5 

Wm.  Woodbridge 1841-7 

Lewis  Cass 1845-57 

Thos.  H.  Fitzgerald 1848-9 

Alpheus  Felch 1847-53 

Charles  E.  Stuart 1853-9 

Zachariah  Chandler  1857-77 

Kinsley  S.  Bingham 1859-61 

Jacob  M.  Howard 1862-71 

Thomas  W.  Ferry  1871 

Henry  P   Baldwin 1880 

Z.  Chandler 1878-9 

OmarD.  Conger 1881 

Representatives  in  Congress. 

Isaac  E.  Crary 1835^1 

Jacob  M.  Howard 1841-3 

Lucius  Lyon 1843-5 

Robert  McClelland 1843-9 

James  B.  Hunt 1843-7 

John  S.  Chipman 1845-7 

Charles  E.  Stuart 1847-9 

Kinsley  S.  Bingham 1849-51 

Alex.  W.  Buel 1849  51 

William  Sprague  1849-50 

Charles  E.  Stuart 1851-3 

James  L .  Conger 1851-3 

Ebenezer  J.   Penniman 1851-3 

Samuel  Clark 1853-5 

David  A.  Noble 1853-5 

Hester  L.  Stevens 1853-5 

David  Stuart 1853-5 

George  W.  Peck 1855-7 

Wm.  A.  Howard 1855-61 

Henry  Waldron 1855-61 

David  S.  Walbridge 1855-9 

D.  C.  Leach 1857-61 

Francis  W.  Kellogg 1859-65 

B.  F.  Granger 1861-3 

F.  C  Beaman 1861-71 

R.  E.  Trowbridge 1861-3 

Charles  Upson 1863-9 


John  W.Long^ear 1863-7  Josiah  W.  Begole 1873-5 

John  F.   Driggs 1863-9  Nathan  B.  Bradley 1873-7 

R.  E.  Trowbridge 1865-9  Jay  A.  Hubbell 1873 

Thomas  W.  Ferry 1869-71  W.  B.  Williams 1875-7 

Austin   Blair 1867-73  Alpheus  S.Williams 1875-9 

Wm.  L.  Stoughton 1869-73  Mark  S.  Brewer 1877 

Omar  D.  Conger 1869-81  Charles  C.  Ellsworth 1877-9 

Randolph  Strickland 1869-71  Edwin  W.  Keightley 1877-9 

Henry  Waldron 1871-5  Jonas  H.  McGowan 1S77 

Wilder  D.  Foster 187 1-3  John  W.  Stone 1877 

JabezG  Sutherland 1871-3  Edwin  Willits 1877 

Moses  W.  Field 1873-5  Roswell  G.  Horr 1879 

George  Willard 1875-7  John  S.  Newberry 1879 

Julius  0.  Burrows 1873-5,  1879 

The  State  printing  is  done  by  contract,  the  contractors  for  the 
last  13  years  being  W.  S.  George  &  Co.  (Geo.  Jerome),  the  former 
the  active  partner,  who  also  publishes  and  edits  the  Lansing  Re- 
publican, a  paper  noted  for  originality,  condensation  and  careful 
"  make-up." 


Michigan  is  a  little  southeast  of  the  center  of  the  continent  of 
North  America,  and  with  reference  to  all  the  resources  of  wealth 
and  civilization  is  most  favorably  situated.  It  is  embraced  between 
the  parallels  of  41°.692  and  47°.478  north  latitude,  and  the  merid- 
ians of  82°.407  and  90°.536  west  of  Greenwich.  The  upper 
peninsula  has  its  greatest  extent  east  aud  west,  and  the  lower,  north 
and  south.  The  extreme  length  of  the  upper  peninsula  is  318 
miles,  and  its  extreme  breadth,  164J  miles;  its  area,  22,5S0  square 
miles.  The  length  of  the  lower  peninsula  is  277  miles,  its  width, 
259  miles,  and  its  area,  33,871  square  miles.  The  upper  peninsula 
is  rugged  and  rocky,  affording  scarcely  anything  but  minerals  as  a 
source  of  wealth;  the  lower  is  level,  covered  with  forests  of  valuable 
timber,  and  is  excellent  for  all  the  products  of  Northern  States. 

The  total  length  of  the  lake  shore  is  1,620  miles,  and  there  are 
over  5,000  smaller  lakes  in  the  States,  having  a  total  area  of  1,114 
square  miles. 


And  now,  how  natural  to  turn  our  eyes  and  thoughts  back  to  the 
log-cabin  days  of  less  than  50  years  ago,  and  contrast  it  with  the 
elegant  mansion  of  modern  times.  Before  us  stands  the  old  log 
cabin.  Let  us  enter.  Instinctively  the  head  is  uncovered  in  token 
of  reverence  to  this  relic  of  ancestral  beginnings  and  early  struggles. 
To  the  left  is  the  deep,  wide  tire-place,  in  whose  commodious  space 
a  group  of  children  may  sit  by  the  tire  and  up  through  the  chimney 
may  count  the  stars,  while  ghostly  stories  of  witches  and  giants, 
and  still  more  thrilling  stories  of  Indians  and  wild  beasts,  are 
whisperingly  told  and  shudderingly  heard.  On  the  great  crane 
hang  the  old  tea-kettle  and  the  great  iron  pot.  The  huge  shovel 
and  ton^s  stand  sentinel  in  either  corner,  while  the  »reat  andirons 


patiently  wait  for  the  huge  back  log.  Over  the  fire-place  hangs  the 
trusty  rifle.  On  the  right  side  of  the  fire-place  stands  the  spin- 
ning-wheel, while  in  the  further  end  of  the  room  the  loom  looms 
up  with  a  dignity  peculiarly  its  own.  Strings  of  drying  apples  and 
poles  of  drying  pumpkin  are  overhead.  Opposite  the  door  by 
which  you  enter  stands  a  huge  deal  table;  by  its  side  the  dresser 
whose  "  pewter  plates"  and  "  shining  delf"  catch  and  reflect  "the 
fire-place  flame  as  shields  of  armies  do  the  sunshine."  From  the 
corner  of  its  shelves  coyly  peep  out  the  relics  of  former  china.  In 
a  curtained  corner  and  hid  from  casual  sight  we  find  the  mother's 
bed,  and  under  it  the  trundle-bed,  while  near  them  a  ladder  indi- 
cates the  loft  where  the  older  children  sleep.  To  the  left  of  the  fire- 
place and  in  the  corner  opposite  the  spinning-wheel  is  the  mother's 
work-stand.  Upon  it  lies  the  Holy  Bible,  evidently  much  used,  its 
family  record  telling  of  parents  and  friends  a  long  way  off,  and 
telling,  too,  of  children 

Scattered  like  roses  In  bloom, 

Some  at  the  bridal,  and  some  at  the  tomb. 

Her  spectacles,  as  if  but  just  used,  are  inserted  between  the  leaves 
of  her  Bible,  and  tell  of  her  purpose  to  return  to  its  comforts 
when  cares  permit  and  duty  is  done.  A  stool,  a  bench,  well  notched 
and  whittled  and  carved,  and  a  few  chairs  complete  the  furniture  of 
the  room,  and  all  stand  on  a  coarse  but  well-scoured  floor.  Let  us 
for  a  moment  watch  the  city  visitors  to  this  humble  cabin.  The 
city  bride,  innocent  but  thoughtless,  and  ignorant  of  labor  and  care, 
asks  her  city-bred  husband,  "Pray  what  savages  set  this  up?" 
Honestly  confessing  his  ignorance,  he  replies,  '•  I  do  not  know." 
.But  see  the  pair  on  whom  age  sits  "frosty  but  kindly."  First,  as 
they  enter  they  give  a  rapid  glance  about  the  cabin  home,  and  then 
a  mutual  glance  of  eye  to  eye.  Why  do  tears  start  and  fill  their 
eyes?  Why  do  lips  quiver?  There  are  many  who  know  why,  but 
who  that  has  not  learned  in  the  school  of  experience  the  full  mean- 
ing of  all  these  symbols  of  trials  and  privation,  of  loneliness  and 
danger,  can  comprehend  the  story  that  they  tell  to  the  pioneer? 
Within  this  chinked  and  mud-daubed  cabin,  we  read  the  first  pages 
of  our  history,  and  as  we  retire  through  its  low  doorway,  and  note 
the  heavy  battened  door,  its  wooden  hinges,  and  its  welcoming 
latch-string,  is  it  strange  that  the  scenes  without  should  seem  to  be 
but  a  dream?  But  the  cabin  and  the  palace,  standing  side  by  side 
in  vivid  contrast,  tell  the  story  of  this  people's  progress.  They  are 
a  history  and  prophecy  in  one. 




.'■•      ■ 

Historiography  is  one  of  the  most  important  arts,  even  as  his- 
tory itself  ranks  with  the  primary  sciences.  Whether  the  writer  is 
rough  or  polished  in  his  style,  is  a  matter  to  be  coasidfered  apart 
from  his  art  or  science.  Provided  an  account  of  Qe  origin 
and  the  rise  or  fall  of  the  people  with  whom  his  chronicle  connects 
itself  is  given  impartially  and  correctly,  the  excesses  of  refinement  or 
roughness  may  be  overlooked  and  the  subject  sjaidied  with  pleasure. 
Experience  teaches  that  history  is  one  of  the  most  effective 
elements  in  the  promotion  of  good,  and  one  of  the  most  neces- 
sary in  building  up  man  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of  what  human 
power  and  wisdom  really  are;  and  since  it  is  impossible  for  any- 
one man  to  walk  in  all  the  paths  of  life,  or  receive  a  true  con- 
ception of  past  events  from  what  is  legendary  or  fabulous,  the 
science  of  history  comes  forward  to  his  aid,  telling  him  how  cities 
were  built  up,  fortunes  made,  and  battles  won.  Through  this 
means  the  past  lives  in  the  present,  and  a  careful  study  of  its  story 
cannot  fail  to  endow  the  mind  of  the  student  with  a  knowledge 
of  men  and  events. 

Chronology  and  geography  are  the  two  eyes  of  history.  Events 
must  be  observed  through  the  locality  in  which  they  happened,  and 
the  time  when  they  occurred,  if  men  would  judge  justly.  The  massa- 
cres of  Glencoe,  Island  Magee  and  St.  Barthlomew  were  justifiable  in 
the  minds  of  the  ruffian  actors,  with  whom  Christianity  had  as  little  to 
do  as  the  fallen  Lucifer  has  now  with  heaven.  The  rude  policy  of 
the  time  directed  those  human  sacrifices.  If  the  massacre  of  Wy- 
oming were  to  be  repeated  to-day  by  a  troop  of  disguised 
Britishers,  what  a  howl  of  scorn  would  arise  from  the  centers  of 
civilization !  Yet,  during  the  Revolution,  the  enemy  seemed  to  be 
convinced  of  their  justification,  and  the  royal  and  loyal  (?  )  citi- 
zens gloried  in  the  success  of  military  strategy. 

Now  history  brings  forth  all  such  events;  it  inquires  into  them, 
criticises,  paints  the  barbarity  of  the  agents  in  such  transac- 
tions, holds  them  up  to  obloquy,  and  thus  leads  on  the  mind 
to  holier  deeds,  worthy  of  our  civilization.  History  contributed 
its  share  in  making  a  soldier  such  as  Washington,  or  a  philosopher 

116  HISTORY    OF    JAOK80M    COUNTY. 

such  as  Franklin.  Its  work  is  silent  and  slow,  but  sure  and 
perfect.  Nothing  on  this  broad  earth  is  so  solemnly  interesting 
as  an  impartial  historical  work.  It  admonishes  as  well  as  directs. 
It  relates  the  fate  of  brilliant  enterprises,  and  shows  where 
the  cause  of  failure  existed.  It  directs  other  actions  of  great  mo- 
ment, approves  of  them,  and  points  out  where  the  capital  may 
be  placed  on  success.  It  places  examples  before  statesmen  which, 
if  examined  closely,  may  have  a  tendency  to  lead  them  away  from 
a  vicious  policy,  and  so  benefit  the  people  whose  destinies  are 
in  their  hands.  History,  pure  and  simple,  enters  the  paths 
of  peace,  and  snatches  a  hidden  name  from  its  hiding  place.  The 
American  people  of  to-day  are,  and  generations  to  come  will 
be,  more  concerned  about  the  war  of  the  Revolution  than  were  the 
colonists  of  that  period.  So  is  it  in  other  cases;  the  inheritors  of 
these  beautiful  farms  and  dwellings  which  decorate  the  county 
will  search  for  an  account  of  their  forefathers,  and  find  it  only  in 
history.  The  science  is  the  Alpha  and  Omega  of  all  valuable 
information  regarding  men  and  events,  and  should  always  take  a 

[irominent  place  in  the  book-case  or  on  the  table  of  every  man  who 
lolds  not  his  manhood  cheap. 

In  this  history  of  Jackson  county  much  space  is  devoted  to 
the  philosophical  and  descriptive  papers  prepared  by  Jackson  citi- 
zens. This  was  made  incumbent  on  the  writer,  since  many 
of  these  articles  are  of  rare  excellence,  while  others  possess  a  com- 
mendable peculiarity.  Each  contribution  is  intimately  connected 
with  the  county,  and  is  on  that  account,  also,  of  great  value 
and  interest.  Combined,  they  will  form  for  the  historian  of  the  fut- 
ure a  great  subject,  and  one  that  will  remind  him  of  men  who 
did  their  duty  to  themselves,  to  posterity  and  to  their  Republic. 




The  boundaries  of  Jackson  county,  as  denned  in  the  introduc- 
tion to  the  chapter  on  the  "Transaction  of  the  Supervisors,"  and 
remaining  since  unchanged,  are  Ingham  and  Eaton  on  the  north, 
Hillsdale  and  Lenawee  on  the  south,  Washtenaw  on  the  east  and 
Calhoun  on  the  west.  Its  area  is  set  down  at  about  720  square 
miles,  containing  a  population,  according  to  the  census  of  1881 >,  i  >f 
42,031  souls,  by  townships  and  wards  as  follows: 





2d  ward, 
3d    " 
4th  •' 
5th   " 
6th  " 
7th   " 
8th    " 


Jackson  city  1,65!) 
"    1,006 




Spring  Arbor  .  .  . 

.    .1.468 


"    2,557 




"    2,107 




1st  ward,  Jackson 

. . .  1,270 
city  1,537 




Of  these,  21,831  are  males,  20,200  females;  36,429  natives, 
5,602  foreigners;  41,513  white,  518  colored,  3  Chinese  and  3 

The  principal  villages  are:  Springport,  Tompkins,  Berry ville, 
Rives  Junction,  Henrietta,  Waterloo,  Devereaux  Station,  Parma, 
Sandstone,  Van  Horn's  Crossing,  Puddle  Ford,  Woodville,  Leoni, 
Michigan  Center,  Grass  Lake,  Franciscoville,  Concord,  Spring 
Arbor,  Spring  Arbor  Station,  Napoleon,  Norvell,  Jefferson,  Brook- 
lyn, Baldwin,  Hanover,  Stony  Point,  Pulaski. 


The  lakes  and  ponds  of  the  county  are  Montague,  Garley  and 
Cooper's  lakes  in  Springport;  an  expansion  of  Sandstone  creek 
in  Tompkins;  Berry,  Trumbull,  Mud,  and  Allen  lakes  in  Rives; 
Pleasant,  Twin,  White's,  Mud,  Baptiste,  and  Portage  lakes 
in  Henrietta;  Big  Portage,  Little  Portage,  Clear,  Merkle,  Pond 
Lily,  in  Waterloo;  Chase's  pond  in  Parma;  Heart's  lake  in  Sand- 
stone; Gillett's,  Brill's,  Goose,  Eagle,  Mud,  and  Grove  lakes,  and 
Mill  pond  in  Leoni;  Grass,  Tims,  Rielly's  and  Little  Pleasant 
lakes  in  Grass  Lake;  expansion  of  Kalamazoo  river  in  Concord; 
expansions  of  Sandstone  creek  in  Spring  Arbor;  Sharp's,  Vander- 


cook's.  Brown's  and  Com-  lakes  in  Summit;  Ackerman's,  Cran- 
berry,  Stony,  Wolf,  in  Napoleon;  Sweeney,  South,  Wampler's, 
Mud,  Vineyard,  Tamarack,  and  Bessy  lakes,  with  expansion  and 
Mill  pond  on  Goose  creek  in  Xorvell;  Clarke's,  Vineyard  (ex- 
tension of  |  and  Mill  pond  in  Columbia;  Skiff,  Grand,  Round,  Mud, 
and  Crisped  lakes  in  Liberty;  Farewell,  Mud,  Bibbins  and  other 
ponds  in  Hanover;  Swain's,  Wilbur,  Long,  and  Goose  lakes  in 

Jackson  county  forms  the  basin  from  which  springs  a  large 
number  of  important  rivers,  and  several  creeks  or  streams.  Grand 
river  may  be  said  to  have  its  source  in  the  extreme  southern 
portion  of  Liberty  township,  in  a  marsh  and  pond  southwest  of 
Grand  lake.  Its  course  is  northeast,  toward  Clarke  lake,  in 
Columbia;  thence  north  by  west  through  a  series  of  windings, 
until  it  enters  Jackson  city  at  the  southeast  angle.  Flowing 
north  it  meets  the  waters  01  the  An  Foin,  or  Portage  branch,  at 
Puddle  Ford,  in  Blackmail  township,  and  flowing  northwest  forms 
a  junction  with  Sandstone  creek  in  Tompkins,  north  of  the  village. 
It  flows  north  from  sec.  4,  R.  2  W.,  in  Tompkins,  and  pursuing 
a  northwesterly  course,  enters  the  lake  at  Grand  Haven. 

The  Kalamazoo  takes  its  rise  a  little  south  of  Lake  Farewell,  in 
Hanover.  Flowing  through  this  township  it  enters  Spring  Arbor, 
courses  northwest  through  Concord,  and  leaves  the  county  at  the 
southwest  angle  of  Parma,  entering  the  lake  near  the  village  of 

The  Raisin  river  may  be  said  to  have  its  origin  in  Nbrvell 
township,  where  its  main  feeder  flows  from  the  mill-pond,  and 
thus  is  it  made  a  continuation  of  Goose  creek,  the  source  of  which 
is  found  in  Columbia,  the  adjoining  township.  The  second 
feeder  rises  in  Grass  lake,  and  flowing  south,  forms  a  junction 
with  the  main  branch,  south  of  Sweeney  lake,  follows  a  south- 
easterly course,  and  enters  Lake  Erie  at  Monroe. 

The  creeks  are  numerous,  comprising  among  others  Wilbur, 
Swain,  Stony.  Goose,  Marsh  brook,  Wolf,  Rielly's,  Baptiste,  Or- 
chard, Stowed.  White's,  Spring  brook,  Portage  creek,  Mackay 
brook,   Sandstone  and  Raisin  creeks. 

Artesian  water  bursts  forth  at  intervals,  and  courses  down  its 
bed  to  mingle  with  that  of  the  creeks,  lakes  or  rivers. 


The  "height  of  land"  occurs  in  the  township  of  Summit,  immedi- 
ately south  of  Jackson  city.  Here  may  be  seen  the  effect  of  such 
an  eminence  on  the  waters  of  the  locality,  the  waters  of  the  Kala- 
mazoo and  Grand  rivers  flowing  to  the  great  Western  lake,  and 
those  of  the  Raisin  into  Lake  Erie,  at  Monroe.  Summit  has  proba- 
bly never  been  visited  by  the  hydrographer.  In  all  the  reports  at 
hand  there  is  no  mention  made  of  it;  yet  that  it  exercises  a  very 
important  influence  on  the  streams  originating  in  the  immediate 
\  icinity,  cannot  be  questioned.     Let  the  altitudes  of  a  few  principal 


eminences  in  the  State  be  taken.  The  computed  elevation  of  Fran- 
ciscoville  is  446  feet  above  Lake  Huron  and  1,024  feet  above  the 
sea;  that  of  Grass  Lake  readies  within  35  feet  of  the  foregoing 
figures,  and  Leoni  is  Id  feet  lower  than  Grass  Lake.  Jackson  is 
only  400  feet  above  the  lake,  or  (.»7>>  feet  above  the  sea;  Michigan 
Center,  363  feet;  Barry,  .'!<;■_>;  Sandstone  creek,  347  feet;  Gillett's 
lake,  :!.')4  feet,  and  Grass  lake,  :J>77.  This  measurement  would 
entitle  Franciscoville  to  the  name  of  &«»A  The  fact  that  it  is 
the  highest  point  arrived  at  by  one  man  does  not  constitute  it  the 
highest  eminence  of  the  Lower  Penisula  or  even  of  the  county; 
nor  do  the  people  generally  believe  it  to  be;  for  they  named  the 
Summit  under  the  conviction  that  it  was  fully  1,098  feet  above  the 
sea,  or  520  feet  above  the  level  of  Lake  Huron. 

The  marsh  Lands  of  the  county  extend  over  4, 881  acres.  Those 
stretching  along  the  eastern  branch  of  Grand  river,  and  forming 
one  of  its  feeders,  are  very  extensive.  All  this  land,  if  drained, 
is  capable  of  the  highest  cultivation;  and  the  wonder  is  that  such 
an  intelligent  people  have  permitted  it  to  lie  waste  so  Long.  The 
surface  of  this  county  is  generally  undulating,  and  a  very  small 
portion  may  be  said  to  be  hilly.  The  soil  is  that  known  under  the  ap- 
pellation of  plains  and  openings.  The  west  and  southwest  portion, 
constituting,  perhaps,  one-fourth  of  the  county,  is  burr-oak  plains; 
the  greater  portion  of  the  rest  of  the  county  is  oak  openings  and 
timbered  land.  There  is  no  dry  prairie.  Small  tracts  of  wet 
prairie  are  interspersed  throughout  the  county,  which  are  easily 
drained.  This  county  is  generally  well  timbered  and  watered,  and 
has  a  large  portion  of  superior  farming  land.  The  soil  is  mostly  of 
a  rich,  sandy  loam.  The  plains,  much  resembling  orchards,  are 
covered  with  a  sparse  growth  of  burr-oak,  white  and  red  oak  and 
hickory  trees,  generally  free  from  underbrush,  and  in  the  summer 
months  with  a  succession  of  wild  flowers.  Wheat,  oats,  corn, 
barley  and  potatoes  succeed  admirably,  and  the  magnificent 
orchards  generally  yield  a  rich  harvest. 

The  report  of  State  Geologist  Alex.  Winchell,  printed  in  1861, 
deals  briefly  with  the  subject  so  far  as  it  is  connected  with  this 
county.  From  it,  however,  an  idea  of  the  formation  of  the  dis- 
trict may  be  gleaned.  He  docs  not  assert  that  outcrops  of  rock 
are  unknown  here,  but  rather  is  he  inclined  to  think  that  from  the 
arenaceous  character  of  the  Drift  materials  throughout  the  coun- 
ties of  Oakland  and  Lapeer,  an  arenaceous  stratum  may  be  found 
underlying  the  district  known  as  Jackson  county.  Good  exposures 
of  the  formation  may  be  seen  in  the  quarries  at  Jonesville  and  Hills- 
dale, and  at  many  other  points.  In  Jackson  county  the  formation 
extends  up  into  Liberty  and  Hanover,  and  has  been  pierced  nearly 
through  at  the  depth  of  105  feet  in  the  well  of  S.  Jacobs,  Jr.,  in  the 
township  of  Pulaski. 


Napoleon  Group. — The  report,  in  a  direct  reference  to  the  county, 
says:  "The  ne"xt  outcrop  of  these  rocks  is  found  at  Napoleon,  near 
Jackson,  where  they  are  quarried  over  an  area  of  88  acres,  and 
expose  a  section  of  about  75  feet.  The  rock  is  for  the  most  part 
of  a  grayish  color,  inclining  to  buff.  The  beds  are  generally  of 
sufficient  thickness  and  perfection  to  answer  either  for  flagging  or 
building.     The  following  is  the  stratification  : 

4.     Sandstone,  buff  and  bluish-gray,  composed  of  transparent  and   colored 

grains  of  quartz,  thick  bedded 40  feet. 

3.     8  indstone,  yellowish,  thick  bedded 4    " 

2.     Sandstone,  pale  greenish,  thick  bedded 20    " 

1.  Sandstone,  greenish-buff,  composed  of  minute  rounded  grains  of  colored 
quartz,  pretty  firmly  cemented  with  a  very  perceptible  quantity  of 
white  calcareous  matter  11     " 

The  higher  beds  are  worked  on  the  grounds  into  excellent  win- 
dow-sills and  water  tables.  The  compiler  of  the  report  saw  some 
fine  floated  and  molded  stone  steps  and  door-sills.  The  quarries 
at  this  place  furnished  the  cut  stone  for  the  Union  school  buildings, 
and  the  city  hall  at  Monroe,  the  Union  school-house  at  Tecum- 
seh,  and  for  several  public,  private  and  commercial  buildings  in 
the  vicinity.  Some  beds  of  this  stone  are  sufficiently  clean  and 
sharp  to  answer  the  requisites  of  a  coarse  grindstone,  and  some 
years  ago  this  manufacture  attained  here  a  considerable  degree  of 

The  Napoleon  sandstone  outcrops  at  other  places  in  the  south 
part  of  Jackson  county  and  further  northwest.  Being  entirely 
free  from  fossils,  it  is  not  easily  distinguished  from  the  sandstones 
above  and  the  unfossiliferous  portions  of  the  rock  below.  The 
sandstone  of  Napoleon  bears  a  considerable  resemblance  to  the 
conglommerate  of  Ohio,  asseenatthe  gorge  of  the  Cuyahoga  at  the 
falls;  but  it  contains  no  pebbles,  and  occupies  a  position,  more- 
over, below  the  carboniferous  limestone.  As  a  distinct  formation, 
therefore,  it  has  no  satisfactory  equivalent  in  the  surrounding 
States,  and  there  is  no  reason,  except  its  negative  paleontologies  1 
characters,  for  separating  it  from  the  Marshall  group. 

Suit  Group. — The  Salt  group  thins  out  toward  the  southern 
portion  of  the  State,  and  nearly  disappears  through  Lapeer,  Oak- 
land. Washtenaw,  Jackson  and  Eaton  counties,  thus  forming  an- 
other illustration  of  the  thickening  of  our  formations  toward  the 
north.  The  salt  springs  at  Saline,  in  Washtenaw  county,  and  at 
several  points  in  Jackson,  may  possibly  issue  from  the  attenuated 
representative  of  the  group ;  but  I  am  more  inclined  to  think  that 
these  waters,  like  similar  ones  in  Branch,  Oakland  and  the  north- 
ern part  of  Huron  counties,  are  supplied  by  the  various  formations 
outcropping  at  these  localities.  Borings  for  salt  have  shown  the 
Napoleon  and  Marshall  sandstones  to  be  saliferous,  while  at  Sagi- 
naw, water  from  the  Coal  Measures  stood  at  one  degree  of  the  salome- 
ter  in  the  upper  part,  and  increased  to  14  degrees  before  reaching  the 
Parma  sandstone.       It  is  important  to  bear  in  mind  that  the  occur- 

HISTORY    <iK    JACKSON    COUNTY.  121 

rence  of  a  brine  spring  proves  nothing  more  than  that  there  is  salt 
somewhere  in  the  State. 

Parma  Surnistone. — In  the  townships  of  Parma,  Springport  and 
(Sandstone  is  found  a  white  or  yellowish  quartzose  glistening  sand- 
stone containing  occasional  traces  of  terrestrial  vegetation.  On 
the  line  between  sections  18  and  1!»,  in  Sandstone  township, 
this  rock  is  seen  succeeding  upward  to  the  ferruginous  bed  of  the 
carboniferous  limestone.  On  the  N.  W.  JofN.  W.  J  of  section  29 
tlic  rock  presents  a  characteristic  exposure.  It  is  light  colored,  thick 
bedded,  firmly  cemented,  and  furnishes  an  excellent  stone  for 
building  purposes.  It  presents  the  remarkable  dip  of 45  z  S.  S.W., 
with  vertical  divisional  planes  running  parallel  with  the  strike. 
The  rock  is  occasionally  stained  with  iron,  is  of  medium  firm- 
ness, and  glistens  in  the  sun.  owing  to  the  glassy  appearance  of  its 
(piartzose  grains.  For  caps  and  sills  it  is  apparently  superior 
to  the  Napoleon  sandstone.  This  quarry  occurs  upon  a  ridge,  ele- 
vated about  :>.">  feet  above  the  limestone.  It  has  every  appearance 
of  a  violent  uplift,  but  the  undisturbed  position  of  the  under- 
lying limestone  seems  incompatible  with  this  supposition,  and  we 
are  forced  to  conclude  that  the  apparent  dip  of  the  formation 
is  nothing  more  than  a  very  illusory  example  of  oblique  lamina- 
tion. In  the  same  township,  near  where  the  highway  crosses  Pice 
creek,  this  sandstone  affords  a  calamite.  The  rock  is  nearly  white. 
sometimes  varying  to  a  light  straw  color,  and  in  some  places 
is  qitite  full  of  small,  white  quartzose  pebbles.  A  portion  of  the 
Albion  flouring  mill  was  built  of  stone  from  this  section.  AtBoyn- 
ton's  quarry,  half  a  mile  northwest  of  the  Barry  coal  mines,  is 
a  tine  exposure  of  massive  sandstone,  which,  though  occupying 
a  higher  geographical  position  than  the  coal,  is  believed  to  belong 
geologically  below  it.  It  is  found  above  the  limestone,  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  Chester  Wall's  quarry,  and  seems  to  lie  the  highest  rock 
in  the  interval  between  the  Barry  and  Woodville  coal  mines. 
Smith  of  Woodville  it  may  be  recognized  by  its  glistening  charac- 
ter, to  the  vicinity  of  Hayden's  coal  mine,  and  thence  to  the 
region  south  of  Jackson.  It  is  separated  in  this  part  of  the  State 
by  so  short  an  interval  from  the  Napoleon  sandstone  below  and 
the  Woodville  sandstone  above,  that  the  geographical  distribution 
of  this  formation  lias  not  been  very  accurately  determined.  This 
sandstone  was  pierced  in  the  boring  for  salt  at  East  Saginaw,  and 
its  thickness  was  found  to  he  105  feet.  It  cannot  be  one-third 
of  this  on  the  southern  border  of  the  basin.  Xo  fossils,  except  im- 
perfect calamites  and  vegetable  traces,  have  been  detected  in 
the  Parma  rock,  but  accompanying  its  outcrop  are  found  angular 
fragments  of  flinty  or  cherty  sandstone,  abounding  in  impressions  of 
sigillariae.  Unlike  the  Ohio  conglomerate,  it  is  separated  from 
the  Upper  Devonian  rocks  by  a  considerable  thickness  of  calcareous 
and  arenaceous  stratum. 

Tin  "Times"  Building.— W.  V.  Storey,  when  meditating  the 
building  of  the  magnificent  office  in  which  his  journal  is 
printed    and    published,    at    Chicago,    could    not    see    where  the 


Joliet  and  Lemont  quarries  equaled  those  of  Stony  Point  or 
Sandstone.  He  dispatched  a  Mr.  Wilder  hither  to  examine 
and  report  on  the  stone.  The  report  was  necessarily  favor- 
able. Subsequently  the  rock,  of  which  the  Chicago  Time* 
block  is  built,  was  transported  from  Sandstone  to  Chicago,  where 
it  met  the  approval  of  all  building  contractors  not  concerned  in  the 
Lemont.  ring.  This  stone,  though  impregnable  to  the  effects  of 
the  most  biting  frosts,  is  not  entirely  impervious  to  water.  Now 
the  rain  fall  at  Chicago  is  so  very  limited  that  no  fears  may  be  en- 
tertained for  the  building,  while  the  piercing  frosts,  the  only  cause 
for  anxiety  there,  cannot  affect  the  huge  pile  of  Jackson  rock, 
worked  into  the  beautiful  building  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Wash- 

Cwrboniferow  LiTnestone. —  From  Grand  Rapids  the  formation 
has  been  traced  north  through  Ada,  in  Kent  county,  to  the  rapids 
of  the  Muskegon.  South  of  Grand  Rapids  it  is  followed  through 
Walker,  Paris  and  Gaines,  in  Kent  county,  to  Bellevue,  in  Eaton 
comity,  and  thence  by  numerous  outcrops  to  Parma,  Sandstone, 
Spring  Arbor,  Summit,  and  Leoni.  The  S.  W.  |  ofS.  E.  \  of 
section  1.",,  Summit,  is  believed  to  be  the  most  southern  well 
characterized  exposure  of  this  formation.  It  occurs  in  a  quarry 
belonging  to  Michael  Shoemaker.  The  section  exposed  here  is 
about  14  feet,  and  resembles  the  rock  at  Spring  Ai'bor.  It  is  as 

I).  Sandstone,  red,  calcareous,  highly  shattered 5feet 

('.  Limestone,  highly  ferruginous 4    " 

B.  Limestone,  quite  arenaceous,  shattered .2     " 

A.  Limestone,  coin  pact,  crystalline 3    " 

The  characters  of  this  bed  are  exceedingly  uniform  at  all  the  out- 
crops on  the  south  and  west  sides  of  the  geological  basin. 

Coal  Measures.-  The  coal  measures,  with  the  overlying  Wood- 
ville  sandstone,  occupy  the  whole  central  area  of  the  Lower  Pen- 
insula. The  territory  covered  embraces  the  counties  of  Jackson, 
Saginaw.  Shiawassee,  Clinton,  Ionia.  Montcalm,  Gratiot,  Isabella, 
Midland,  Tuscola,  Genesee,  Ingham.  Eaton  and  Ray.  The  whole 
area  underlaid  is  about  ti.7<>o  square  miles,  embracing  1*7  town- 
ships. Coal  was  discovered  at  Spring  Arbor  in  1835,  while  digging 
the  foundations  for  the  mill  of  the  village.  The  opening  occurs  on 
Sandstone  creek,  where  it  is  crossed  by  the  highway,  on  the  ^-sec- 
tion line  running  south  through  the  S.  E.  \.  The  outlier  seems  to 
he  embraced  in  a  gentle  elevation,  covering,  perhaps,  40  acres  to 
thewest  of  the  opening.  Some  distance  up  the  hill-slope,  a  boring 
was  made  with  the  following  results: 

E.  Drift    materials 8feet 

I).  Shale 22    " 

('.  Coal 4    " 

B.  Under  clay    14    " 

A.  Parma  sandstone 


In  the  Drift,  which  has  been  carried  into  the  hill,  the  coal  found 
is  only  three  feet  thick,  and  contains  a  seam  of  iron  pyrites  one  foot 
from  the  top.  Fragments  of  black  band  iron  ore  are  brought  out 
whicli  contain  impressions  ot  fishes.  The  sandstone  comes  to  the 
surface  a  few  rods  to  the  north,  and  a  boring  for  coal  was  executed 
in  it,  of  course  without  success.  The  boring,  however,  became  an 
artesian  well.  One  mile  north  of  Hayden's  mine,  in  Spring  Arbor 
township,  occurs  the  Woodville  mine.  The  section  passed  in  the 
shaft  of  this  mine  is  as  follows: 

E.     Superficial  materials 12  feet 

D.  Woodville  sandstone 30     " 

C.  Shales,  dark,  bituminous 43     " 

B.  Bituminous  coal 4    " 

A.     Under  clays 3    " 

The  coal  is  bituminous,  solid,  generally  free  from  foreign  matters, 
but  is  intersected  by  a  thin  belt  of  iron  pyrites.  It  furnishes  a 
glistening  coke.  The  coal  found  in  the  Jackson  City  Coal  Com- 
pany's mine,  near  the  village  of  Barry,  possesses  similar  qualities 
to  that  of  the  Woodville  mine,  and  appeared  to  equal  any  in  the 
State.  An  outcrop  of  coal  is  said  to  occur  about  half  a  mile  west 
of  the  village  of  Barry.  Another  outcrop  occurs  at  the  mill-dam 
in  the  city  of  Jackson,  and  indications  ofits  approach  to  the  surface. 
are  seen  in  the  neighborhood.  In  the  shaft  which  was  sunk  by  the 
coal  company  above  mentioned,  the  following  section  was  passed, 
according  to  the  statement  of  Wm.  Walker: — 

<i      Superficial  materials 8  feet 

F     Sandstone,  white 26     " 

E.  Black,  bituminous  shale  with  Lingula 14     " 

D.  Black-band  iron   ore  "  "      3     " 

C.  Cannel   coal 2     " 

B     Bituminous  coal 2     " 

A.     Arenaceous  fire  clay 7     " 

In  the  boring  close  by,  the  section  continues  downward  through 
30  feet  of  arenaceous  materials,  probably  representing  the  Parma 
sandstone.  Numerous  explorations  have  been  made  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  city  of  Jackson,  but  it  would  occupy  too  much  space  to  detail 
the  results. 

Depression  over  ('mil  Fields.— The  settling  of  the  earth,  and 
with  it  an  occasional  dwelling  in  the  vicinity  of  the  coal  mines 
north  of  the  prison,  not  only  presents  no  very  alarming  phases, 
but  is  nothing  new,  recent  or  particularly  consequential.  The  coal 
veins  of  that  locality  vary  from  two  to  three  feet  in  thickness,  and 
after  the  mineral  is  removed  and  the  supports  taken  but  it  is  nat- 
ural that  the  ground  above  should  settle  into  the  unoccupied  space. 
But  the  coal  is  65  feet  below,  and  many  times  the  earth  sinks  so 
gradually  and  so  little  that  tin-  change  is  hardly  observable  mi  the 
surface.  Throughout  this  entire  distance,  as  a  result  of  the  sub- 
terranean excavations,  the  face  of  the  land  is  undulating  in  places. 


but  it  is  not  marked  by  abrupt  depressions,  or  sharply  defined  cav- 
ities or  hollows. 

In  several  instances  buildings  standing  on  places  which  have 
thus  settled  of  course  settled  with  their  foundations,  but  were  car- 
ried down  so  gradually  and  gently  that  little  notice  was  taken  of  it. 
And  in  no  case  has  a  building  sunk  independent  of  a  contiguous 
area  more  or  less  extensive,  so  that  as  a  general  thing  the  appear- 
ance of  the  premises  underwent  little  observable  change.  Wear 
the  Emerson  mine,  some  time  ago,  a  small  orchard  sank  a  couple 
of  feet,  but  its  relation  to  the  adjacent  territory  is  such  that  it 
would  hardly  be  suspected  that  any  such  event  had  befallen  it. 
Over  a  year  since  the  house  of  Howell  T.  Iiowells,  18  Cooper 
street,  sank  a  little,  and  three  months  ago  a  barn  in  that,  neighbor- 
hood belonging  to  John  Tremellings  settled,  but  nothing  was 
thoughtof  it.  Recently,  just  north  of  the  Emerson  mine,  near  David 
Price's  dwelling,  the  earth  was  found  to  be  sinking  and  it  is 
not  improbable  that  the  dwelling  will  be  iuvolved,  as  coal  of 
the  thickness  of  two  or  three  feet  has  been  taken  from  beneath  it. 
Allusion  has  been  made  to  the  sinking  of  the  small  brick  house  of 
Louis  lieinholdt,  florist,  37  Cooper  street,  but  aside  from  two  or 
three  small  fissures  in  the  cellar  walls  the  building  seems  to  be  in- 
tact and  in  no  danger  of  additional  injury  or  of  collapse.  As  arule, 
however,  the  buildings  in  this  district  are  frame,  and  there  is  little 
or  no  danger  of  their  falling  in  case  the  ground  beneath  them  set- 
tles as  already  explained. 

Other  Minerals. — Ochre  beds  are  found  in  Jackson  county,  em- 
braced in  the  Woodville  sandstone.  In  several  localities  ochreous 
deposits  from  springs  exist  in  such  quantities  as  to  justify  attempts 
at  establishing  a  business. 

Oxyd  of  Mitiujtniixi  lias  been  found  at  a  depth  of  two  feet  be- 
neath a  bed  of  peat,  forming  a  stratum  14  inches  thick  and  ex- 
tensive in  its  area.  Over  20  years  ago  this  mineral  was  used  as 
carriage  paint  by  L.  D.  Gale,  of  Grass  Lake. 

FvrrtHjimxix  Shales. — Ferruginous  and  chocolate-colored  shales 
occur  in  the  Coal  Measures.  A  paint  made  up  of  these  shales  was 
used  for  outside  work  at  Lansing  in  1858,  and  promised  to  give 
every  satisfaction. 

Fire  Clay. — A  vast  deposit  of  fire  clay  is  found  a  short  distance 
north  of  the  city  limits,  which  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  sewer 
pipe  and  fire  brick,  while  the  whiter  portions,  together  witli  a  finer 
quality  of  potter's  clay  from  the  beds  of  Spring  Arbor,  are  used  in 
the  manufacture  of  the  better  class  of  pottery  work. 

Iron  Ore  is  found,  but  not.  in  sufficient  quantities  to  suggest 
mining  operations.  What  does  exist  is  of  excellent  quality,  and 
may  lead  the  geologist  to  such  exploration  as  may  result  in  the  dis- 
covery of  illimitable  deposits  within  this  county. 

County  Peat  Fields. — The  peat,  lignite  and  other  bituminous 
deposits  to  be  found  in  the  county  are  of  incalculable  value.  In 
this    connection    Mr.    Winchell    gives    a    synopsis    of  the     varied 


uses  in  which  the  much   despised   peat  would  take  a  very  promi- 
nent part : 

1.  Crude  peat  as  a  fertilizer  for  the  soi.. 

2.  Prepared  peat  and  peat  coke  as  fuel. 
(/*)  For  domestic  heating  purposes. 
(h)    For  the  generation  of  steam. 

(r.)     For  the  manufacture  and  working  of  metals. 
3     Peat  for  the  manufacture  of  gunpowder. 

4.  Peat,  or  bitumen  from  peat,  for  paving  purposes. 

5.  Crude  oil,  for  lubrication,  illumination  and  gas-making. 
0.     Petroleum  for  burning  in  lamps. 

7.  Paraffine  for  the  manufacture  of  candles. 

s  Light,  inflammable  gas  for  heating. 

9.  Illuminating  gas  of  superior  quality 

10.  Lampblack . 

These  views  of  the  State  Geologist  are  in  accordance  with  those 
of  early  and  even  modern  writers.  They  are  not  impracticable  where 
peat  fields  exist,  and  should  be  minutely  inquired  into  by  the 
enterprising  capitalists  of  the  county. 

Description  of  a  Jackson  Muskeg. — Near  Michigan  Center 
is  a  muskeg,  or  covered  lake.  This  was  over  100  feet  in  depth, 
bearing  upon  its  surface  the  accumulated  houghs,  trees,  leaves  and 
sands  of  ages. — the  refuse  of  the  forest  and  the  neighboring  sand 
hills. — all  hidden  beneath  a  stratum  of  black,  marshy  Loam,  and 
this  again  covered  with  luxuriant  grass  and  herbage.  It  is,  un- 
doubtedly, hundreds  of  years  since  the  once  extensive  and  clear 
waters  of  this  lake  began  to  receive  the  contributions  of  vege- 
table matter  and  sands  which  have  since  converted  the  neighbor- 
hood of  its  present  limits  into  rich  and  fertile  lands,  and  gave 
promise  to  complete  their  labors  as  field-makers.  In  the  distant 
northwest  the  water  is  undergoing  the  same  process.  Everywhere 
the  treacherous  muskeg  presents  itself,  but  in  a  far  more  primitive 
condition  than  the  muskegs  of  Michigan,  of  which  that  at  Center 
village  is  a  specimen. 

Mr.  Winchell,  when  dealing  with  this  subject,  says  numer- 
ous evidences  exist  of  the  movement  of  heavy  bodies  over  the  un- 
derlying rocks,  previously  to  their  burial  by  the  Drift.  Wherever 
considerable  surfaces  are  found  exposed  they  are  seen  smoothed 
and  striated  in  the  manner  usually  attributed  to  Drift  agency.  The 
inequalities  left  in  the  surfaces  of'the  assorted  Drift,  upon  the  with- 
drawal of  the  submerging  ocean,  remained  tilled  with  water,  which, 
by  constant  drainage  to  the  sea  in  connection  with  accessions  of  fresh 
water  only,  have  become  our  numerous  inland  lakes.  These  for  many 
ages  have  been  constantly  tilling  up  from  several  sources.  Around 
the  margin  of  these  lakes  is  always  a  belt  abounding  in  every 
.form  of  aquatic  vegetation,  which,  decaying,  forms  a  deposit  of  veg- 
etable matter,  resting  upon  the  marl  from  the  water's  edge  to  the 
inner  Hunt  of  vegetable  growth.  The  filling  of  the  interior  with 
transported  matter,  calcareous  sediments,  and  shells  of  fresh  water 
mollusks,  causes  the  shallow  belt  to  extend  toward  the  center,  and 
the  vegetable  deposit  to  encroach  continually  upon  the  lacustrine 


area,  until  the  whole  lake  becomes  a  peaty  marsh  with  a  bed 
of  marl  at  the  bottom.  Subsequent  accessions  till  the  interstices 
of  the  porous  soil,  exclude  the  standing  water,  and  convert  the 
reeking  marsh  into  dry  and  arable  land.  The  beaver  and  the 
muskrat  may  exert  some  agency  in  the  inundation  and  drainage  of 
lands;  but  a  few  observations  on  the  borders  of  our  lakes  will  suf- 
fice to  show  that  they  are  by  no  means  the  principal  agents.  The 
beds  of  marl  and  peat  thus  accumulated  constitute  almost  exhaust- 
less  repositories  of  nutritive  matter  for  the  recuperation  of  the  hill- 
side soils,  that  have  been  exhausted  of  their  soluble  ingredients  by 
the  leaching  rains  and  an  improvident  system  of  farming. 

Pre-Columbian,  if  not  Anted/ilv/oicm. — Imbedded  in  these  ac- 
cumulations are  found  the  remains  of  the  elephant,  mastodon,  and 
elk.  A  fragment  of  a  mastodon's  molar  was  found  by  Dr.  Miles, 
at  Green  Oak,  Livingston  Co.  A  perfect  molar  of  an  elephant 
was  exhumed  by  some  farmers  in  the  northern  portion  of  Jackson 
county.  And  so  on,  throughout  the  counties,  these  relics  of  the 
dim  past  are  brought  forth  from  their  primitive  hiding  places  to  of- 
fer new  subjects  for  inquiry.  During  the  progress  of  the  first  geo- 
logical survey.  Prof.  Sager,  then  State  Geologist,  exhumed  in  the 
western  part  of  the  State  the  caudal  vertebrae  of  a  whale. 

Artesian  Welfo. — The  late  successful  boring  of  several  artesian 
wells  in  the  southern  part  of  the  State  has  created  a  very  general 
desire  to  know  to  what  extent  artesian  borings  would  prove  suc- 
cessful in  other  parts.  Several  unsuccessful  borings  have  been 
made  rather  by  experiment  than  by  any  adequate  knowledge  of 
the  existence  of  such  a  geological  structure  as  could  furnish  rea- 
sonable grounds  for  the  expectation  of  success.  From  what  has 
been  stated  of  the  general  conformation  of  the  strata  underlying 
the  Lower  Peninsula,  the  accumulation  and  retention  of  vast  reser- 
voirs of  water  will  appear  obvious  and  necessary.  Rains  falling 
on  the  surface  percolate  down  until  the  water  reaches  an  impervious 
stratum,  along  which  it  flows  until  it  reaches  the  lowest  depression 
of  such  stratum,  somewhere  beneath  the  center  of  the  State,  and 
some  hundreds  of  feet  from  the  surface.  The  water-bearing  strata 
are,  therefore,  porous  sandstone,  immediately  underlaid  and  over- 
laid by  impervious  strata  of  an  argillaceous  or  calcareous  character. 
Each  porous  sandstone  stratum  becomes  in  this  manner  surcharged 
with  water,  admitted  at  its  outcrop.  It  is  obvious  that  by  boring 
down  at  any  point  within  the.  circuit  of  the  outcrop  of  water-bear- 
ing stratum,  until  the  stratum  is  pierced,  the  water  will  rise  to  a 
level  with  the  rim  of  the  basin  which  holds  it.  If  the  place  of 
boring  is  lower  than  that  point,  the  water  will  rise  to  the  surface 
and  overflow  ;  if  higher,  it  will  not.  In  the  southern  part  of  Jack- 
son and  the  northern  part  of  Hillsdale  counties  the  sandstones  of 
the  Napoleon  and  Marshall  groups  outcrop  at  levels  considerably 
higher  than  the  general  elevations  of  the  Peninsula,  and  it  is  likely 
that  the  impediments  to  a  free  circulation  of  the  water  in  these 
strata  prevent  them  from  sinking  to  the  level  of  the  lowest  portions 
of  the  basin  in  remote  parts  of  the  State. 


As  a  consequence  artesian  borings  might  prove  successful  through- 
out the  southern  half  of  Jackson  county.  It  must  not  be  supp  ised. 
however,  that  the  artesian  wells  of  Jackson  are  supplied  from  this 
source.  If  I  have  succeeded  in  the  identification  of  the  rocks  in 
that  vicinity,  these  wells  are  supplied  from  the  Parma  sandstone. 
Albion  is  outside  the  rim  of  this  formation,  and  the  wells  there 
have  to  be  continued  down  to  the  bottom  of  the  Napoleon  sand- 
stone. Marshall  is  outside  this  rim.  and  rests  just  upon  that  of 
the  outcropping  Marshall  group;  and  hence  I  should  not  expect 
that  the  contained  waters  would  rise  to  the  surface.  The  artesian 
(salt)  wells  of  Grand  Rapids  are  supplied  from  the  Napoleon 
group,  the  water  being  salted  from  the  group  immediately  above. 
The  wells  of  Saginaw  issue  from  the  same  sandstones  and  are 
salted  in  the  same  way. 

In  the  southern  part  of  Jackson,  where  the  streams  have  cut 
their  way  through  these  rocks,  the  contained  waters  rush  forth  in 
extended  chains  of  most  beautiful  and'  copious  springs.  The  indi- 
cations seem  to  justify  the  conclusion  that  the  wells  at  Jackson  are 
supplied  from  a'local'  basin.  It  appears,  therefore,  that  a  reliable 
opinion  on  the  prospect  of  success  at  any  particular  point  involves 
not  only  a  knowledge  of  the  general  conformation  of  rocks,  but  also 
an  acquaintance  with  the  special  geology  of  the  region  in  question. 
The  purity  and  salubrity  of  well  and  spring  water  in  the  Lower 
Peninsula  are  generally  very  great.  An  analysis  made  by  T.  C. 
McNeil,  A.  B.,  of  the  Laboratory  of  Applied  Chemistry,  resulted 
as  follows: 

Depth  of  well,  north  of  University  Campus, 70  ft.  8  in . 

Temperature  of  water 50°  Fah. 

Free  carbonic  acid  in  100  parts 0  15593 

Solid  constituents. 

Carbonate  of  lime. 01780(1 

"    magnesia 006053 

'•    iron 000290 

Chloride  of  sodium 000448 

Sulphate  of  soda 000507 

Carbonate  of  soda 000152 

Sulphate  of  potash 000678 

Silicic  acid 000730 

Organic  matter 002300 


The  solid  constituents  of  some  wells  in  Jackson  and  neighboring 
counties  sum  up  a  total  equal  to  .037936,  with  free  and  partially 
combined  carbonic  acid  equaling  .028500  in  100  parts.  This 
is  the  quality  of  the  water  which  is  supplied  to  the  citizens  of 
Jackson,  and  in  it  they  possess  something  even  superior  to  that 
produced  by  the  celebrated  wells  of  Europe,  and  almost  equal 
to  the  finest  artesian  water  on  this  continent.  Many  of  the  facts  in 
the  foregoing  pages,  dealing  specially  with  the  geological  forma- 
tions of  this  county,  were  collected  from  a  geological  report 
published    in    1861,    under  the   direction   of  A.  Winched,  State 


Geologist.  A  great  amount  of  attention  has  been  evidently  be- 
stowed upon  the  subject  by  him,  so  that  now,  20  years  after  his 
geological  survey,  it  may  be  said  with  truth  that  he  was  precise  in 
his  professional  dealings,  and  almost  exact  in  his  locations  and 
descriptions.  The  enterprise  of  the  citizens  has  tended  to  eclipse 
the  brightest  day-dreams  of  the  geologist;  but  there  is  yet  work  to 
be  done  before  all  the  magnificent  mineral  resources  of  the  county 
yield  up  their  riches. 


Noxious  exhalations  which  arise  from  moist,  rich,  and  productive 
lands  are  generally  termed  miasma.  The  greater  the  amount  of 
vegetable  productions  the  greater  the  amount  of  these  exhala- 
tions, so  dangerous  to  the  health  of  the  animal  system.  Moist- 
ure, heat  and  natural  decadence  of  substances  are  the  primary 
causes  of  its  generation.  Heat  alone  will  not  be  able  to  produce 
it;  because,  under  the  intense  warmth  of  the  Sahara  desert, 
miasmatical  vapor  does  not  exist,  nor  does  it  show  itself  under  the 
intense  cold  of  Northern  latitudes.  Therefore  it  is  evident  that 
it  requires  heat,  moisture,  and  decaying  vegetable  substances  to 
produce  it.  These  are  to  be  easily  found  in  this  county.  The 
rich  alluvial  soil,  over  which,  in  the  past,  the  commerce  of  nations 
might  have  been  put  afloat,  together  with  the  gradual  and  ever 
progressive  growth  and  decay  of  its  rich  vegetation,  to  which  may 
be  added  the  heat  of  the  summer  months  and  the  dampness  that 
waits  upon  the  approach  of  spring,  render  the  locality  peculiarly 
adapted  to  the  generation  of  vapors,  charged  with  poisonous 
particles  of  matter  which  are  undoubtedly  very  detrimental  to 
health.  From  the  opinions  expressed  by  a  few  of  the  leading 
medical  practitioners,  it  is  evident  that  Jackson  is  not  subjected 
to  the  evils  which  miasma  is  calculated  to  foster.  How  is  this? 
It  is  because  the  county  is  partially  drained,  and  therefore  com- 
paratively free  from  miasmatical  producers.  It  is  said  with  some 
degree  of  accuracy  that  the  drainage  of  marshes  expels  it;  while 
the  process  of  absorption  and  evaporation,  which  results  after 
an  inundation,  reproduces  it  where  it  had  previously  existed. 
Now  Jackson's  marshy  days  are  almost  passed,  and  the  chances  of 
an  inundation  are  of  a  most  limited  character,  so  that  on  both  these 
points  our  citizens  can  rest  secure  in  the  certainty  that  disease 
will  not  be  fostered  by  the  generation  of  miasma.  However  there 
are  other  causes  at  work  which  may  form  melancholy  substitutes 
for  the  ordinary  marsh.  Cess-pools,  badly-kept  sleeping  rooms, 
and  other  such  hot-beds  of  disease  are  sadly  prevalent.  This 
is  a  matter  which  should  reach  the  home  of  every  householder 
in  the  county,  and  be  studiously  inquired  into  by  him;  because 
neglect  of  sanitary  precaution  is  always  certain  to  lead  to  most 
deplorable  results.  It  is  a  matter  affecting  the  interests  of  the 
public  that  all  these  cess-pools  be  cleaned  out  and  kept  clean, 
otherwise  the  pernicious  odors   arising  from   them  will  become 


concentrated  in  the  air,  and  ultimately  roll  along  the  surface  with 
a  fatal  laziness  which  may  carry  disease,  if  not  death,  into  the 
mansions  of  the  wealthy  as  well  as  the  hovels  of  the  wretched. 
The  elevated  position  of  the  county  insures  health  to  the  in- 
habitants, always  provided  they  do  not  stay  the  progress  of  nature 
by  their  own  negligence  or  artifice. 


Nature  has  done  much  for  this  district,  and  seems  to  vie 
with  man's  art  in  making  the  land  beautiful.  The  fall,  more 
particularly,  renders  life  most  enjoyable,  and  tills  the  weary  heart 
with  peculiar  delight.  The  beauties  of  the  October  days  in  this 
section  of  the  State  have  often  been  sung,  and  periodically  spoken 
of  as  being  the  most  glorious  part  of  the  year.  While  praising  the 
mildness  of  the  weather  and  the  many  tints  of  the  foliage,  yet  we 
hardly  recognize  how  infinitely  superior  they  are.  The  coldness 
and  moisture  and  simple  browns  of  many  lands  ought  to  send  their 
travelers  to  this,  if  only  to  enjoy  these  fine  days  and  bright 
colors  of  middle  autumn.  There  is  no  more  enjoyable  time  for 
journeying;  the  intense  heats  of  summer  are  moderated;  a  suf- 
ficiently cool  air  is  gently  blowing  from  the  south;  the  occasional 
morning  fogs  are  dissipated  in  a  few  hours;  a  soft  haze  fills  the 
whole  air,  and  by  noon  there  is  a  quietness  and  softness  pervading 
all  nature  that  soothes  the  mind,  giving  a  sense  of  most  exquisite 
contentment.  It  is  quite  common  to  say  that  the  foliage  is  brighter 
or  less  bright  this  year  than  in  some  previous  ones;  but  after  all 
it  is  doubtful  if  there  is  as  much  difference  as  is  supposed.  Cer- 
tain localities  may  be  differently  affected  at  different  times;  but  one 
who  looks  over  an  extensive  range  of  country  will  find  the  brilliant, 
glowing  colors  showing  themselves  everywhere.  The  natural  ripen- 
ing of  the  leaf  produces  the  various  changes  which  we  see, 
though  perhaps  these  are  sometimes  expedited  or  hindered  by  an 
early  frost.  A  people  as  genial  as  the  climate  render  a  stay 
in  this  portion  of  Michigan  something  to  be  remembered.  It 
brings  with  it  true  and  untold  pleasures,  pleasant  associations, 
scenes  that  may  hold  a  place  in  memory,  peace  and  health. 


The  archaeological  discoveries  made  in  this  county  are  confined 
to  souvenirs  of  its  Indian  occupancy.  The  burying  grounds  of  the 
red  man  were  numerous  before  the  white  settler  passed  over 
them  with  the  plowshare.  The  Indian  corn-fields,  doubtless,  held 
a  position  hitherto  occupied  by  the  gardens  of  a  prehistoric 
race,  and  these,  in  turn,  disappeared  before  the  march  of  the  civil- 
izer;  so  all  that  remains  of  Asiatic  or  Indian  origin  are  the  scalp- 
ing-knife,  stone-pipe  and  rusted  peltry,  a  stone  hammer,  bone 
knife,  and  some  polished  work  in  limestone.  The  bones  of  masto- 
don, mammoth  and  elephant  have  been  unearthed  in  the  district, 



and  round  the  city  of  Jackson  are  spots  which  it  is  said  bore  a  re- 
semblance to  the"  garden  beds  of  the  ancients,  when  the  early  set- 
tlers first  beheld  the  great  ford  of  the  Washtenong,  or  Grand  river. 
Mr.  S.  O.  Knapp,  of  Jackson,  whose  archaeological  labors  are  well 
known,  did  not  prosecute  a  search  throughout  this  county  for  rel- 
ics of  the  past,  This  is  to  be  regretted,  since  it  is  not  at  all 
improbable  that  the  ancient  wanderers  made  this  county  a  place  of 
meeting,  and  doubtless  left  many  evidences  of  their  stay. 




In  chronicling  the  history  of*  Jackson  county  and  its  early 
settlers,  a  task  usually  difficult  has  been  made  comparatively  easy, 
owing  to  the  courtesies  extended  to  the  writer  by  the  officers  of  the 
Pioneer  Society  and  many  member  8  of  that  organization,  who  placed 
the  records  at  the  disposal  of  the  writer,  or  prepared  special  papers 
for  this  work.  It  may  be  impossible  to  collate  all  the  fragmentary 
scraps  of  history  for  the  past  half  century;  but  enough  will  re- 
main recorded  in  this  chapter  to  enkindle  in  the  memory  of 
the  surviving  pilgrims  recollections  of  kindred  facts,  not  given  us. 
which  would  otherwise  lie  wrapped  in  oblivion.  Records  of  such 
items  should  be  made  as  they  are  brought  to  light,  that  the  histo- 
rian of  the  future  may  have  abundance  of  material  from  which 
to  compile.  Studious  care  will  be  taken  to  leave  uncertain  infor- 
mation unrequisitioned.  and  to  observe  accuracy  and  truth. 


That  the  Indians  of  many  tribes  met  within  the  present  confines 
of  Jackson  county  in  their  travels  between  Chicago  and  Port  De- 
troit has  been  conceded;  nor  is  it  questioned  by  many  that  at  a 
very  early  period,  perhaps  prior  to  the  Revolution,  the  Potta- 
watomies,  Kickapoos,  Shawnees,  Foxes,  Sacs,  and  some  wandering 
Otchipwas,  met  near  the  present  capital  of  the  county,  then  the 
Washtenong  country,  and  ensanguined  the  wilds  east  of  the  meeting 
of  the  trails  with  their  blood.  The  bones  which  had  been  so  exten- 
sively scattered  over  the  wilderness  in  1830,  and  found  even  at  pres- 
ent, point  to  this  as  having  been  the  terrible  battle-ground  of  the 
barbarians.  The  legends  of  the  Northern  Crees  and  Assinniboines 
speak  of  Central  Michigan  as  the  scene  of  the  "  great  battle,  "  and 
even  the  war  songs  of  the  Pottawatomies  did  not  fail  to  notice  it. 

In  1673  the  holy  Marquette,  with  the  gallant  Joliet,  appeared 
among  the  tribes  of  the  Northwest,  and  prepared  the  barbarian 
mind  to  conceive  an  idea  of  the  white  invader  who  was  destined  to 
occupy  the  Indian  hunting-grounds  within  a  century  and  a  half. 
The  first  white  men  who  are  known  to  have  arrived  at  the  meeting 
of  the  trails  were  involuntary  visitors.  Their  names  were 
McDonagh  and  Limp, — two  soldiers  of  Harrison's  army  corps, — 
reported  missing  while  en  route  to  Detroit  in  1812.  But  from  what 
little  can  be  learned  from  the  British  blue  books,  it  may  be  pre- 
sumed that  the  Pottawatomies  seized  upon  many  more  American 
troops,    and  wreaked  their  vengeance  on  them  close  by  or   within 

9  (133) 


the  limits  of  Jackson  city.  Those  soldiers  were  the  first  white 
settlers;  their  ashes  rest  here,  and  over  their  graves  rises  a  beauti- 
ful city,  while  the  barbarians  who  put  them  to  death  are  vanished, 
banished  or  slain. 


The  French-Canadian  voyageur  came  next,  and  he  was  followed 
by  the  French  trader.  The  presence  of  the  Frenchman  among  the 
wigwams  of  the  wild  hunters  rather  detracted  from  the  morals 
of  the  former  than  added  to  the  intelligence  of  the  latter.  He 
introduced  his  peltries  first,  and  followed  up  his  commercial  suc- 
cesses by  the  sale  of  fire-water.  He  ultimately  acquired  the  proprie- 
torship of  a  squaw,  and  for  years  shared  in  the  sympathies  and 
manners  of  the  savages  among  whom  he  dwelt.  As  a  rule,  the  ear- 
lier traders,  after  many  years' intercourse  with  the  red  men,  de- 
camped from  their  wigwams,  separated  forever  from  their  Indian 
wives,  and  sought  the  civilized  life  of  olden  days;  but  the  last 
French  trader  known  in  Jackson  county  was  faithful  to  his  savage 
spouse  for  a  long  time  and  continued  to  dwell  on  the  old  camp- 
ground long  years  after  the  last  of  the  Pottawatomies  disappeared 
from  the  county.  This  trader  was  generally  known  by  the  name 
of  Baptiste  Boreaux,  and  claimed  to  have  traded  with  his  dusky 
customers  from  the  year  1815  to  the  period  of  the  great  influx 
of  immigration.  The  little  lake  in  Henrietta  which  bears  his  name 
is  the  only  monument  of  his  early  visit  and  his  stay;  but  there  are 
many  living  who  remember  him  well,  and  bear  testimony  to 
his  rude  excellence.  Generation  after  generation  of  savages  ap- 
peared upon  the  scenes  of  Indian  life,  roamed  through  the  forest,  or 
paddled  their  canoes  down  the  streams  of  the  county,  while  yet  be- 
yond them  and  around  swarmed  the  civilizers,  the  immigrants 
from  the  Fast.  The  white  man  at  length  appeared.  The  Indian 
did  not  flee  from  his  approach,  but  lived  among  the  deer  and  wolf 
and  bear  which  abounded  in  the  district  and  ottered  them  pleasure 
and  food.  Sometimes  a  group  of  redskins  would  assemble  in  the 
rude  cabin  of  the  backwoodsman,  light  the  pipe  of  peace,  and  tell 
such  stories  as  the  following: 

THE    STOEY    OF    THE    FLOOD. 

"Wap-ka-zeek,  a  chief  of  one  of  the  bands  of  Indians  inhabiting 
.Jackson  county,  related  the  following  legend  of  the  deluge  to 
Barnard,  an  Indian  trader: 

"One  morning  water  for  washing  was  brought  to  Manu,  and 
when  he  had  washed  himself  a  fish  remained  in  his  hands.  And 
it  addressed  these  words  to  him:  'Protect  me  and  I  will  save 
thee.'  '  From  what  wilt  thou  save  me  V  '  A  deluge  will  sweep  all 
creatures  away;  it  is  from  that  I  will  save  thee.'  'How  shall  I 
protect  thee V  The  fish  replied:  'While  we  are  small  we  run 
great  dangers,  for  fish  swallow  fish.      Keep  me  at  first  in  a  vase; 


when  I  become  too  large  for  it  dig  a  basin  and  put  me  into  it. 
When  I  shall  have  grown  still  more,  throw  me  into  the  ocean;  then 
I  shall  be  preserved  from  destruction.'  Soon  it  grew  a  large  fish. 
It  said  to  Manu:  '  The  very  year  I  shall  have  reached  my  full 
growth  the  deluge  shall  happen.  Then  build  a  vessel  and  worship 
me.  When  the  wTaters  rise,  enter  the  vessel  and  I  will  save  thee.' 
After  keeping  him  thus  Manu  carried  the  fish  to  the  sea.  In  the 
year  indicated  Manu  built  a  vessel  and  worshiped  the  fish.  And 
when  the  deluge  came  he  entered  the  vessel.  Then  the  fish  came 
swimming  up  to  him,  and  Manu  fastened  the  cable  of  the  ship  to 
the  horn  of  the  fish,  by  which  means  the  latter  made  it  pass  over 
the  Mountain  of  the  North.  The  fish  said:  -f  have  saved  thee; 
fasten  the  vessel  to  a  tree  that  the  water  may  not  sweep  it  away 
while  thou  art  on  the  mountain;  and  in  proportion  as  the  waters 
decrease  thou  shalt  descend.'  Manu  descended  with  the  waters, 
and  this  is  what  is  called  the  descent  of  Manu  on  the  Mountain  of 
the  North.  The  deluge  had  carried  away  all  creatures,  and  Manu 
remained  alone." 

The  Sac  war  excitement  reached  the  ears  of  the  Jackson  Indi- 
ans, so  that  their  councils  were  turned  from  peace  to  war.  They 
assembled  at  intervals  round 


The  legislative  hall  of  the  Indian  had  the  starry  skies  for  a  dome. 
The  waif  of  night  girdled  it;  the  council  fire  aftorded  the  dusky 
chiefs  and  "bucks"  sufficient  illumination,  and  brands  with  which 
to  light  the  circling  pipe.  Among  the  gnarled  trees  which  formed 
the  background  the  shape  of  the  teepees  was  defined  in  the  gloom. 
Wolves  were  yelping  all  around.  A  pack  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
was  answered  by  hundreds  of  voices  from  the  surrounding  darkness. 

The  old  chiefs  had  been  to  a  council  with  the  white  brother. 
Two  suns  had  passed  since  their  return,  laden  with  presents,  which 
had  made  the  old  chiefs'  hearts  glad,  and  every  young  buck  in  the 
village  envious.  One  by  one  the  old  men  rose,  their  story  was 
told,  and  each  had  the  same  good  word  to  say.  The  white  brother 
was  strong;  his  number  exceeded  that  of  the  buffalo  (heavy  grunts 
from  all  sides);  he  had  pony  soldiers  without  number,  and  walk-a- 
heaps  (infantry)  till  no  Indian  could  count  them! — this  all  by  way  of 
indicating  how  strong  the  white  brother  was,  also  the  white 
brother's  heart  was  very  good;  he  was  anxious  for  peace,  and  will 
give  the  red  brother  blankets,  sugar,  spotted  buffalo  (cattle)  and 
divers  other  good  things.  This  and  much  more  was  gone  over  by 
the  old  chiefs;  and  when  at  last  they  had  finished,  an  unbroken 
silence  prevailed  while  the  pipes  passed  round  the  circle  many 
times.  Then  a  young  buck  arose  slowly,  and  moved  swiftly  toward 
the  fire.  He  had  but  little  to  say.  The  old  chiefs  were  very  wise. 
They  had  the  frosts  of  many  winters  on  their  heads.  Their  teepees 
were  large,  and  filled  with  many  things  which  make  the  heart  of 
an  Indian  glad.     Their  ponies  were  many  and  fat.     They  were 


known  and  respected  by  many  great  chiefs.  Should  they  be  called 
to  journey  to  the  happy  hunting-ground,  the  trail  would  be  an  open 
one,  for  they  would  be  known  from  afar.  Tins  and  much  more 
complimentary  talk  was  gone  through.  Then  comes  the  gist  ol 
the  talk.  Who  knows  the  Young  Elk?  No  one  (grunts  all 
round),  lie  has  one  pony.  The  pony  is  very  thin.  He  has  no 
hope  of  recognition  from  the  gate-keeper  of  the  happy  hunting- 
ground.  Hi-  has  nothing  in  his  teepee  with  which  to  give  welcome 
to  a  friend.  Then  follows  an  exhibit  of  poverty  which  extorts  a 
chorus  of  grunts  from  the  circle  of  squatters.  The  speaker  con- 
tinued. He  is  not  a  squaw;  his  eves  are  hurt  now  by  the  smoke  of 
the  squaws'  tires.  He  is  not  alone;  there  are  many  more  young 
men  who  arc  no  better  off  than  he.  The  white  brother  is  a  woman: 
his  arm  is  weak,  and  his  heart  is  as  pale  as  his  face.  A  man 
can  take  from  him  all  that  he  has,  and  the  big-gun  men  in  the  dig- 
heap  (tort)  will  give  much  more.  He  is  done:  lie  will  talk  no  more, 
but  will  go  and  prove  that  his  words  are  true. 

Such  is  a  brief  description  of  the  councils  held  by  the  Indians  in 
the  days  of  the  first  settlers,  when  old  Te-cum-qua-see  and  Wap- 
ka-zeek  governed  the  bands  then  claiming  the  county  as  their 


Early  in  1825  an  Indian  from  some  distant  village  was  wending 
his  way  northward  along  an  unfrequented  trail,  passing  through 
the  present  location  of  Westren's  Corners.  At  sun-down  he  spread 
his  robe  beside  his  blazing  fire,  and  settled  down  to  that  repose  to 
which  his  long  march  entitled  him.  Presently  he  saw  a  sta^  ap- 
proaching, and  rose  to  grasp  his  rifle,  but  he  was  too  late;  the 
maddened  animal  rushed  at  him  with  a  stunning  force,  and  did  not 
cease  to  belabor  the  red  man  with  antlers  and  hoofs  until  in- 
stinct informed  him  of  his  victim's  death.  Indians  passed  that 
way  when  the  night  was  advanced,  took  in  the  situation,  buried 
their  friend  next  day,  and  parted  from  the  solitary  grave.  The 
road  of  the  white  man  was  subsequently  made,  and  the  bones  of 
that  Indian  exhumed. 


Nothing  excited  the  curiosity  of  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the 
early  settlers  more  than  the  Indian  pappoose.  When  the  women  of 
the  present  time  read  of  the  manner  in  which  the  youthful  savage  is 
raised,  they  will  not  wonder  at  the  surprise  exhibited  by  the  pio- 
neers at  the  tenderness  shown  by  the  Indian  mother  toward  her 
child,  or  at  the  rude  cradle  in  which  the  aborigines  were  nursed. 
It  is  also  well  to  convey  an  idea  of  how  the  wild  woman  of  the  wil- 
derness treated  her  offspring,  because  a  pleasant  and  envious  notion 
is  entertained  here  and  in  other  civilized  precincts  that  young  In  - 


dians  grow — -just  grow,  as  Topsy  thought  she  did.  But  it  is  not  so; 
they  have  sure  eyes  and  had  tempers;  they  wake  up  in  the  night 
with  lusty  yells  and  the  colic;  they  have  tits;  they  raise  riots  when 
cutting  their  teeth;  and  they  are  just  a^  much  petted  and  just  as 
mischievous  as  our  own. 

The  mothers  of  Pocahontas  and  lied  .Jacket  worried  over  them 
with  just  as  much  earnestness  as,  perhaps,  did  the  maternal  pro- 
genitor of  George  Washington,  while  quite  as  much  paternal 
supervision  was  given,  doubtless,  to  one  as  to  the  other.  When  the 
question  of  love  and  tenderness  alone  is  mooted,  then  should  it  be 
said  without  hesitation  that  the  baby  born  to-day  in  the  shadow  and 
smoke  of  savage  life  is  as  carefully '  cherished  as  the  little  stranger 
that  may  appear  here  simultaneously  with  it,  amid  all  the  sur- 
roundings of  civilized  wealth;  and  the  difference  between  them 
does  not  commence  to  show  itself  until  they  have  reached  that  age 
where  the  mind  begins  to  feedand  reason  upon  what  it  sees,  hears, 
feels  and  tastes;  then  the  gulf  yawns  between  our  baby  and  the  In- 
dian's; the  latter  stands  still,  while  the  former  is  ever  moving  on- 
ward and  upward. 

The  love  of  an  Indian  mother  for  her  child  is  made  plain  to  us 
by  the  care  and  labor  which    she   often    expends   upon    the   cradle. 

The  choicest  production  of  her  skill  in  grass    and  \\ len  weaving, 

the  neatest  needlework  and  the  richest  head  embroidery  that  she 
can  devise  and  bestow,  are  lavished  upon  the  quaint-looking  cribs 
which  savage  mothers  nurse  and  carry  their  little  ones  around  in. 
This  cradle,  though  varying  in  minor  details,  is  essentially  the 
same  thing,  no  matter  where  it  is  found,  between  the  Indians  of 
Alaska  and  those  far  to  the  south,  in  Mexico.  The  Esquimaux  are 
the  exception,  however,  for  they  use  no  cradle  whatever,  carrying 
their  infants  snugly  ensconced  in  the  hoods  to  their  parkies  and 
otto-fur  jumpers.  The  governing  principle  of  a  pappoose  cradle  is 
an  unyielding  hoard,  upon  which  the  baby  can  he  firmly  lashed  at, 
full  length  on  its  back. 

This  hoard  is  usually  covered  by  softly  dressed  buckskin,  with 
flaps  and  pouches  in  which  to  envelop  the  baby;  other  tribes,  not 
ricli  or  fortunate  enough  to  procure  this  material,  have  recourse  to 
a  neat  combination  of  shrub-wood  poles,  reed  splints,  grass  mat- 
ting, and  the  soft  and  fragrant  ribbons  of  the  bass  or  linden  tree 
bark.  Sweet  grass  is  used  here  as  a  bed  for  the  youngster's  ten- 
der back,  or  else  clean, dry  moss  plucked  from  the  bended  limbs  of 
the  swamp  firs;  then,  with  buckskin  thongs  or  cords  of  plaited 
grass,  the  baby  is  hound  down  tight  and  secure,  for  any  and  every 
disposition  that  its  mother  may  see  tit  to  make  of  it  for  the  next 
day  or  two. 

Indian  babies,  as  a  rule,  are  not  kept  in  their  cradles  more  than 
twenty  to  twenty-four  consecutive  hours  at  any  one  time;  they  are 
usually  unlimbered  for  an  hour  or  two  every  day,  and  allowed  to 
roll  and  tumble  at  will  on  the  blanket,  or  in  the  <>'rass  or  sand  if 
the  sun  shines  warm  and  bright.  But  this  liberty  is  always  con- 
ditional upon  their  good  behavior  when  free,    for  the   moment  the 

138  HISTORY    OF    JACKSON    COtfNTT. 

baby  begins  to  fret  or  whimper,  the  mother  claps  it  back  into  the 
cradle,  where  it  rests  with  emphasis,  for  it  can  there  move  nothing 
save  its  head;  but  so  far  from  disliking  these  rigid  couches,  the 
babies  actually  sleep  better  in  them  than  when  free,  and  positively 
cry  to  be  returned  to  them  when  neglected  and  left  longer  than 
usual  at  liberty.  This  fact  is  certainly  an  amusing  instance  of  the 
force  of  habit. 

When  the  pappoose  is  put  away  in  its  cradle,  the  mother  has 
little  or  no  more  concern  with  it,  other  than  to  keep  within  sight 
or  hearing.  If  si  a-  is  engaged  about  the  wigwam  or  in  the  village, 
she  stands  it  up  in  the  lodge  corner  or  hangs  it  to  some  convenient 
tree,  taking  it  down  at  irregular  intervals  to  nurse.  When  she  re- 
tires at  nighty  the  baby  is  brought  and  suspended  at  some  point 
within  easy  reaching;  if  the  baby  is  ill,  it  is  kept  at  her  side,  or 
she  sits  up  all  night  in  the  most  orthodox  fashion.  When  the 
women  leave  the  village  on  any  errand,  such  as  going  to  the 
mountains  for  berries  or  to  the  Eiiver  canyon  for  fish,  the  cradles 
with  the  babies  therein  are  slung  upon  the  mothers'  backs,  and 
carried,  no  matter  how  far.  how  rough  the  road,  or  how  dismal 
the  weather. 

Indian  babies  are  born  subject  to  all  the  ills  that  baby  flesh  is 
heir  to.  but  with  this  great  difference  between  them  and  ours — 
when  sick  they  are  either  killed  or  cured  without  delay.  This 
does  not  happen,  however,  from  sinister  motives:  it  i>  not  done  to 
avoid  the  irksome  care  of  a  sickly,  puny  child;  it  is  not  the  result 
of  lack  of  natural  love  for  offspring — not  any  or  all  of  these;  it  is 
due  to  their  wonderful  "  medicine,"  their  fearful  system  of  incan- 

A  pappoose  becomes  ill;  it  refuses  to  eat  or  be  comforted;  and 
after  several  days  and  nights  of  anxious,  tender  endeavor  to  re- 
lieve her  child,  the  mother  begins  to  fear  the  worst,  and  growing 
thoroughly  alarmed,  she  at  last  sends  for  the  "shaman."  or  a  doc- 
tress  of  the  tribe,  and  surrenders  her  babe  to  his  or  her  merciless 
hands.  This  shaman  at  once  sets  up  over  the  wretched  youngster 
a  steady  howling,  and  then  anon  a  whispering  conjuration, 
shaking  a  hideous  rattle  or  burning  wisps  of  grass  around  the  cra- 
dle. This  is  kept  up  night  and  day  until  the  baby  rallies  or  dies. 
one  doctor  relieving  the  other  until  the  end  is  attained,  and  that 
result  is  death  nine  times  out  often. 

Nature  had  now  ordained  that  the  time  had  come  for  the  hunter 
to  give  his  place  here  to  the  agriculturist.  She  had  been  too  lav- 
ish in  the  distribution  of  natural  advantages  to  leave  it  longer  in 
the  possession  of  barbarians,  who  had.  throughout  their  genera- 
tions, refused  to  cultivate  its  rich  soil,  or  develop  its  mineral  re- 
sources. She  directed  the  immigrant  to  the  spot  which  his  labor 
was  to  convert  into  another  Eden,  gave  him  a  fertile  soil,  sparkling 
streams,  and  beautiful  forests  for  his  courage,  and  ordained  that 
he  who  labored  should  dwell  there  and  prosper. 



G.  P.  Adams,  W.  E.  Aldrich  and  R.  II.  Anderson  were  among 
the  early  settlers,    but  the  dates  of  their  arrivals  are  not  given. 

Norman  Allen,  born  at  Whiting,  Vt.,  Dee.  4,  1804;  moved 
to  Leoni  in  May,  1833,  where  lie  kept  a  hostelry  equi-distant  from 
Leoni  and  Jackson.  His  nearest  neighbors  were'  two  and  one-half 
miles  distant,  and  so  desolate  was  the  location  that  in  1837  he  re- 
solved to  remove  to  the  village  of  Jackson.  Mr.  Allen  entered 
commercial  life  in  the  village,  and  had  a  share  in' building  up  its 

Hiram  Archer  arrived  in  the  State  when  only  eight  years  old. 
He  was  bom  at  Carlton.  X.  Y.,  Oct.  2,  1829,  and  "settled  at 
Henrietta  March  4,  1837. 

Aaron  K.  Austin,  born  Aug.  1.  1807,  at  Skaneateles,  X.  Y. ;  ar- 
rived at  Ann  Arbor  Sept.  20,  1828,  and  now  of  Norvell,  states 
that  "by  the  change  in  the  name  of  townships  I  have  lived  in 
five,  although  I  have  not  removed,  except  moving  from  a  'log- 
house'  into  a  "frame  house."' 

Z.  M.  Barber  was  born  at  Royajton,  Niagara  Co.,  N.  V.,  Sept. 
18,    1816,    and   15  years   later,  or   in   September,    1831,   moved  to 


Daniel  O.  Barnard,  born  at  Stamford,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  1,  1816;moved 
to  -lacks, ,n  ( >ct.  25,  1837. 

Lucien  B.  Beardsley  was  born  at  Brighton,  X.  Y..  July  31,  1817, 

and  moved  to  Jackson  in  September,  1838.  The  city  of  Rochester 
now  covers  the  site  of  his  birth-place. 

Mary  Ann  Beardsley  was  born  at  Greece,  X.  Y..  April  19,  1819, 
and  arrived  at  Jackson  in  1856. 

Aionzo  Bennett,  born  at  Exeter,  X.  V..  Aug.  17,  1817,  and  set- 
tled in  Jackson  Oct.  7,  1836. 

Abram  V.  Berry  was  born  in  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  20, 
1804.  Moving  westward,  he  arrived  at  Jackson  Nov.  8,  1841;  en- 
gaged in  mercantile  pursuits;  was  President  of  the  Jackson  Iron 
Company;  explored  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Superior,  and 
made  a  location  at  Marquette  for  the  reduction  of  iron  ore.  Dur- 
ing l845-'46,  lie  made  several  copper  locations.  Previous  to  his 
coming  West  in  1841,  he  held  a  high  position  in  the  157th  X".  Y. 
Infantry,  and  in  this  State  was  promoted  from  the  captaincy  of  the 
first  regular  militia  company  of  Jackson  county  to  a  major-general- 

James  T.  Berry,  born  at  Frankfort.  X.  Y.  Oct.  31,  1840;  moved 
to  Jackson  Nov.' 8.  1841.  Though  only  40  years  old.  this  man 
may  be  considered  an  old  settler  in  the  truest  sense  of  the  word. 
During  the  war  forthe  Union  he  served  in  7<>  battles  and  was  twice 

E.  P.  Biding.  Ze.ra  Boynton  and  George  Hunker  are  all  old  set- 
tlers and  members  of  the  Pioneer  Society. 

Lewis  Brown  and  W.  N.  Buck  arrived  in  the  county  in  1835  and 
1838  respectivelv. 


Joab  Bigelow,  born  at  Guilford,  Vt.,  Oct.  23,  1795;  moved  to 
Concord  in  October,  1836. 

Josiali  Bigelow  was  born  May  22,  1825,  at  Batavia,  N.  Y..  and 
moved  to  Hanover,  this  county,  April  24,  1836. 

Henry  H.  Bingham  was  born  Jan.  7,  1814,  at  Camillas,  N.  Y., 
and  at  the  age  of  24  years  settled  in  Leoni  township,  May  8,  1838. 
His  grandfathers  served  in  many  battles  of  the  Revolution. 

Giles  Bloomfield,  born  April  17,  1808,  at  Warren,  N.  Y.;  moved 
to  Sandstone,  this  county,  June  2,  1836. 

C.  V.  Bockoven  was  born  at  Lyons,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  30,  1818,  and 
moved  to  Jackson  Nov.  1,  1838. 

Mrs.  Bolton,  widow  of  Gen.  A.  F.  Bolton,  came  to  reside  in 
Napoleon  as  early  as  L832. 

Richmond  Briggs  settled  in  this  county  in  February^  L833. 

Benjamin  Bullock,  horn  March  18,' 1804,  at  Otsego,  N.  Y.; 
moved  to  Unadilla,  Livingston  Co.,  Oct.  12,  1840,  and  thence 
to  Jackson  in  September,  1861. 

B.  L.  Carlton,  an  honorary  member  of  the  Pioneer  Society,  and 
editor  of  the  Jackson  Patriot,  was  born  at  Wyoming,  N.  Y.,  June 
3,  1839;  came  to  Berrien  county  in  September.  1855,  and  two  years 
later  changed  to  Jackson. 

Jacob  V.  Oarmer  was  horn  Oct.  5,  1802,  at  Orange,  X.  J., 
and  in  September,  1845,  migrated  West,  when  he  settled  in  Na- 

F.  W.  Can',  born  Jan.  30,  1818,  at  Lubec,  Maims  settled  in 
Jackson  village  Nov.  19,  1843. 

Elihu  Cooley  became  a  resident  of  Jackson  in  1852. 

Mrs.  Betsy  WE.  Case  was  born  Aug.  21,  1810,  and  immigrated  to 
Michigan  with  her  husband,  next  mentioned. 

Morgan  Case  was  horn  at  Hartford,  N.  J.,  March  If!,  L807,  and 
settled  at  Napoleon  Oct.  13,  1832. 

Wilson  Chaffee,  Josiah  Cole,  A.  D.  Clark,  Benjamin  Ohamp- 
lin  and  Jonathan  Cady  came  at  an  early  period  in  the  history  of 
the  county. 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Chamberlain,  born  at  Bristol.  N.  Y..  December, 
1816;  moved  with  her  husband,  R.  W.  Chamberlain,  to  this  county 
in  April,  1836. 

K.  W.  Chamberlain,  of  Livonia,  N.  Y.,  was  born  Jan.  2,  1813, 
and  removed  to  Jackson  April  1,  1836. 

Erastus  Champlin,  born  at  Lyme,  Conn.,  March  30,  1803;  moved 
west  to  Jackson  village  in  May,  1836,  and  ultimately  settled  in 
Columbia  township. 

Lorenzo  M.  Chanter  was  born  on  the  island  of  Malta,  Mediter- 
ranean sea,  Sept.  8,  L811,  and  by  gradual  advances  found  himself 
in  Blackman  township  June  1,  1836. 

David  Chapel,  horn  at  Salem,  Conn.,  March  4,  1804;  moved 
to  Spring  Arbor  Dec.  1,  L832,  and  ultimately  took  up  his  resi- 
dence in  Parma  village. 

L.  I).  Chapel  was  born  in  Canada  Nov.  4,  1811;  settled  at 
Sandstone  in  May,  Is.".*;,  ami  subsequently  took  up  his  residence  at 


Sarah  Ann  Chapman  was  born  in  Jackson,  Mich.,  Nov.  3, 
1830.  She  was  the  first  white  child  born  in  Jackson  county;  mar- 
ried Albert  T.  Putnam  at  an  early  age,  and  died  in  the  village 
of  her  nativity  April  5,  L880,  having  lived  through  almost  half  a 

William  Clapp,  born  in  Dutchess  Co.,  N.  V.,  June  4,  1805; 
moved  to  Hanover,  Jackson  Co.,  in  August.  1837,  and  has  been  a 
resident  of  4:!  years'  standing. 

Ossian  11.  'Cobb,  born  at  Charlotte.  Vt.,  Oct.  12,  I8ltf; 
arrived  in  Jackson  village  in  October,  1837. 

George  Cogswell,  burn  Dec.  30,  1822,  at  Caldwell,  N".  V.; 
migrated  West  with  his  brother  John,  and  settled  at  Spring  Arbor 
in  1837. 

John  Cogswell,  born  June  17,  1833,  in  Ticonderoga,  N.  Y. ;  came 
to  Bedford,  Wayne  Co.,  in  <  >ctober,  1834;  the  same  year  changed  to 
Concord,  this  county,  and  subsequently  settled  at  Spring  Arbor,  in 

Mrs.  Huldah  Colby,  born  at  Royalton,  N.  Y.,  May  8,  1818.; 
moved  with  her  relatives  to  Jackson  June  20,  1S32. 

E.  W.  Comstock,  bom  Nov.  7,  1*07,  at  Montville,  Conn.;moved 
to  Springport  <  >ct.  1!',  L838,  and  with  few  intermissions  has 
resided  in  his  adopted  village. 

Addison  P.  Cook  was  born  at  Berne,  N.  Y.,  July  L6,  1817,  and 
at  the  age  of  21  migrated  West,  settling  at  Brooklyn,  tins  county, 
Aug.  16,  1838. 

Charlotte  A.  Cook  was  born  at  New  Baltimore,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  12, 
1819,  and  came  to  Brooklyn  Sept.  lti,  1846. 

Samuel  W.  Cooper,  born  at  Rutland,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  2ti,  1816; 
migrated  to  Sylvan.  Washtenaw  Co.,  May  3,  1838,  and  two  years 
later  adopted  Grass  Lake  as  his  home. 

I.  C.  Corwin,  born  at  Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  March  10,  1818;  moved 
West  in  l.s?>(i.  and  settled  in  Leoni,  changing  his  residence  sub- 
sequently to  Parma  village. 

Henry  J.  Crego  was  born  at  Mustead,  N.  Y.,  and  moving  West 
settled  at  Columbia  July,  1835,  subsequently  changing  to  Lib- 

William  S.  Crego.  born  at  Mustead,  N.  Y.,  April  26,  1810; 
moved  to  Columbia  June    21,  1835,  and  to   Liberty  subsequently. 

John  Curtiss,  born  Aug.  lit,  L800,  at  Onondaga,'  X.  Y..  and  ar- 
rived in  Napoleon  May  3,  1837.  His  reminiscences  of  those  times 
are  not  without  interest.  He  states:  ••  I  first  lived  in  a  log  bouse, 
owned  by  Traper,  in  the  town  of  Columbia;  built  a  fire  by  the 
side  of  a  stump  for  the  purpose  of  cooking;  bought  in  town  of  Na- 
poleon, now  Norvell,  and  moved  there  in  August,  1837.  I  built  a 
log  house  and  used  loose  boards  for  the  floor.  The  wolves  howled 
round  during  the  nights.  Some  Indians  came  in  the  door-yard 
one  night,  and  my  dog  attacked  them; — they  bad  a  battle.  It  was 
the  last  I  saw  of  my  dog  in  any  shape.  It  was  very  dark  and  I 
could  not  see  them." 


Philo  J.  Curtis6,  born  at  Oswego,  N.  Y.,  May  2,  1828;  emigrated 
with  his  relatives  to  Jackson  May  26,  1837. 

Henry  Daniels  wa#  born  Feb.  26,  1816,  at  Bethany,  Genesee 
Co.,  N.  Y.,  and  at  the  age  of  15  came  West  with  his  relatives,  set- 
ling  at  Jackson  village  June  20,  1831,  and  subsequently  moving 
to  Blackman. 

M.  R.  Davis,  born  at  Cattaraugus,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  8,  1824;  came 
West  in  1831  and  settled  at  Jackson  June  14,  that  year. 

Kosevelt  Davis,  born  at  Pembroke,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  16,  1830;  be- 
came a  citizen  of  Jackson  county  in  May,  1831. 

Jones  Day,  born  at  Port  Ann,  N.  Y.,  came  West  in  1834  and 
settled  at  Brooklyn,  this  county. 

Horace  Dean,  born  at  Windsor,  Vt,  May  11,  1809;  settled 
at  Napoleon  Oct.  16,  1832. 

Anson  II.  De  Lamater  was  born  April  13,  1811.  at  Pompey, 
N.  Y.,  and  May  15,  1834,  reached  Columbia. 

Edward  De  Lamater  was  born  at  Pompey,  N.  Y.,  in  1812,  and 
settled  in  Columbia  township  May,  1834,  subsequently  changing 
to  Brooklyn. 

W.  De  Lamater,  born  April  7,  1817,  at  Manlius,  N.  Y. ;  arrived 
in  Manchester,  Washtenaw  Co.,  June  10,  1832,  and  moved  to  Lib- 
erty, this  county,  in  1S49. 

Mrs.  Lydia  De  Lamater  was  born  at  Cohocton,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  11, 
1820,  and  coming  West  settled  with  her  relatives  in  Columbia 
May,  1843. 

Charles  V.  De  Land  was  born  at  North  Bloomfield,  Mass.,  July 
25,  1828;  settled  at  Jackson  May  21,  1830.  and  now  resides  at 
East  Saginaw. 

JamesS.  De  Land,  born  at  Jackson,  Michigan,  Nov.  10,  1835; 
has  since  made  it  his  home. 

Mrs.  Mary.G.  De  Land,  born  at  Caroline,  N.  J.,  in  1802;  came 
to  Jackson  May  27,  1830. 

Wm.  B.  DeLand,  born  in  Massachusetts  July  20,  1795,  and  ar- 
rived in  Jackson  May  27,    1830. 

James  Depuy,  born  at  Pompey,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  20,  1815;  settled  at 
Spring  Arbor  July  29,  1832. 

Charles  C.  Dewy  was  born  at  Boonville,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  16,  1816, 
and  settled  at  Napoleon  May  1,  1855. 

F.  A.  Dewey,  President  of  the  Lenawee  Pioneer  Association, 
and  an  honorary  member  of  the  Jackson  County  Society,  was  born 
at  Trois  Rivieres,  Quebec,  Feb.  25,  1811;  settled  in  Tecumseh 
in  September,  1829,  and  has  become  almost  as  Jacksonian  and 
American  as  the  people  of  this  county. 

Marvin  Don-ill,  born  on  the  German  Flats,  N.  Y.,  April  17. 
1804;  came  West  in  1837.  and  settled  at  Rives  in  May  of  that  year. 

S.  J.  Drake  was  born  at  New  Hampton,  N.  II.,  March  15, 
1804.  and  came  to  reside  in  Hanover  township  36  years  later, 
in  September,  1840. 

James  A.  Dyer,  born  at  Royalton,  Vt.,  June  29,  1812; 
moved  West  in  1835,  and  settled  at  Jackson  May  19,  same 


H.  M.  Eddy  and  M.  B.  Elliot  became  citizens  of  this  county  at 
an  early  date,  but  the  place  of  nativity  or  the  time  of  their  settle- 
ment is  unknown. 

Robert  J. "Edgar,  born  at  Washington,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  1,  1813;  mi- 
grated at  the  age  of  26  years,  and  settled  at  Grass  Lake  in  May. 
1839,  subsequently  adopting  Parma  as  his  home. 

B.  F.  Eggleston,  the  present  Secretary  of  the  Jackson  Pioneer 
Society,  was  born  at  Victor,  N.  Y.,  Feb"  1.  1814,  and  on  coming 
West  settled  at  Adrian  July  7,  1836,  subsequently  making  Jack- 
son village  his  home. 

Owen  Ellison,  born  at  Newburg,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  17, 1809;  moved 
to  Freedom,  Washtenaw  Co.,  in  October,  1835,  and  subsequently 
made  Napoleon  his  home. 

Wm.  A.  Ernst,  born  at  Cooperstown,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  18,  L820; 
removed  to  Jackson  29  years  later,  in  November,  1849. 

Wm.  B.  K.  Errimaii,  born  at  Elbridge,  N.  Y.,  May  15.  1830; 
settled  at  Jackson  May  14,  1846. 

Charles  Evans,  born  at  Easton,  N.  Y.,  in  July,  1808;  arrived  in 
the  county  when  28  years  of  age,  and  in  September.  1836,  settled 
in  Rives  township. 

George  Facey  arrived  at  Summit  in  April,  1848,  and  lias  since 
made  his  home  there. 

John  A.  Fellows,  born  at  Sand  Hill,  N.  Y..  Jan.  7.  1810;  moved 
to  Sandstone  29  years  later,  in  October,  1839. 

ITomer  D.  Fisher  is  purely  Jacksonian  by  nativity;  born  in  the 
village  Nov.  5,  1839,  he  continued  to  make  it  his  home. 

Darwin  Fitzgerald,  born  Oct.  6,  1827.  at  Jordan,  N.  Y. ;  arrived 
at  Spring  Arbor  Feb.  23,  1836,  and  is  now  a  resident  of  Spring- 

Albert  Foster,  born  at  Bridgeport.  Vt.,  Dec.  8,  1809;  moved 
westward  28  years  later,  and  settled  at  Jackson  village  July 
3,  1837. 

Frederick  M.  Foster  was  born  at  Bridgeport  July  27,  1813,  and 
settled  at  Jackson  May  2,  1842.  Harriet  M.  Foster,  his  wife,  was 
born  at  Madison,  Ohio,  Aug.  12, 1817,  and  came  to  reside  in  Jack- 
son September,  1849. 

Hiram  Gardner,  born  at  Geneva.  N.  Y..  March  12,  I803;settled 
at  Grass  Lake  June  20,  1835,  and  subsequently  moved  to  Leoni. 
Mrs.  Sarah  Gardner  was  born  at  Seneca  Falls  May  27,  1807,  and 
came  hither  with  her  husband.  Mr.  Gardner,  to  the  Pioneer  Soci- 
ety, Oct.  23,  1874,  says:  "I  am  almost  72  years  of  age,  hale  and 
hearty.  I  am  truly  glad  to  meet  with  you  on  this  occasion. 
and  hope  we  may  all  live  to  meet  again.  " 

David  Garling'house  was  born  in  New  Jersey  in  1805;  31  years 
later  settled  in  Lenawee  county,  and  finally  made  his  home  in  Jack- 

Almond  M.  Garriard,  of  Bolton,  N.  Y.,  born  Sept.  25,  1S24; 
settled  in  Concord  township  Oct.  17,  1836. 

Mrs.  Elvina  C.  McGee  Garriard  was  born  at  Bolton  Aug.  4, 
1830,  and  two  years  later  arrived  in  Concord. 


Horace  Giflord,  born  at  Port  Hope,  Canada,  June  13,  1817;  set- 
tled at  Spring  Arbor  April  17.  1838. 

Myron  Gillette  came  into  the  State  Nov.  1.  1837,  and  subse- 
qently  made  bis  borne  at  Springport. 

Aaron  T.  Gorton,  born  at  Painted  Post  village,  X.  Y.,  Dec.  3, 
1811 ;  settled  at  Dexter.  Washtenaw  Co..  June  14,  1833,  and  sub- 
sequently moved  to  Waterloo,  in  this  county. 

X.  B.  Graham  came  in  1842,  and  settled  at  Parma.  .James 
Graham  arrived  subsequently,  a>  also  did  W.  K.  Gibson. 

Allen  Green,  born  at  Warrick,  R.  I.,  Oct.  11,  1789;  came 
west  in  1835,  and  settled  at  Napoleon  in  December  of  that 
year.  Mrs.  Mary  Xieols  Green  was  born  May  10,  1801,  at  War- 
rick, and  was  married  May  2o.    1820. 

Chauncey  Green  was  bom  at  Ruport,  Yt..  Feb.  21,  1820; 
settled  at  Onondaga,  Ingham  Co.,  July  4.  184:-!.  and  finally 
adopted  Jackson  city  as  his  future  home. 

Levi  P.  Gregg  settled  in  Jackson  village  in  1888,  and  took  a 
prominent  part  in  building  up  its  present  greatness. 

G.  T.  Gridley,  born  at  Vernon,  N.  Y.,  July  1,  1816;  settled  at 
Ypsilanti  June  1,  1837,  and  adopted  Jackson  as  his  home  in  Feb- 
ruary.  1844. 

J.C.  Griffin  was  born  at  Kingsbury,  N.  Y.,  March  1,  1817; 
settled  at  Napoleon  July  •">.  l*:!t>.  and  occupied  the  location  of  his 
present  residence  in   1838. 

Lorenzo  D.  Griswold.  born  at  Galen.  X.  Y.,  Feb.  24,  1816;  set- 
tled at  Jackson,  Mich..  Xov.  1,  1838.  ' 

Charles  L.  Eawley  was  born  at  Leyden.  X.  Y.,  May  1,  1811, 
and  at  the  age  of  2.")  years  settled  at  Napoleon,  Jan.  18,  1836. 

Chauncey  Hawley,  born  at  Granby,  Conn.,  Sept.  26,  1797;  set- 
tled at  Napoleon  Oct.  8,  1832. 

Henry  Hawley,  born  in  Leyden  township,  X.  Y.,  March  2t>, 
1813;  settled  at  Napoleon  <  >ct.  2:.,   1834. 

James  P.  Hawley  was  born  in  Hartford  township.  N.  Y.,  Sept. 
25,  1828,  and  arrived  at  Napoleon  Oct.  13,  1832. 

Lyman  Hawley,  born  at  Granby,  Conn.,  Dec.  8,  17*7;  settled  at 
Napoleon,  in  this  county.  Oct.  25.   1834. 

Henry  A.  Havden,  horn  at  Springfield,  Otsego  Co.,  N.  V., 
March  28,  1817;  settled  at  Jackson  in  June,  1838,  one  year  after 
the  preliminary  survey  of  the  M.  C.  P.  P.  between  Detroit  and 
Lake  Michigan. 

Jonathan  II.  Hendee  was  born  at  Sudbury,  \'t.,  Nov.  lt>, 
1815;  settletl  at  Jackson  in  ( )ctober,  1836,  ami  subsequently  moved  to 

Daniel  P.  Eibbard,  born  at  Phelps.  N.  Y..  Aug.  13,  1818;  set- 
tled at  Jackson  May  9,  1836.  Mr.  Hibbard's  career  has  been  a 
most  useful  one.  if  not  actually  distinguished.  He  has  from  the 
beginning  taken  a  leading  part  in  building  up  a  prosperous  city. 

Mrs.  Almira  Higgins,  born  at  East  Hartford,  Conn.,  in  June, 
1818;  came  West  with  her  husband. 

HISTOKTf    of    JACKSON    COUNTY.  145 

Samuel  Higby,  born  at  New  Hartford,  N.  Y.,  March  26,  1813; 
nettled  at  Jackson  in  1838. 

Jirah  A.  Higgins  was  born  at  P]ast  Haddam,  Conn.,  Dec.  8, 
1809,  and  settled  at  Jackson  in  May,  1844. 

Gordon  Hilt  was  born  at  Colchester,  X.  V..  Sept.  14.  1832,  and 
came  to  Columbia,  Jackson  Co..  Oct.   15,  1835. 

Hiram  ('.  Hodge,  born  at  Stamford,  Yt..  Feb.  22.  1821; 
settled  at  Pulaski  in  September,  1837. 

James  M.  Holland,  born  at  Pittsfield,  N.  Y..  Feb.  22,  1832; 
settled  at  Columbia  May  25.  1837. 

Simon  Holland,  bom  at  Pittsfield,  N.  V..  <  >ct.  14.  1802;  settled 
in  Jackson  county,  in  the  town  of  Columbia.  May  20,  1837.  Mr. 
Holland  has  been  engaged  in  agriculture  for  aperiod  of  14  years, 
and  also  in  commercial  pursuits  for  17  years. 

It.  0.  Hollister.  born  at  Milford,  N.  Y.,  April  17.  181f;  settled 
at  Jackson  in  April,  1836. 

Mrs.  Eunice  R.  O.  Hollister  was  born  at  Shoctes,  Mass..  Dec. 
6,  1807. 

James  L.  Holmes,  born  in  New  York  city  Aug.  3o.  1825;  set- 
tled in  Lenawee  county  in  1837.  and  the  following  year  moved  to 

N.  S.  Houghtalin,  born  at  Livingston,  N.  Y.,  April  28,  1828; 
settled  in  Somerset.  Hillsdale  Co.,  Sept.  20,  1846.  and  subse- 
quently, in  1853,  established  his  home  at  Liberty. 

A.  N.  Howe,  born  at  Newstead.  N.  Y..  Oct. '  15,  1841:  settled 
at  Summit  April  28,   1854. 

E.  B.  Howe,  born  March  2,  1814,  at  Oneida,  N.  Y. :  settled  at 
Summit  in  April.  1854. 

Alvinzie  Hunt,  born  at  Marcellus,  N.  Y..  Nov.  14.  1809;  set- 
tled at  Napoleon  in  May.  1836. 

Mrs.  Converse  Phebe  Hunt  was  born  at  Onondaga.  N.  Y.,  Jan. 
23,  1812;  came  West  with  her  husband  in  183(3. 

Daniel  Hubbard.  Jacob  Hirsch,  and  R.  H.  Hubbard  were 
among  the  early  settlers,  but  the  dates  of  their  arrivals  have  not 
been  given. 

Atwater  Hurd  came  West  in  1838. 

John  S.  Hurd,  born  at  Gorham,  N.  Y.,  June  2,  1816;  settled  at 
Lima,  Washtenaw  Co.,  November,  1836,  and  subsequently  made 
his  home  at  Jackson. 

Wm.  Hutchins,  born  at  Shelby,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  13,  1825;  came 
West  in  October.  1831.  and  settled  at  York,  Washtenaw  Co. 

James  E.  Jamison  and  Sherman  Jacobs,  who  settled  in  Pu- 
laski at  an  early  period,  are  members  of  the  Pioneer  Society,  but 
dates  of  birth  and  immigration  are  wanting. 

David  Johnson,  born  at  Sangerfield,  N.  Y..  Oct.  20,  1809;  ar- 
ived  in  Jackson  village  in  March,  1838. 

John  P.  Kay  wood,  born  at  Ulysses,  N.  Y.,  May  27,  1822;  set- 
tled at  Leoni,  Jackson  Co.,  Oct.  1,  1835;  married  a  Miss  Henry  in 
1840;  retired  from  agriculture  in  1859,  and  has  since  taken  an  in- 
terest in  mechanics. 


Noah  Keeler,  born  at  Butternut,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  16,  1812;  moved 
to  Libert}-,  Jackson  Co.,  Sept.  6,  1837,  and  in  1839  settled  on  a 
farm  purchased  by  him  in  1835. 

Mrs.  Ann  E.  Kennedy,  born  at  Arcadia,  N.  Y.,  April  24,  1827; 
came  to  Summerfield,  Mich.,  May  22,  1831;  married  G.  W.  Ken- 
nedy April  24,  1849;  settled  in  Hanover  township  April  28,  same 
year,  and  moved  to  Jackson  with  her  husband  Nov.  15,  1864. 

Frederick  A.  Kennedy,  born  at  Brighton,  England,  Feb.  18, 
1811;  settled  at  Tecumseh,  Lenawee  Co.,  in  May,  1831,  and  subse- 
quently moved  to  Jackson. 

George  W.  Kennedy,  born  at  Silver  Lake,  Penn.,  Feb.  22,  1820 
arrived  at  Ridgeway,  Lenawee  Co.,  June  1,  1831,  and  removing  to 
Jackson  later,  has  continued  to  make  it  his  home. 

Frederick  W.  Kirtland,  Durham,  N.  Y.,born  July  16,  1806; 
came  West  in  1843,  and  settled  at  Jackson  April  22,  that  year. 

Hamden  A.  Knight,  born  in  Niagara  county,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  23, 
1815;  moved  West  in  1829;  settled  in  Washtenaw  June  26,  that 
year,  and  subsequently  adopted  Summit  as  his  home. 

Mrs.  Adelia  M.  Knight,  born  in  Onondaga  county,  N.  Y.,  July 
29,  1819;  came  to  Washtenaw  Jan.  21, 1836,  and  subsequently  set- 
tled at  Summit  with  her  husband. 

John  Kyes,  born  at  Homer,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  17,  1800;  settled  at 
Grass  Lake,  Jackson  Co.,  April  25,  1829,  and  thus  claims  to  be 
among  the  first  settlers,  as  he  was  the  first  blacksmith  who  en- 
gaged in  that  business  within  the  county. 

George  Landon  came  to  this  county  at  an  early  date.  He  is  a 
member  of  the  Pioneer  Society,  and  now  resides  at  Springport. 

A.  H.  Latimer,  New  London,  Conn.,  born  March  1,  1806;  set- 
tied  at  Sandstone  June  5,  1837,  and  subsequently  made  his  home 
in  Summit  township. 

Mrs.  E.  Laverty,  born  Dec.  30,  1805,  at  Woodstock,  Vt.;  settled 
at  Jackson  June  20,  1832. 

Willard  C.  Lewis,  born  at  Fair  Haven,  Vt.,  June  28,  1833;  set- 
tled at  Concord,  Jackson  Co.,  in  1835,  and  subsequently  removed 
to  Jackson  city. 

Fidus  Livermore,  born  at  Sangerfield,  N.  Y.,  July  21,  1811; 
settled  at  Jackson  May  10,  1839. 

David  H.  Lockwood,  born  at  Cayuga,  N.  Y.,  March  3,  1824; 
settled  at  Leoni  Sept.  14,  1836. 

P.  B.  Loomis,  born  at  Amsterdam,  N.  Y.,  April  14,  1820;  ar- 
rived in  Michigan  in  1S42,  and  located  his  home  at  Jackson  in  the 
spring  of  1843. 

L.  H.  Ludlow,  Ludlowville,  N.  Y.,  born  July  10,  1814,  and 
moving  West  in  1839,  settled  at  Springport  April    19,  same  year. 

Stephen  H.  Ludlow,  born  at  Lansing,  N.  Y.,  March  16,  1809; 
settled  at  Springport  Oct.  15,  1837. 

David  Markam,  born  June  2,  1804,  at  Avon,  N.  Y. ;  settled  at 
Jackson  June  10,  1836. 

A.  W.  Marsh  settled  in  the  township  of  Columbia  in  1839. 


Samuel  T.  Marsh,  born  at  Pompey,  N.  Y.,  April  5,  1812;  settled 
at  Columbia,  this  county,  May  15,  1834. 

John  R.  Martin,  born  at  Cayuga,  N.  Y.,  March  15,  1814;  settled 
at  Troy,  Oakland  Co.,  Sept.  25,  1828,  and  moved  to  Jackson  in 

Thomas  Mayett,  born  March  12,  1790;  settled  at  Ann  Arbor  in 
1834,  and  subsequently  at  Blackmail,  this  county. 

William  Mayo,  born  in  Buckinghamshire,  England,  Aug.  17, 
1810;  settled  at  Lodi  July  17,  1833,  and  in  January,  1835,  moved 
to  Blackman. 

Ocar  H.  McConnell,  born  at  Jackson,  Mich.,  June  1,  1833,  and 
has  since  resided  there.  He  is  the  son  of  Deacon  John  McCon- 
nell, who  located  one  and  one-half  miles  north  of  the  present  city 
in  May,  1830. 

Am'asa  McCosson,  born  at  Mexico,  N.  Y.,  June  29,  1818;  settled 
at  Tecumseh,  Lenawee  Co.,  June  18,  1836,  and  subsequently  lo- 
cated in  Jackson  in  1839. 

Mellville  McGee,  born  at  Bolton,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  24,  1828;  settled 
at  Spring  Arbor  in  the  present  town  of  Concord  June  10,  1832, 
and  afterward  moved  to  the  city  of  Jackson. 

James  McKee,  born  Oct.  10,  1808,  at  Argyle,  N.  Y. ;  settled  at 
Jackson  in  May,  1832. 

Moses  A.  McNaughton,  born  at  Argyle,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  4,  1813; 
settled  at  Jackson  in  April,  1841. 

Ortha  A.  Merwin  was  born  at  Summit,  Jackson  Co.,  April  18, 
1843,  and  on  her  marriage  with  V.  V.  B.  Merwin  came  to  reside 
at  Jackson. 

Volney  V.  B.  Merwin,  born  at  Portage,  N.  Y.,  June  18,  1833; 
settled  at  Moscow,  Hillsdale  Co.,  May  5,  1837,  and  subsequently 
moved  to  Jackson  city. 

Tobias  Miller  was  elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  society. 

Nathaniel  Morrill,  born  at  Sanbornton,  N.  H.,  Dec.  13,  1807; 
settled  at  Blackman  June  14,  1832. 

Patton  Morrison,  born  at  Newburg,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  7,  1816;  settled 
at  Jackson  in  October,  1838  or  1839. 

Benjamin  Gr.  Mosher,  born  at  Amsterdam,  N.  Y.,  May  16,  1809; 
settled  at  Jackson  Sept.  13,  1839. 

George  H.  Mosher  was  born  at  Jackson  July  5,  1837. 

John  O'Dell,  born  at  Amherst,  N.  H,  April  25,  1792;  settled  mi 
the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  in  1815,  and  was 
the  first  land-owner  there ;  came  to  Grass  Lake  in  June,  1835,  and 
subsequently  moved  to  Leoni. 

James  O'Donnell,  an  honorary  member  of  the  Pioneer  Society, 
and  editor  of  the  Daily  Citizen, was  born  in  Norwalk,  Conn.,  March 
25,  1839;  came  to  Jackson  in  1849,  and  has  been  intimately  asso- 
ciated with  the  press  and  progress  of  the  city  from  that  period  to 
the  present. 

Adam  Orr,  born  at  Batavia,  N.  Y.,  April  1,  1812;  settled  at 
Pulaski,  June  9,  1844.  Mr.  Orris  a  descendant  of  that  patriot  Irish 

148  HISTOKY    <'F    JACKMiN     (ill'NTV. 

family  who  sacrificed  everything  for  country,  and  afterward  ap- 
peared on  many  fields  where  the  Onion  was  threatened. 

Stephen  N.  Palmer,  horn  in  Madison  county,  X.  Y.,  Feh.  7. 
1816;  settled  at  Napoleon  Sept.  20,  1845.  Mr.  Palmer  married 
Mies  Rebecca  Farley  March  18,  1838,  who  was  born  in  the  same 
county  Aug.  28,  1818;  came  West  with  her  husband  in  1S45,  and 
though  living  throughout  the  years  on  the  same  location,  have,  on 
account  of  change  of  names,  found  themselves  citizens  of  the  town- 
ships of  Napoleon,  Brooklyn  and  Columbia. 

Amasa  M.  Pardee,  born  at  Niagara,  X.  Y..  Dec.  ."..  L827;  settled 
at  Spring  Arbor  in  July,  1832. 

G.  W.  Parker,  Scipio,  N.  Y.,  was  born  Feb.  20,  1822;  settled 
at  Jonesville,  Hillsdale  county,  in  October,  1*44,  and  the  \mv 
after  removed  to  Hanover  township. 

Jesse  L.  Parmeter,  born  at  Allen.  X.  V..  Oct.  L3,  1*26;  settled 
at  Concord,  in  October,  1835. 

Oscar  F.  Pease,  Jacob  Pixley  and  F.  Pherdon  claim  a  residence 
in  the  State  since  1837,  and  have  been  connected  with  Jackson 
county  the  greater  part  of  the  43  years  which  have  elapsed. 

Charles  W.  Penny,  born  in  Putnam  county.  X.  Y.,  Jan.  4,  1812; 
settled  at  Detroit  in  October,  1831,  and  subsequently  moved  to 

Charles  L.  Pierce,  born  at  Naples.  N.  Y.,  Feb.  27,  1831;  set- 
tled at  Liberty,  Jackson  Co..  Oct.  25,  1836,  and  afterward  took 
up  his  residence  at  Jackson. 

Mrs.  P.  E.  Pierce,  born  at  Eoyalton,  X.  Y..  July  20,  1826; 
settled  at  Jackson  June  2<».  1832.  Mrs.  Pierce,  in  recitinga  few 
reminiscences  of  those  early  days,  says:  "My  uncle,  0.  C.  Dar- 
ling, built  the  first  frame  house  in  the  county,  outside  of  the  city, 
on  what  is  now  known  as  Murphy's  addition.  He  located  Kid 
acres  there  in  L831.  The  old  house  is  still  there,  which  the  wo- 
men helped  to  raise  (not  a  mill  as  the  poet  had  it).  Two  of  the 
women  are  still  living  in  the  city.  One  of  the  first  white  women 
who  ever  came  to  Jackson  is  still  living;  she  was  Miss  Sally 
Laverty,  now  Mrs.  Benjamin  Steward,  of  Eaton." 

Benoni  Pixley  arrived  in  the  State  in  183>t,  and  became  a  resi- 
dent of  Jackson  county  at  an  early  date. 

Samuel  Prescott.  born  at  Sandbornter.  X.  Y..  Aug.  31,  1800; 
moved  to  Henrietta,  Jackson  Co..  June.  2.  1831,  and  continued 
to  reside  there  for  half  a  century. 

John  Preston, born  at  Springfield, Otsego  Co.,K  Y..May  3,1700: 
immigrated  to  Crass  Lake  Sept.  20.  1834,  and  continued  to  reside 
on  his  original  location  in  the  village  of  Franciscoville  from  the 
date  of  his  first  settlement. 

Joseph  W.  Price  was  born  at  Smithtield,  Penn.,  April  13,  L805; 
settled  at  Grass  Lake  July  10,  1835,  and  subsequently  moved  t<. 

Eugene  Pringle,  an  honorary  member  of  the  Pioneer  Society,  was 
born  lit  Richfield,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  1.  1826;  and  settled  at  Jackson  24 
vears  later,  in  1850. 

HI8T0K?    OF    JACKSON    COUNTY.  149 

Joseph  Powell,  Fort  Edward,  N  Y.,  born  Jan.  29,  1802;  settled 
at  Grass  Lake  March  22,  1839,  and  subsequently  moved  to 
Franciscoville,  Jackson  Co. 

Albert  T.  Putnam,  born  at  Worcester,  Mass..  Dec.  25,  1*21; 
settled  at  Erie,  Monroe  Co.,  Oct.  4,  1841,  and  married  Miss 
Sarah  Ann  Chapman  June  20,  1852. 

A,  A.  Quigley.  born  at  Olysses,  Tompkins  Co.,  N.  V..  June. 
4,  1825;  settled'  at  Napoleon  May  lit.  1832,  and  now  resides  at 

Henry  Reed,  bora  at  Genesee,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  7,  1838;  settled  at 
Henrietta.  Jackson  Co.,  October,  1842. 

Mrs.  Madeline  Reynolds,  born  at  Leoni  village,  Jackson  Co., 
Sept.  29,  1842;  lias  continued  a  resident  during  38 years. 

W.  "R.  Reynolds  and  Henry  Richards  were  among  the  early 
settlers,  but  the  dates  of  birth  and  settlement  have  not  been 

Jacob  Rhines,  born  at  Sharon,  Schoharie  Co.,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  2, 
1804;  settled  at  Sandstone,  Jacks.m  Co.,  in  June,  1833. 

I.  L.  Richardson,  bom  April  13,  1813,  in  LeKoy,  N.  Y.; 
settled  at  Sandstone,  Jackson  Co.,   May  1.   1834. 

David  Riley  was  horn  at  Fleming,  Cavuga  Co..  N.  Y.,  Dec.  28, 
1817,  and  settled  at  Napoleon  Oct.  20,  1835. 

Sylvester  Riley,  horn  at  Fleming,  Cayuga  Co..  X.  Y..  .Ian.  11, 
1823;  settled  at  Napoleon  Oct.  15,  1S33.' 

Benjamin  W.  Rockwell,  born  in  New  York  city  Jan.  31,  1812; 
came  to  Jackson  Nov.  3,  1837. 

D.  H.  Rogers;  bom  at  Montville,  Conn.,  Dec.  4,  1807;  settled 
at  Sandstone  Nov.   12,  1834. 

Amos  Root,  burn  at  Fort  Ann.  N.  Y..  April  8,  1816;  settled  at 
Michigan  Center  in  November,  1838,  and  subsequently  moved  to 

Wm.  Root,  born  at  Ludlow.  Mass..  Sept.  19,  1816;  came  to 
Wheeland,  Hillsdale  Co.,  Sept.  27,  1836,  and  settled  in  Liberty, 
Jackson  Co.,  the  subsequent  year. 

Albert  D.  Puss  was  born  in  Jackson  village  Dec.  1,  1835,  and 
during  the  past  45  years  has  made  it  his  home. 

Thomas  Sacrider,  horn  in  Canada  March  28,  1822;  settled  at 
Grass  Lake  Aug.  20,  1840,  and  subsequently  moved  to  Jackson. 

Cornelius  Sammons,  born  at  Shawangunk,  Ulster  Co.,  N.  Y., 
•Dec.  13,  1801;  settled  at  Ann  Arbor  Nov.  4,  1832,  and  moved  to 
Jackson  in  1836. 

Joseph  F.  Sammons,  born  at  Orwell,  Rutland  Co.,  Vermont, 
March  9.  1830;  settled  at  Ann  Arbor  Nov.  4,  1832,  and  came  to 
Jackson  in  1836. 

William  L.  Seaton,  born  at.  New  Hartford,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  19, 
1823;  settled  at  Pontiac,  Oakland  Co.,  August,  1848,  and  came  to 
Jackson  in  January,  1855. 

George  W.  M.  Shearer,  born  at  Arcadia,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  20,  1S26; 
settled  at  Plymouth.  Wayne  Co.,  in  June,  1826,  and  subsequently 
at  Jackson. 


Jacob  Sherman,  bom  at  Wayne,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  21,  1821;  settled 
at  Concord  July,  4,  1832,  and  afterward  moved  to  Pulaski. 

Col.  Michael  Shoemaker,  born  at  German  Flats,  N.  Y.,  April  6, 
1818;  traveled  west  in  October,  1835,  and  for  seven  years  traversed 
Michigan  and  Illinois;  settled  at  Leoni  in  1842,  and  ultimately 
made  Jackson  his  residence. 

Mrs.  Sarah  Wisner  Shoemaker,  born  at  Penn  Yan,  N.  Y., 
March  30,  182!»;  came  to  Jackson  in  1854. 

Anson  H.  Silsbee,  born  at  Wayne,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  16,  1814; 
settled  at  Hanover,  Jackson  Co.,  Feb.  22,  1854,  and  subsequently 
at  Summit. 

Sarah  Ann  Silsbee  was  born  at  Cohocton,  N.  Y.,  March  20, 
1814,  and  came  to  Hanover  with  her  husband  in  1854. 

Henry  Sisson,  Chautauqua  county,  N.  Y.,  was  born  June  10, 
1840,  and  came  to  Tompkins  two  years  later. 

George  S.  Smaller,  born  at  Hampton,  Washington  Co.,  N.  Y., 
Oct.  27,  1821;  settled  at  Concord,  Jackson  Co.,  July  17,  1834, 
and  subsequently  removed  to  Chicago. 

Edwin  Smead,  born  at  Windsor,  Vt.,  May  4,  1816;  settled  at 
Jackson  in  October,  1844. 

II.  II.  Smith,  born  at  Malone,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  9,  1809;  settled  at 
Summit,  Jackson  Co.,  Aug.  10,  1837,  and  subsequently  moved  to 

Horatio  S.  Smith,  born  at  Grass  Lake,  Jackson  Co.,  Feb. 
20,  L839;  married  Lavinia  Dwelle  Smith,  of  Rushville,  N.  Y.,  who 
was  horn  July  20,  1848,  and  came  to  reside  at  Grass  Lake  April 
1,  1866. 

Mrs.  Nancy  (Darling)  Smith,  born  at  Petersburg,  N.  Y.,  March 
18,  1806;  came  to  Jackson  June  20,  1832. 

John  C.  South  worth,  born  at  German  village,  Chenango  Co., 
N.  Y.,  Nov.  18,  1812;  settled  at  Tompkins  July  1,  1839. 

R.  W.  Squires,  born  in  Ontario,  N.  Y.,  Dec'.  24, 1806;  settled  at 
Napoleon  in  October,  1832. 

Frank  Standish,  born  at  Attica,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  25,  1834;  settled  at 
Jackson  April,  1835. 

Mrs.  Jane  Snyder  Standish  was  born  in  Sullivan  county,  N. 
Y.,  February,  1840,   and  came  to  reside  at  Jackson  in  April,  1850. 

Zenas  Stillson  came  to  Henrietta  township  in  March,  1837. 
Charles  S.  Stone,  in  1833.  S.  S.  Smith,  A.  F.  Smith,  James  H. 
Snyder,  D.  Shumway,  Cornelius  Statt,  Wm.  Spratt,  Lewis  Sny- 
der,  Joel  Swain,  Jacob  Showerman  and  T.  M.  Sandford  were  also 
among  the  first  settlers. 

Sampson  Stodard,  born  at  Vernon,  Oneida  Co.,  N.  Y.,  Feb. 
7,  1S06;  settled  at  Jackson  in  September,  1830. 

S.  W.  Stowell,  born  at  Littleton,  Mass.,  July  2,  1802;  settled 
at  Detroit  in  April,  1834,  and  with  his  wife,  Mrs.  Margaret 
Stowell,  moved  to  Jackson  in  1836. 

George  Stranahan,  born  at  Clarence,  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  24, 
1816;  settled  at  Columbia,  Jackson  Co.,  17  years  later,or  in  Au- 
gust, 1833. 


David  B.  Stuart,  born  at  Northampton,  Montgomery  Co.,  N.  Y.; 
settled  at  Summit  in  1836. 

Rev.  Win.  M.  Sullivan  was  born  in  Salem,  Botetourt  Co., 
Va.,  Jan.  11,  1811.  He  removed  to  Ohio  when  a  boy  with  his  par- 
ents, on  account  of  his  father's  opposition  to  human  slavery. 
He  entered  the  ministry  in  the  M.  E.  Church  when  17  years  of  age; 
came  to  Michigan  in  1832  and  labored  on  the  Ann  Arbor  circuit 
that  year,  and  was  assigned  to  the  Mt.  Clemens  circuit  in  1833, 
to  the  Sandusky  circuit,  in  1834,  to  the  Dexter  circuit  in  1835  and 
to  the  Clinton  circuit  in  183G.  He  was  married  in  1834  to  Miss 
Harriet  Bennett,  of  Lima,  Washtenaw  Co.,  Mich.  He  removed  to 
Jackson  in  L837  and  assisted  his  brother,  Nicholas  Sullivan,  in 
publishing  the  Jackson  Sentinel,  the  first  paper  published  in  Jack- 
son county.  He  attempted  to  lecture  in  Jackson  in  1838  on 
American  slavery,  but  public  sentiment  was  such  at  that  time  that 
he  was  unable  to  finish  his  lecture  on  account  of  a  Jackson 
mob.  He  commenced  the  publication  of  the  American  Freeman 
in  1839,  the  first  anti-slavery  paper  published  in  Jackson  county, 
and  probably  in  the  State.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Utica  Con- 
vention in  1840,  which  was  the  initial  movement  in  the  secession 
from  the  M.  E.  Church,  and  the  formation  of  the  Wesleyan  Meth- 
odist Church,  on  account  of  the  radical  difference  of  opinion  in  the 
M.  E.  Church  in  regard  t<>  American  slavery.  He  labored  in  the 
W.  M.  Church  in  Waterloo,  Jackson  Co.,  North  Adams,  Hillsdale 
Co.,  and  Wolf  Creek,  Lenawee  Co.,  until  1845,  when  he  removed 
to  Leoni  and  was  appointed  an  agent  to  assist  in  organizing  the 
Michigan  Union  College.  This  was  a  flourishing  educational  insti- 
tution in  Leoni  (under  the  auspices  of  the  W.  M.  Church),  until  its 
removal  to  Adrian.  He  resided  in  Leoni,  engaged  in  the  mercan- 
tile business,  and  subsequently  in  farming,  until  his  death  in  1871, 
at  the  age  of  60. 

C.  S.  Swain,  born  at  Kingsbury,  N.  Y.,  March  23,  1805,  and 
was  the  first  settler  in  Brooklyn  township,  October,  1832. 

Joel  Swain,  born  at  Royalton,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  18,  1821;  settled  at 
Lodi,  Washtenaw  Co.,  in  October,  1828,  and  six  years  later  moved 
to  Tompkins,  Jackson  Co. 

Samuel  Sweet,  born  at  Otsego,  N.  Y.,  in  May,  1804;  settled  at 
Dexter,  Washtenaw  Co.,  in  October,  1833,  and  removed  to  Water- 
loo in  1837. 

Horace  Tanner,  born  at  Stafford,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  12,  1816;  settled 
at  Henrietta,  Jackson  Co.,  Oct.  7,  1836. 

Thomas  Tanner,  born  at  Stafford,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  14,  1814;  settled 
at  Henrietta  in  October,  1835. 

James  PI.  Tanner,  born  at  Stafford,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  19,  1823; 
settled  at  Henrietta  in  October,  1837,  and  subsequently  moved  to 

Ebenezer  and  J.  W.  Taylor  were  early  settlers. 

John  R.  Taylor,  born  at  Greece,N.  Y.,  Jan.  14,  1830;  settled  at 
Grass  Lake  August,  1836,  and  subsequently  removed  to  Napoleon. 


Wra.  B.  Taylor,  born  in  New  York  city  July  24.  1807;  settled 
at  Grass  Lake' July  4,  1S34. 

James  S.  Thorn,  born  at  Middlebury,  Schoharie  Co.,  N.  Y.. 
Nov.  15,  1815;  settled  at  Yankee  Springs,  Barry  Co.,  May  1. 
1838,  and  subsequently  settled  in  Hanover  township. 

Mrs.  Samson  Thorn  was  born  at  Falmouth,  Barnstable  Co., 
Mass..  Aug.  6,  1813,  and  arrived  at  Yankee  Springs  12  days  after 
the  arrival  of  her  husband.  Miss  Thorn,  her  oldest  daughter,  was 
the  first  white  child  born  at  Yankee  Springs. 

Reuben  R.  Tingley,  born  at  Bloomiield,  Oakland  Co.,  Mich.. 
Sept.  18,  1828;  came  to  Jackson  city  in  1841,  located  in  Hanover 
township;  served  in  the  Mexican  war  in  1848.  in  Col.  Stockton's 
regiment,  under  Capt.  Miles,  Co.  H.,  and  for  a  time  in  Gen.  James 
Shield's  division. 

Mrs.  Maryette  French  Todd  was  born  at  Hopewell.  N.  Y.,  July 
13,   1817,  and  moved  West  with  her  husband. 

Robert  T.  Todd  was  born  at  Verona,  N.  Y.,  June  5,  1824; 
settled  at  Tompkins  in  this  county  in  November,  1849. 

William  Todd,  born  at  Rodman,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  9,  1807;  settled  at 
Ann  Arbor  Sept.  30,  1832,  and  removed  to  Spring  Arbor,  Jackson 
Co.,  in  May,  1836. 

Joseph  B.  Tomlinson,  born  at  Genesee,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  <>,  1820,  and 
settled  at  Jackson  April  30.  1841. 

Obediah  Tompkins,  born  at  Mexico.  N.  Y.,  Sept.  12.  1S36;  set- 
tled at  Columbia  July  4,  18—. 

Anson  Townley  was  born  at  Ludlowville,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  24,  1815; 
settled  at  Tompkins  June  19,  1835,  and  moved  into  Jackson  city  at 
a  later  day. 

Edward  Townley,  born  at  Ludlowville,  N.  Y.,  June  23,  1817; 
settled  at  Tompkins.  Jackson  Co.,  Sept.  10,  1834.  Mr.  Townley 
and  his  father  were  the  first  residents  in  Tompkins  township,  and 
were  among  the  first  house-builders.  He  cut  the  first  tree,  and 
plowed  the  first  furrow  in  the  township. 

Richard  Townsley,  born  Sept.  26,  1821,  in  Tompkins  county, 
N.  Y.;  settled  at  Tompkins,  Jackson  Co.,  April  30,  1833,  and 
is  the  oldest  resident  of  the  township  now  living. 

II.  B.  Tripp  was  an  early  settler. 

Martin  Tripp,  born  at  Royalton,  N.  Y.,  March  31,  1831;  settled 
at  Hanover  June  1.  1832.  He  was  the  oldest  living  settler  of  this 
township  in  1875. 

Henry  Turney  was  an  early  settler. 

Moses  Tuttle,'  or  Tuthill.  was  born  at  Southold,  Long  Island. 
N.  Y..  Oct.  26,  1808;  came  into  the  State  in  1832,  and  located  a 
tract  of  Government  land  at  the  bend  of  the  Raisin  (now  Manches- 
ter); lived  at  Honey  ('reek  in  1S32,  and  in  June,  1835,  made  his 
home  at  Liberty. 

Samuel  Updike,  born  at  Ulysses.  N.  Y.,  Sept.  4,  1809;  settled 
at  Grass  Lake  May  20,  1832. 

William  W.  Van  Antwerp,  an  honorary  member  of  the  Pioneer 
Society,  and  editor  of  the  Jackson  Dally  Patriot,  was  born  at  La 


Grange,  Ind.,  Oct.   4,    1833;   came   to  Jackson    in  1841,    and    has 
made' it  his  residence  since  1859. 

E.  Van  Horn,  horn  at  (lien.  Montgomery  Co.,  N.  Y.,  March  29, 
1818;  settled  at  Rives  May  24.  1836. 

James  Videto,  born  at  Oxburv.  Upper  Canada,  July  27,  1804; 
settled  in  Concord  October,    1830. 

Mrs.  Eliza  Vroman  was  born  at  Salem,  Mass.,  April  25.  1811; 
came  to  Burlington,  Calhoun  Co.,  in  April,  1852,  and  ultimately 
settled  at  Summit. 

Tunis  Vroman,  born  at  Middlebury,  X.  Y.,  April  2!t,  1802;  lo- 
cated at  Summit  Nov.  18,  1835. 

Mrs.  Lucy  C.  Wade  was  born  at  Rupert,  Vt.,  May  20,  1825; 
came  to  Pittsfield  May  15,  1849,  ami  to  Jackson  county,  with  her 
husband  in  1839. 

Mrs.  Abigail  ('.  Wade  was  born  atEupert,  Vt.,  March  12,  1823, 
and  came  to  Pittsfield  Oct.  2!),  1S45. 

Uriah  Wade,  horn  at  Wolcott,  X.  V.,  Dec.  20,  L818;  settled  at 
Pittsfield,  Washtenaw  Co.,  May  24,  1834,  and  five  years  later,  in 
1839,  removed  to  Tompkins  township. 

M.  J.  Wade,  horn  at  Rose,  Wayne  Co.,  K  Y.,  July  27,  1815; 
settled  at  Pittsfield,  Washtenaw  Co.,  Nov.  20,  1834,  and  removed 
to  Tompkins,  Jackson  Co..  four  vears  later,  in  1888. 

William  II.  Walker,  born  at  Barre,  Vt..  Nov.  19,  1823;  settled 
at  Grass  Lake  in  October,  1830. 

Chester  Wall,  born  at  Scipio,  Cayuga  <',,..  N.  Y.,  Sept.  5,  1807; 
settled  at  Sandstone  Oct.   12,    1830. 

Mrs.  Rachel  Wall  was  horn  in  lister  county,  X.  Y.,  May  24, 
1818,  and  came  to  Sandstone  Sept.   18,  1839. 

F.  C.  Watkins,  born  in  New  Hampshire  March  29,  1811;  set- 
tied  at  Xorvell  in  September.   1833. 

Jeremiah  P.  Watson,  born  at  Poultney,  Steuben  Co.,  N.  Y., 
July  29,  1818;  settled  at  Crass  Lake  Oct.  28,    1838. 

Peter  "Weber,  born  at  Oneida,  K  Y.,  Oct.  13,  1826;  settled  at 
Brooklyn,  Jackson  Co.,  May  13,  1834. 

James  Welch,  A.  A.  Welch,  B.  S.  Wimie,  Henry  Woodin, 
James  C.  Wood,  S.  F.  Wolcott,  J.  E.  Wright,  X.  E.  Wright  and 
D.  E.  Wright  arrived  at  an  early  period  in  the  history  of  the 

Lewis  D.  Welling,  horn  at  Stamford.  X.  Y.,  Sept.  12,  1812; 
came  West  in  1831,  and  Oct.  10  of  that  year  settled  at  Tecumseh, 
Lenawee  Co.,  removing  to  Jackson  in  June,   1837. 

S.  S.  Welling,  born  at  Stamford,  X.  Y.,  Oct,  16,  1826;  settled 
at  Tecumseh,  Lenawee  Co.,  in  October,  1831,  and  removing  to 
Jackson  county  shortly  afterward  has  since  made  it  his  home. 

John  Westren,  borri  in  Devonshire,  England,  Sept.  27,  1802; 
arriving  in  Jackson  county  in  18:i5-Y>,  he  purchased  1,800  acres  of 
land  where  now  is  the  village  of  Pleasant  Lake,  divided  it  into  six 
farms,  and  erected  a  log  house  on  each  division.  In  1841  he 
moved  to  the  village  of  Jackson,  where  he  continued  to  ileal  in 
real  estate  for  a  few  years.      In  1845   Mr.   Westren.  acting  on  the 


advice  of  Achille  Cadotte,  went  northward  toward  the  great  iron 
mount,  now  called  Jackson  mountain,  and  returning  organized 
the  Jackson  Iron  Company.  The  report  of  this  company,  issued 
in  New  York  June  16,  1869,  deals  in  the  following  terms  with  this 
pioneer:  "Since  the  last  annual  meeting  of  the  stockholders,  the 
company  has  lost  by  death  one  of  its  Board  of  Directors,  and  one  of 
the  earliest  pioneers,  if  not  the  originator,  of  the  Jackson  Iron 
Company.  John  Westren,  of  Jackson,  Mich.,  died  in  Marquette, 
where  he  had  gone  for  the  benefit  of  his  health,  in  August,  last" — 

I.  P.  Wheeler  was  born  Aug.  10,  1817.  in  Sudbury,  Mass.;  set- 
tled at  Pulaski  May  5,  1836. 

Henry  Wickman.  born  at  Berlin,  Prussia,  Aug.  17,  1812;  set- 
tled at  Hanover,  Jackson  Co.,  in  May,   1835. 

John  Wilbur,  born  at  Adams,  Mass.,  Oct.  12,  1797;  settled  at 
Pulaski,  Jackson  Co.,  Sept.  15,  1835. 

Hiram  Williams,  born  at  Middleport,  1ST.  Y.,  Nov.'  20,  1818; 
settled  at  Monroe  in  October,  1831,  and  removing  to  Jackson 
county  the  following  year  made  his  home  at  Napoleon. 

Ira  A.  Willis,  born' at  Pottsdam,  N.  Y..  March  12,  1818;  settled 
at  Pulaski  Sept.  10,  ls:;s. 

Mrs.  Huldah  Winne,  born  at  Tompkins,  N.  Y.,  March  24,  1822; 
came  to  Scio,  Washtenaw  Co.,  in  May,  L835,  and  subsequently 
settled  at  Leoni,  Jackson  Co. 

George  Wood,  born  in  Otsego  county,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  14,  L826;  set- 
tled at  Jackson  in  May,  1831,  afterward  moving  to  Sandstone. 
His  father,  Jonathan  Wood,  came  to  the  State  in  1830,  and  pur- 
chased that  tract  of  land, now  known  as  the  "  Woodville  Farm.'' 

Abraham  Grawman  came  from  Pennsylvania  in  1829,  and  set- 
\  tied  in  Jackson  county  while  it  was  yet  almost  untenanted.  He 
was  born  in  1789,  and  died  Feb.  4,  1876. 

Lewis  Darling  settled  in  Concord  township  in  1834.  In  1873  he 
moved  to  Tompkins,  and  died  three  years  later,  Jan.  6,  1876, 
aged  64  years. 

Amasa  Hawkins  was  born  in  Otsego  county,  N.  Y.,  January 
1799,  and  died  at  Parma  Dec.  1,  1875.  Coming  West  in  1835  he 
settled  at  Spring  Arbor,  and  throughout  his  long  career  was  a 
most    exemplary    citizen. 

Mrs.  II.  H.  Bumpus,  a  lady  of  the  pioneer  period,  died  at  De- 
troit Feb.  4,  1876,  having  been  born  in  1808. 

Lorenzo  Dow  Wheeler  died  at  Blaekman  Dec.  24,  1875,  at  the 
age  of  55  years,  6  months  and  3  days. 

Kobert  Graham,  born  in  1810;  died  Nov.  26,   L875. 

Owen  Griffith,  born  in  1801;  died  Dec.  21,  L875,  in  Jackson, 
where  he  was  an  old  resident. 

Stephen  H.  Sears,  born  in  1810;  died  Nov.  26,  1875.  Leaving 
the  State  of  his  nativity  (Connecticut)  in  1831,  he  settled  at  Spring 
Arbor  in  1832,  and  removed  to  Jackson  in  1868. 


Marcus  Spencer  settled  at  Jackson  in  1836.  He  died  in  1876, 
aged  68  years. 

David  Williams  died  June  14,  1876,  having  reached  the  age  of 
76  years.  Born  in  1800,  he  came  to  this  county  in  1837  with  his 
family,  and  settled  at  Waterloo. 

John  A.  Sloat,  born  at  Walden,  Orange  Co.,  N.  Y..  April  2, 
1803;  moved  to  Washtenaw  county  in  1831,  where  he  resided  un- 
til 1840,  when  he  settled  at  Liberty,  and  subsequently  at  Napoleon. 
He  died  Feb.  25,  1S76. 

Isaac  Kibbee  died  at  Summitville  in  1876,  aged  82  years.  He 
came  West  in  1826,  and  settled  in  Jackson  county  about  1839. 

Abram  Sanford  settled  in  this  county  in  January,  1837.  Born 
in  1796,  he  died  in  1876,  at  the  age  of  80  years. 

Mrs.  Charlotte  Gibson,  one  of  the  earliest  pioneers  of  Jackson 
county,  died  in  1876,  at  the  age  of  84  years. 

Mrs.  Miriam  R.  Stephenson,  who  settled  in  the  county  46  years 
ago,  died  in  March,  1876,  aged  52  years. 

Mrs.  Anna  Dewey,  born  in  1786,  at  Granby,  Conn.;  moved  with 
her  husband  and  family  to  Napoleon,  Jackson  Co.,  in  1835,  and 
after  40  years'  permanent  residence,  died  March  2. 

Mrs.  Mariette  Gibson,  mother  of  Dr.  W.  A.  Gibson,  died  May 
24,  aged  53  years,  having  been  a  resident  of  Jackson  since  1836. 

Mrs.  Charity  Field,  whose  date  of  settlement  in  this  county 
dates  back  to  1833,  died  July  4,  1877. 

Edgar  E.  Knickerbocker  died  March  25,  1877,   aged  35  years. 

David  Dyer  Sandstone  died  Oct.  14,  1878,  having  reached  the 
age  of  77  years. 

Julia  Nicolls  Sandstone  died  Dec.  25,  1878,  aged  76. 

George  Martin  Sandstone  died  Aug.  24,  1878,  aged  88. 

Joseph  Swift,  at  Grass  Lake,  died  Feb.  12,  1878,  aged  83  years. 

Almerin  B.  Tinker,  at  65  years  of  age,  died  April  18,  1879. 

Nathan  Crawford  died  Feb.  25,  1878.  He  was  born  in  Decem- 
ber, 1799. 

Mrs.  Mary  B.  Anthony,  daughter  of  Dr.  Ira  C.  Baker,  died 
March  19,  1878. 

W.  W.  Langdon,  born  in  1809;  died  Sept,  16,  1878.  Mr.  Lang- 
don  resided  in  the  city  44  years,  and  in  Napoleon  for  one  year. 

George  Ferguson  died  May  14,  1878,  aged  69  years. 

Mrs.  Nancy  Knight  died  in  1878,  at  the  age  of  74  years.  She 
was  the  wife  of  one  of  the  pastors  of  the  early  Churches,  and  ar- 
rived with  him  in  the  county  during  the  year  1835. 

Sidney  T.  Smith  died  April  25,  1878,  aged  78  years.  In  1840 
he  came,  with  his  family,  from  Sherburne,  N.  Y..  to  Michigan  and 
settled  at  Grass  Lake. 

Sydney  B.  Charles  died  Aug.  30,  1878,  at  Columbia,  aged  91 

Daniel  McLaughlin  died  Nov.  23,  1878,  aged  85. 

Ann  Tyler  died  Aug.  4,  1878.  Being  born  in  1790,  she  reached 
her  88th  year. 


Mary  Mclntvve,  having  attained  her  82d  year,  died  April  30, 
1878.  " 

Esther  Parish  died  Dee.  23,  1878,  aged  73  years. 

John  .T.  Markley  died  at  Grass  Lake  Sept.  i4,  1878,  in  the  75th 
year  of  his  age. 

Rebecca  Hasbrook,  an  old  resident  of  Columbia,  died  April  30, 
1878,  aged  70  vears. 

William  Selkworth  died  Oct.  20,  1878,  at  Columbia,  aged  85 

Mrs.  Esther  Giles,  of  Tompkins;  died  .Ian.  26,  1878,  at  the  age 
of  84  years. 

Mrs.  Harriet  Fellows,  ofBlackman,  died  June  6,  1879,  aged  86 

Mrs.  Sophronia  Boughton  died  July  18,  1878,  at  Jackson,  in  her 
76th  year. 

John  S.  Updike,  win  >  was  a  member  of  the  Pioneer  Society,  died 
May  23,  L878,  at  Leoni,  aged  76  years. 

Albert  Howe  died  at  Jackson  in  1878,  at  the  age  of  70  years. 

Mr>.  Mary  A.  Howe  died  November,  1878,  in  her  69th  year. 

Joseph  Brink  died  at  Leoni  Dec.  8,  1878,  aged  80  years. 

John  Preston,  of  Leoni,  died  Aug.  25,  1878,  aged  79  years. 

Clarissa  Landon,  of  Springport,  died  Aug.  9,  1878,  aged  78 

George  R.  F.  Eewesdied  at  Springport  June  10,  1878,  at  the 
age  of  88. 

Anna  Horton  died  dune  28,  1878,  82  years  <>f  age. 

Ann  Kairhaiiks  died  at  Springport  Aug.  27,  1878,  aged  79  years. 

Daniel  Meeks  died  at  Napoleon  Jan.  16,  1878.  He  was  born  in 
N.  V.  State  in  I801;cameto  Michigan  in  1835,  and  settling  at  Na- 
poleon, made  it  his  home  during  the  43  years  which  elapsed  from 
Ins  settlement  to  his  decease. 

Reuben  O.  Eollister,  of  Columbia,  died  Aug.  29,  1878,  in  his 
HTtli  year.  Born  at  Batavia,  X.  V.,  in  1811,  he  came  to  .lackson 
county  in  1835.      For  4:1  years  he  was  a  resident  of  the  county. 

Mrs.  Joseph  Hawley  died  March  24,  1878.  In  1843  she  came 
to  Waterloo,  and  made  it  her  home  until  her  decease. 

Levi  Fifield  died  at  .lackson  dune  8,  1878,  in  his  71st  year. 

.Jacob  Kaywood  settled  at  Leoni  in  1835,  and  after  a  period  of 
43  years"  good  citizenship,  died  in  his  86th  year,  Dec.  16,  1878. 

Samuel  H.  Burt  died  July  5,  1878,  aged  71  years.  Leaving 
Massachusetts  in  1833,  he  traveled  west,  and  choosing  Jackson  as 
his  future  home  took  an  active  part  in  raising  it  to  its  present 
eminence  among  the  cities  of  the  State. 

Simon  Holland  came  to  Jackson  in  1837,  at  the  age  of  35  years, 
and  died  in  1878,  in  his  76th  year.  lie  was  born  in  Monroe  county, 
N.  V.,  in  1802;  lived  in  Jackson  county  for  41  years,  of  which  22 
were  passed  in  Jackson  city. 

Dr.  Dwight  B.  Nuns  died  April  14.  1879.  He  was  born  at 
Berkshire.  Mass.,  in  1807.  Coming  to  Jackson  in  1865,  he  at  once 
entered  into  the  practice  of  his   profession,    and   soon    won   many 


friends  among  his  confreres  and  the  people.  Resolutions  of  con- 
dolence were  passed  at  a  meeting  of  the  medical  faculty  of  the  city 
the  evening  of  his  death,  and  copies  transmitted  to  the  family  of 
deceased.  These  resolutions  were  signed  by  Drs.  G.  Chittock,  J. 
T.  Main  and  E.  Price. 

H.  S.  Price  died  Feb.  25,  1879,  at  Jackson,  aged  74  years. 

Wm.  C.  Hirsha  died  Feb.  24,  1879,  at  Ann  Arbor,  aged  79 

Judge  David  Adams  died  at  Tompkins  Feb.  27,  1879,  aged  80 

Mrs.  Betsy  Dickinson  died  April  1,  1879,  having  reached  the 
age  of  84  years. 

Mrs.  Mary  G.  De  Land,  widow  of  Judge  W.  R.  De  Land, 
the  third  white  woman  who  came  into  Jackson  county,  and  the 
oldest  resident,  with  the  exception  of  John  T.  Durand,  died  Nov. 
30,  1878,  at  Jackson,  in  the  77th  year  of  her  age.  Mrs.  De  Land 
''Mine  to  Jackson  county  in  May,  1830,  with  her  husband  and  two 
children,  C.  V.  De  Land  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Rockwell.  James  S. 
De  Land,  her  son,  was  the  first  male  white  child  born  in  the 

Peter  La  Rue  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  71  years,  on  June 
22,  1878.  In  1843  he  settled  at  Blackmail.  The  deceased,  like  the 
majority  of  the  colonists,  claimed  New  York  as  the  State  of  hte 

Hon.  Donnan  Felt  received  a  wound  from  a  pistol  ball,  and 
within  a  few  days  expired,  lie  was  born  in  New  Hampshire,  but 
passed  the  greater  portion  of  his  youth  in  Oswego  county,  N.  Y., 
moving  to  Grass  Lake  in  1847.  During  his  long  life,  extending 
ovcrdO  years,  he  was  honored  by  the  people. 

Wm.  Maybury  came  to  the  county  in  1839,  and  died  in  1879,  at 
the  age  of  55  years.  lie  was  the  first  drayman  in  the  city,  and  so 
clear  were  his  little  dealings  that  his  patrons,  as  well  as  the  cos- 
termongers,  termed  him  "Poor  Honest  Hilly."  His  economy  and 
industry  combined,  left  him  worth  $100,000  some  years  prior  to  his 

Isaac  De  Lamater  died  Feb.  8,  1878,  at  the  advanced  age  of  87 
years.  He  was  born  at  Oblong,  N.  Y.,  in  1791.  During  the 
first  few  years  of  the  present  century  he  resided  in  Onondaga 
county,  N.  Y.,  immediately  after  its  organization,  and  remained 
thereuntil  1833,  when  he  came  to  Manchester,  Washtenaw  Co. 
Moving  in  L835  to  Columbia,  he  made  that  township  his  home. 
At  his  death  a  family  of  50,  including  seven  sons,  twenty-two 
grand  children,  and  twenty-one  great-grand  children  were  left  to 
mourn  his  loss. 

Bela  Turner,  who  died  March  3D,  1S79,  at  the  age  of  91  years, 
moved  from  Hartford,  Conn.,  to  Jackson  in  1846.  He  was  the 
senior  member  of  the  First  Congregational  Church. 

Judge  Samuel  iligby.  whose  death  caused  such  profound  sor 
row  throughout  Jackson,  was  born  at  New  Hartford,  OneidaCo., 
N.  Y.,  in  1813.     He  studied  law  at  Utica,  and  was  there  admitted 


to  the  Bar.  In  1838  Judge  Higby  came  to  Jackson,  and,  en- 
tering into  a  law  partnership  with  Judge  David  Johnson,  began  a 
brilliant  career.  Subsequently  he  and  Phineas  Farrand  became 
partners;  again  he  became  interested  in  Judge  Johnson's  office, 
and  for  the  three  years  preceding  his  death  was  a  member  of  the 
law  firm  of  Higby  &  Gibson.  In  1843  he  was  elected  the  first 
Recorder  of  the  newly  incorporated  village  of  Jackson.  In  1844 
he  was  elected  Probate  Judge;  in  1850  he  was  chosen  Prosecuting 
Attorney,  and  in  1856  was  elected  President  of  the  village  of  Jack- 
son, being  the  last  person  holding  that  office,  as  the  town  of  Jack- 
son was  soon  incorporated  a  city.  In  1869  Judge  Higby  was 
elected  Judge  of  this  circuit,  and  resigned  in  1873. 

Mrs.  Mary  Cockburn  died  June  22,  1879,  at  the  age  of  84  years 
and  6  months.  She  was  born  at  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  in  March,  1795; 
settled  at  Jackson  in  1838,  with  her  family,  and  adopted  the  little 
village  of  those  early  days  as  her  home. 

Mrs.  Shaver,  whose  death  occurred  June  25,  1879,  came  to  the 
countv  from  Columbia,  N".  Y.,  in  1835,  and  resided  in  Jackson  44 
years.  Her  husband,  Andrew  Shaver,  died  in  1847,  12  years  after 
nis  settlement. 

Mrs.  Maria  Van  Horn,  of  Blackmail,  died  Aug.  5,  1879,  at  the 
age  of  70  years.  She  was  the  relict  of  Christopher  Van  Horn, 
whose  early  settlement  has  been  hitherto  noticed. 

Mrs.  Hannah  Cradit  died  at  the  age  of  83  years,  having  been  a 
resident    of  Leoni  for  4(1  years. 

Mrs.  Cornelius  Soper  died  June  30,  1879.  She  reached  an  ad- 
vanced age.  and  was  an  old  settler  of  Grass  Lake  township. 

Mrs.  Man  McCann  died  at  St.  Louis,  Gratiot  Co.,  aged  75 
years.     She  was  formerly  a  resident  of  the  city  of  Jackson. 

Abram  Skidmore.  an  old  settler  of  Waterloo  township,  died 
Jan.  26,  1879,  at  the  age  of  70  years. 

Mrs.    Amelia   E.  Gale  died  June  12,  1879,  in  her  78th  year. 

Harmon  Taylor,  aged  74  years  and  6  months,  died  June  20, 

Dr.  John  .Mid. can  died  .March  10,  1879,  after  a  residence  of  40 
years  in  Jackson.  lie  was  born  at  Caledonia,  N.  V.,  in  1814,  was 
a  member  of  the  faculty  of  Rush  Medical  College,  Chicago,  and 
for  many  years  a  leading  physician  of  Jackson. 

Stephen  Siegfried,  of' Waterloo,  died  in  1879,  at  the  age  of  63 
years,  having  been  a  resident  of  the  township  since  1854. 

Mrs.  Sarah  M.  Perry,  born  at  Lockport,  N.  Y.,  in  1S17,  and  an 
old  settler  of  this  county,  died  July  15,  1879.  Mrs.  Perry  arrived 
here  in  1837,  and  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  the  First 
Congregational  Church. 

Mrs.  Warren  X.  Buck  died  Sept.  12,  1^77. 

Hon.  Warren  N.  Buck,  whose  death  was  recorded  July  6,  1879, 
was  born  at  Bolton,  Warren  Co.,  X.  Y.,  May  8,  1814,  and  re- 
moving to  Jackson  in  1838,  entered  on  a  course  which  brought 
him  honors  and  wealth.  The  deceased  was  Mayor  of  the  city  in 
1867-'8,  so  that  in  the  funeral  train  ex-Mayors  Hayden,  Bennett. 


Hibbard,  Root,  Loomis  and  Wood  were  pall-bearers,  and  ex- 
Mayors  Jackson  and  Higby  among  the  mourners. 

Abraham  Bunker,  an  old  settler  of  Henrietta  township,  died  in 
1879.  Mr.  Bunker  was  the  pioneer  of  Bunker  Hill,  Ingham  (Do., 
and  erected  the  first  building  at  that  village.  In  those  early  years 
the  Indians  were  numerous  in  the  district,  and  Louis  Baptiste,  or 
Bateese,  a  French  half-breed,  kept  the  Indian  trading-post  on  the 
shore  of  Bateese  lake. 

Samuel  Anderson  died  Oct.  28,  1879,  in  Napoleon,  aged  83 
years,  5  months  and  24  days.  He  was  a  resident  of  the  county 
for  many  years. 

G.  D.  Smith,  of  Blackman,  died  in  October,  1879,  at  the  age  of 
81  years. 

Mrs.  Mary  Sullivan  died  Dec.  26,  1879,  in  her  64th  year.  She. 
with  her  husband,  Jeremiah  Sullivan,  were  old  residents  of  the- 

Mrs.  Martha  Harris,  of  Tompkins,  died  Aug.  21.  1879,  bavins; 
attained  the  age  of  86  years.  She,  with  her  husband,  William 
Harris,  came  from  Kent,  England,  in  1849,  and  settled  in  Jackson 

D.  A.  Clelland.  born  in  Hanover  township  in  1836,  died  in 
1879.  His  father,  J.  D.  Clelland,  one  of  the  first  settlers  in  the 
township,  is  over  SO  years  old. 

Maria  S.  Lee  died  Sept.  20,  1879,  56  years  of  age. 

Mrs.  Jane  Humphrey  died  July  22,  1879.  She  settled  at 
Wheatland,  Hillsdale  Co.,  40  years  ago,  with  her  husband,  John 
Humphrey,  who  died  in    1871. 

Elihu  Cooley  was  born  at  Elyria,  Ohio,  in  June,  1826,  and  died 
July  22,  1879,'  in  his  54th  year.  He  was  one  of  those  enterpris- 
ing nun  who  built  up  the  trade  of  this  city. 

Edwin  Fifield,  of  Michigan  Center,  died  August,  1879,  at  the  age 
of  56.  He  was  an  old  settler,  eccentric,  an  old  bachelor,  and  yet 
possessed  many  friends. 

Mrs.  Eunice  Morley  (Hawley;  Miller  died  Aug.  20,  1S79.  The 
lady  was  born  at  East  Windsor,  Conn.,  Jan.  1,  1789,  and  conse- 
quently died  in  the  91st  year  of  her  age. 

Mrs.  Ariel  Cornwell,  of  Liberty  township,  died  in  August,  1879, 
in  her  67th  year.  She  was  born  at  Preston,  Conn.,  and  married 
Ariel  Cornwell  in  1834  ;  they  migrated  west,  and  settled  at  Liberty 
in  1836. 

Judge  Hiram  Thompson  died  at  Osakis,  Minn.,  July  17,  1879, 
in  his  80th  year.  The  Judge  settled  in  Jackson  in  1831,  and  was 
the  first  Town  Clerk.  He  was  afterward  County  Judge  and 
Registrar  of  Deeds.  Wm.  R.  Thompson  and  John  Thompson, 
both  old  settlers,  were  his  brothers. 

Oliver  Bunce  settled  in  Liberty  township  in  1846,  and  died 
Sept.  25,  1879,  at  the  age  of  SI. 

Mrs.  Louisa  Gates,  an  old  resident  of  Leoni,  died  Sept.  4,  1879, 
in  her  74th  vear. 


Solomon  Yager,  an  old  resident  of  Springport,  died  Sept.  4, 
1879,  at  the  age  of  66  years. 

Joab  Bigelow,  born  in  Windham  county,  Vt.,  October,  1792  ; 
settled  with  his  parents  at  Onondaga,  N.  Y.,  in  1800.  Eighteen 
years  later  he  married  Miss  Lois  Putnam,  and  in  1835  moved 
west  to  Jackson  county.  After  a  period  of  44  years'  residence 
in  the  county,  Mr.  Bigelow  died  Oct.  21,  1879,  at  the  age  of  86 

John  Stephenson,  a  pioneer  of  Jackson  county,  died  Oct.  25, 

.lames  Hatt,  a  farmer,  and  comparatively  an  old  settler,  living 
three  miles  northeast  of  Franciscoville,  died  suddenly  in  Sep- 
tember, 1879,  having  attained  the  age  of  67  years. 

John  Ricker,  an  old  settler  as;ed  88  years,  died  suddenly  Dec. 
42,  1879. 

Mrs.  Rose  McGill,  an  old  lady  whose  years  were  so  many  that 
a  count  was  impracticable,  died  at  Jackson  Sept.  6,  1879. 

John  King,  who  settled  in  Rives  at  a  very  early  date,  died  sud- 
denly Oct.  8,  1879,  having  attained  the  age  of  58  years. 

Patrick  Hayden,  born  in  Ireland  in  1814,  and  one  of  the  oldest 
settlers  of  Jackson,  died  in  1879,  aged  65  years.  The  funeral  cor- 
tege, consisting  of  80  vehicles,  which  extended  a  mile  over  the 
route  to  the  cemetery,  was  a  living  testimony  to  the  excellence  of 
the  deceased. 

Samuel  Prescott,  born  in  New  Hampshire,  Aug.  30,  1800; 
settled  at  Henrietta  in  1836,  and  died  Dec.  13,  1879.  The  biog- 
raphy of  the  Prescott  family,  and  particularly  that  of  the  deceased, 
is  remarkably  interesting.  The  trials  of  his  early  settlement  and 
his  conquest  of  the  forest  afford  matter  for  that  portion  of  this 
work  devoted  to  township  history. 

Mrs.  Abigail  Prescott  died  Dec.  19,  1879,  having  attained  the 
age  of  79  years. 

James  McCann  died  Jan.  30,  1880,  aged  63  years.  Born  in 
Ireland  in  1817,  he  came  to  Michigan  in  1S40,  and  settled  at 
Bunker  Hill  in  1847.  In  1874  Mr.  McCann  removed  to  Rives 
township,  and  continued  to  reside  there  until  his  death. 

Mrs.  Torrey  died  Feb.  8,  1880,  at  the  advanced  age  of  80  years. 

'Die  demise  of  Mrs.  Brockwell,  at  Norvell,  Feb.  8,  1880,  aged  88 
years,  was  recorded  with  that  of  Mrs.  Torrey. 

Mrs.  Lucy  Cutter  died  Feb.  12,  1880,  in  Concord  township,  hav- 
ing attained  the  ripe  old  age  of  80  years. 

Mrs.  Ann  Fleming,  who  resided  in  Henrietta  township  for  a 
period  of  over  30  years,  died  Feb.  12,  1880,  in  her  57th  year. 

Day  Jones,  born  at  Port  Ann,  Washington  Co.,  N.  Y.,  July  15, 
L812,  arrived  in  this  county  in  April,  1834,  and  continued  to  reside 
at  Brooklyn,  with  the  exception  of  a  period  of  two  years  passed  in 
the  iron  districts  of  Lake  Superior. 

J.  II.  Treadwell  was  born  April  3,  L828,  and  came  to  Jackson 
with  his  father,  Hon.  Seymour  B.  Treadwell,  in  1839.  His  death 
at  Lake  City,  Col.,  in  1880,  caused  wide-spread  sorrow. 


Edward  P.  Grandy,  of  Rives,  died  Feb.  16,  1880,  at  the  early 
age  of  34  years. 

Wm.  P.'  Fifield  died  Feb.  12,  1880.  after  a  residence  within  the 
county  extending  over  50  years. 

Mrs.  Charlotte  Upton,  of  Parma,  died  Feb.  10,  1880,  aged 
92  years.  The  lady  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  Jackson  county. 
She  was  young  when  Washington  died,  but  remembered  many 
of  the  stirring  scenes  immediately  following  the  war  of  Inde- 

George  Kanouse  died  Jan.  22,  1880,  after  many  years'  residence 
in  Jackson. 

Chauncey  Hawley  died  March  31,  1880,  in  the  83d  year  of 
his  age.  lie  made  a  settlement  at  Napoleon  in  1832,  and  to 
the  time  of  his  decease  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  the  people. 

Lawrence  Barber,  a  pioneer  of  the  war  of  lsli>,  and  an  old 
settler  in  Jackson  county,  died  April  9,  1880.  aged  87  years. 

Mrs.  Lurania  Blackmore,  of  Rives,  died  April  4.  L880,  aged  33 

A.  V.  Main,  of  Summit,  died  April  2,  1880,  aged  77  years.  He 
settled  in  Jackson  county  in  1837. 

Miss  Sarah  Ann  Chapman  died  April  5,  1880.  The  lady  was 
born  Nov.  3.  1830,  being  the  first  white  child  born  in  Jackson 
county.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Elizur  15.  Chapman  and  grand- 
daughter of  Lemuel  Blackmail,  whose  names  are  identified  with 
the  history  of  the  county. 

Ichabod  Cole,  deceased  in  1880,  came  to  Jackson  in  1837,  and 
had  been  a  resident  of  the  city  over  29  years.  He  was  the;  first 
City  Marshal. 

Albert  T.  Putnam  died  May  26,  1880,  aged  59  years.  He 
married  Miss  Chapman,  who  has  been  noticed  in  previous  pages. 

Columbus  C.  Darling,  whose  death  occurred  May  20,  1880. 
settled  at  Jackson  in  1831,  subsequently  at  Eaton  Rapids,  and 
in  1847  he  moved  to  Lansing  and  took  a  most  prominent  part  in 
the  development  of  the  city.  It  is  also  said  that  he  did  more 
to  forward  the  growth  of  Jackson  during  its  first  years  than  any 
other  of  its  pioneers. 

Ami  Fillcy  settled  at  Jackson  in  1830,  and  was  a  resident  of  the 
county  until  1870,  when  lie  emigrated  to  Nebraska.  May  13,  1880, 
he  was  training  a  colt,  when  the  animal  grew  restive,  and  inflicted 
such  terrible  injuries  on  the  owner  that  he  died  the  same  day. 

Mrs.  Betsy  M.  Davis,  a  lady  aged  80  years,  died  May  19,'  1880, 
at  Jackson.  She  and  her  husband,  Dr.  Jonathan  I).  Davis, 
located  in  Wayne  county,  Mich.,  in  1*^6;  removed  to  Jackson  in 
1842,  and  was  a  resident  for  38  years. 

John  W.  Welch  died  May  11,  1880,  in  his  Tlst  year.  He  settled 
in  Jackson  county  in  April.  1 837,  and  shared  in  the  honors  at  the 
disposal  of  the  people. 

Richard  B.  Pixley,  born  at  Great  Harrington,  Mass.,  Oct.  19, 
1801;  died  at  Henrietta   April  1,  1880,  having  attained  the  age  of 

162  HISTORY    OK    JACKSON    OOirNTT. 

79  years.  His  settlement  in  this  county  was  in  1838,  when,  with 
his  wife,  Julia  S.  (Sanderson)  Pixley,  he  located  at  Waterloo. 

Mrs.  Sarah  B.  Glasgow  died  April  21, 1880.'  She  was  a  resident 
of  Jackson  25  years,  and  married  J.  H.  Glasgow,  the  senior  of  the 
State-prison  keepers,  at  an  early  age. 

Hon.  Tidus  Livermore  died  May  28,  1880,  in  the  69th  year  of 
his  age.  Born  in  Oneida  county,  N.  Y.,  in  1811,  he  came  to 
Jackson  in  1839;  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Johnson  &  Higby, 
and  after  admission  to  the  Bar  became  one  ot  the  most  prominent 
and  loyal  citizens  of  the  State.  The  Bar  of  Jackson  county 
attended  his  funeral. 

Elder  Cleveland  died  at  Hanover  Feb.  27,  1880,  aged  72  years. 
He  was  one  of  the  old  settlers  of  this  county. 

Oscar  G.  Pixley,  whose  father's  demise  is  noticed  in  one  of  the 
foregoing  paragraphs,  was  born  at  Havana,  Schuyler  Co.,  N.  Y., 
in  1829.  He  came  hither  with  his  parents  to  this  State  in  1836; 
resided  two  years  at  Lima,  Washtenaw  Co.,  and  in  1838  settled  in 
Grass  Lake,  where  he  lived  until  1848,  when  he  moved  to 

Amos  Bradford,  one  of  the  first  settlers,  died  at  Spring  Arbor 
April  14,  1880,  aged  70  years.  He  located  his  homestead  in  1835, 
and  for  the  long  period  of  45  years  was  accorded  the  respect  and 
esteem  which  his  age,  early  settlement,  and  upright  character 

Thomas  Howe,  an  old  settler  of  Waterloo  township,  died  in 
April,  1880. 

Dr.  Samson  Stoddard,  bom  near  Vienna,  Oneida  Co.,  N.  Y., 
Feb.  7,  1806,  settled  in  Jackson  county  in  September,  1830,  when 
he  found  the  only  settlers  to  comprise  the  Blackman  family,  Judge 
DeLand,  John  T.  Durand,  W.  J.  Bennett,  and  Win.  R.  Thompson. 
From  1833  to  1836  he  was  Clerk  and  Treasurer  of  Jackson  county, 
by  appointment  of  Gov.  Porter.  In  1837  he  moved  to  his  home- 
stead in  Concord  township,  where  he  continued  to  reside  until 
1873,  when  he  moved  to  Albion,  Calhoun  Co.  He  died  Aug.  24, 
1876,  in  his  71st  year. 

Harry  Wilcox',  born  in  Massachusetts  July  8,  1799;  died  at 
Jackson,  Mich.,  Sept.  24,  1879,  aged  81  years.  With  his  parents, 
he  may  lay  claim  to  the  pioneership  of  Onondaga  county,  N.  Y. ; 
but  his  settlement  in  Jackson  was  so  comparatively  recent  that  it 
does  not  come  within  its  pioneer  era. 

James  P.  Hawley,  born  at  Hartford,  Washington  Co.,  N.  Y., 
Sept.  25,  1828,  and  traveling  West  with  his  father,  Hon.  Chauncey 
Hawley,  in  1832,  settled  in  the  wilderness  of  Napoleon  during  the 
fall  of  that  year.  He  was  a  most  popular  citizen  of  the  county, 
and  his  decease,  July  3,  1876,  at  the  age  of  48  years,  caused 
general  sorrow. 

William  H.   Pease  died  Nov.  13,  1862.     He  was  one  of  the 

Eioneers  of  1830,  having  made  his  location  and  settlement  at  Grass 
ake  that  year.     He  was  for  many  years  agent  of  the  Michigan 

HI3T0RY    OK    JACKSON    COUNTY.  163 

Central  Railroad  Company  at  that  station,  and  was  much  esteemed 
by  all  his  compeers,  together  with  those  who  knew  him  best. 

George  II.  Ilolden,  born  at  Batavia,  N.  Y.,  May  26,  IS  17;  set- 
tled at  Ypsilanti  in  1832,  and  eight  years  later  removed  to  Jackson, 
where  he  continued  to  reside  until  July  6,  1874,  the  date  of  his 

Joseph  C.  Ives,  aged  65  years,  died  at  his  residence,  on  East 
Main  street,  Jackson,  on  Tuesday,  .lime  2!>,  lsSO.  He  was  a  native 
of  Connecticut,  and  has  resided  in  this  county  since  1844. 

Thomas  Shields,  born  in  Ireland  in  1802;  settled  at  Jackson  in 
1837;  took  part  in  raising  the  log  cabin  in  L840,  and  died  a  few 
days  later  from  the  effects  of  a  cold  contracted  on  that  occasion. 

Nancy  Patrick,  who  has  resided  in  Henrietta  since  1835,  died  at 
the  home  of  her  daughter,  Mrs.  A.  N.  Ripley,  of  that  township, 
aged  68  years.  Her  malady  was  inflammation  of  the  lungs.  She 
was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  of  that  section  of  the  county. 

Mrs.  Hannah  Barber,  ot  Leoni,  died  in  February,  1878.  She 
came  to  this  county  with  her  father,  Win.  Burkhart,  in  early  day, 
and  reached  the  age  of  58  years. 

John  Barber  was  born  in  Belfast,  Ireland,  in  1806,  where  he  was 
engaged  in  the  linen-carrying  trade.  He  emigrated  in  1828;  but 
owing  to  the  wreck  of  the  ocean  vessel,  he  did  not  reach  the  shores 
of  America  until  1829.  For  five  months  and  twenty-four  days  he, 
with  his  unfortunate  fellow  passengers  who  survived  the  wreck, 
was  tossed  about  on  the  Atlantic,  and  ultimately  reached  Quebec. 
After  a  brief  stay  in  that  Canadian  city,  he  turned  his  steps  to  New 
York  State,  labored  on  the  Erie  canal,  and  in  184-0  he,  with  his 
wife  and  two  children,  emigrated  to  Michigan,  ultimately  settling 
in  the  township  of  East  Portage,  now  known  as  Waterloo.  Mr. 
Barber  died  in  the  midst  of  friends  Nov.  3,  1880,  while  Mrs.  Bar- 
ber, who  shared  in  the  labors  of  the  pioneers,  died  in  1874. 

Cyrus  L.  Parmeter,  an  old  resident  of  Spring  Arbor,  died  of 
congestive  chills  Dec.  27,  1880,  aged  83  years,  leaving  a  wife  and 
five  children,  three  sons  and  two  daughters,  of  which  Mrs.  Philo 
Curtiss,  of  Jackson,  is  one.  The  deceased  has  been  a  resident  of 
Spring  Arbor  42  years. 

Lyman  Draper,  a  pioneer  of  Rives  township,  died  Jan.  5,  1880, 
aged  70  years. 

Mr.  J.  L.  Odell,  an  old  and  respected  citizen  of  Leoni  village, 
died  at  his  home  in  that  place  Jan.  14,  1881,  at  the  advanced  age 
of  89  years. 

The  record  of  deaths  for  the  year  1879  shows  a  total  of  325, 
against  370  in  1878.  These  of  1880  show  numbers  approximating. 
The  three  eldest  persons  dying  in  1879  were  Bela  Turner,  of  Jack- 
son, aged  91;  Anna  Dewey,  of  Napoleon,  90,  and  Polly  Mahee,  of 
Rives,  91.  The  number  of  births  in  1879  was  724,  against  844  the 
previous  year.  In  1880  the  marriages  numbered  396,  against  382 
for  1879. 


Jackson  is  a  grand  county,  in  many  respects  second  to  none  in 
the  State,  and  in  almost  everything  that  goes  to  make  a  live,  pros- 
perous community,  not  far  behind  the  best.  Beneath  its  fertile 
soil  is  coal  enough  to  supply  the  State  for  generations;  its  harvests 
are  bountiful;  it  enjoys  a  medium  climate,  and  many  other  tilings 
that  make  the  inhabitants  a  contented,  prosperous  and  happy 
people;  but  they  owe  much  to  those  who  opened  up  these  avenues 
that  have  led  to  their  present  conditions  and  happy  surroundings. 
Unremitting  toil  and  labor  have  driven  off  the  sickly  miasmata  that 
brooded  over  swampy  prairies.  Energy  and  perseverance  have 
peopled  every  section  of  the  wild  lands,  and  changed  them  from 
wastes  and  deserts  to  gardens  of  beauty  and  profit.  Where  but  a 
few  years  ago  the  barking  of  wolves  made  the  night  hideous  with 
their  wild  shrieks  and  howls,  now  is  heard  only  the  lowing  and 
bleating  of  domestic  animals.  Only  a  half  century  ago  the  wild 
whoop  of  the  Indian  rent  the  air,  where  now  are  heard  the  engine 
and  rumbling  trains  of  cars  bearing  away  to  markets  the  products 
of  the  soil  and  the  labor  of  its  people.  Then  the  savage  built  his 
rude  huts  on  the  spot  where  now  rise  the  dwellings  and  school- 
houses  and  church  spires  of  civilized  life.  How  great  the  trans- 
formation!  This  change  has  been  brought  about  by  the  incessant 
toil  and  aggregated  labor  of  thousands  of  tired  hands  and  anxious 
hearts,  and  the  noble  aspirations  of  such  men  and  women  as  make 
any  country  great.     What  will  another  half  century  accomplish? 

There  are  few,  very  few,  of  these  old  pioneers  yet  lingering  on 
the  shores  of  time,  as  connecting  links  of  the  past  with  the  present. 
What  must  their  thoughts  be,  as  with  their  dim  eyes  they  view 
the  scenes  that  surround  them?  We  often  hear  people  talk  about 
the  old-fogy  ideas,  and  fogy  ways,  and  want  of  enterprise  on  tin- 
part  of  the  old  men  who  have  gone  through  the  experiences  of 
pioneer  life.  Sometimes,  perhaps,  such  remarks  are  just,  but, 
considering  the  experiences,  education,  and  entire  life  of  such  men, 
such  remarks  are  better  unsaid.  They  have  had  their  trials,  mis- 
fortunes, hardships  and  adventures,  and  shall  we  now,  as  they  are 
passing  far  down  the  western  declivity  of  life,  and  many  of  them 
gone,  point  to  them  the  finger  of  derision,  and  laugh  and  sneer  at 
the  simplicity  of  their  ways?  Let  us  rather  cheer  them  up,  revere 
and  respect  them,  for  beneath  those  rough  exteriors  beat  hearts  as 
noble  as  ever  throbbed  in  the  human  breast.  These  veterans  have 
been  compelled  to  live  for  weeks  upon  hominy  and,  if  bread  at. 
all,  it  was  bread  made  from  corn  ground  in  hand-mills,  or  pounded 
up  in  mortars.  Their  children  have  been  destitute  of  shoes 
during  the  winter;  their  families  had  no  clothing  except  what  was 
carded,  spun,  woven,  and  made  into  garments  by  their  own  hands. 
Schools  they  had  none;  churches  they  had  none;  afflicted  with 
sickness  incident  to  all  new  countries,  sometimes  the  entire  family 
at  once;  luxuries  of  life  they  had  none;  the  auxiliaries,  improve- 
ments, inventions,  and  labor-saving  machinery  of  to-day  they  had 
not,  and  what  they  possessed  they  obtained  by  the  hardest  of  labor 
and  individual  exertions;  yet  they  bore  these  hardships  and  priva- 


tions  without  murmuring,  hoping  for  better  times  to  come,  and 
often,  too,  with  but  little  prospect  of  realization. 

As  before  mentioned,  the  changes  written  on  every  hand  are 
most  wonderful.  It  has  been  but  three-score  years  since  the  white 
man  began  to  exercise  dominion  over  this  region,  erst  the  home  of 
the  red  man,  yet  the  visitor  of  to-day,  ignorant  of  the  past  of  the 
county,  could  scarcely  be  made  to  realize  that  within  these  years 
there  has  grown  up  a  population  of  40,000  people,  who  in  all  the 
accomplishments  of  life  are  as  far  advanced  as  are  the  inhabitants 
of  counties  in  the  old  States.  They  possess  more  liberal  views. 
and  look  at  everything  in  the  broadest  light.  Schools,  churches, 
colleges,  palatial  dwellings,  beautiful  grounds,  large,  well-culti- 
vated and  productive  farms,  as  well  as  cities,  towns  and  busy 
manufactories,  have  'sprung  up,  and  now  occupy  the  hunting  and 
c  imp  grounds  of  the  red  man,  so  that  wherever  the  eye  may  rest, 
there  are  evidences  of  progress  and  intelligence.  There  is  but 
little  left  of  the  old  landmarks.  Civilization  has  blotted  out  all 
traces  of  the  aboriginal  occupiers,  until  now  the  Indian  name  is  all 
that  is  remembered.  Never  grow  unmindful  of  the  peril  and  ad- 
venture, fortitude,  self-sacrifice  and  heroic  devotion  displayed  in 
the  lives  of  the  pioneers.  As  time  sweeps  on  in  its  ceaseless  flight 
may  those  who  inherit  the  result  of  their  labors  cherish  their  mem- 
ories and  do  honor  to  their  names. 



From  all  that  lias  been  written  on  the  early  history  ot  the 
county  and  townships,  it  might  be  supposed  that  the  story  ot 
settlement  and  progress  had  been  well  told.  This  should  not  be 
the  case.  If  it  were  possible  to  have  the  reminiscences  of  every 
pate>-  fiuniUii*  now  residing  in  the  county  appear  in  this  volume, 
some  new  subject  for  history  would  present  itself  in  each  paper, 
and  so  add  immensely  to  perfect  a  record  of  the  past  and  pres- 
ent. It  is  impossible  to  collect  every  literary  contribution,  even  to 
induce  some  men  of  average  mental  capabilities  to  write  about  im- 
portant events  with  which  they  are  acquainted;  but  it  will  doubt- 
less be  conceded  that  a  sufficiently  large  amount  of  valuable 
subject  matter  has  been  collected  or  written  to  render  this  histor- 
ical volume  as  perfect  as  possible.  In  this  chapter  a  series  of 
most  important  events  are  recoi-ded,  and  if  there  be  one 
whose  vanity  may  lead  to  criticism  and  fault-finding,  let  him 
remember  the  difficulties  which  attend  the  writing  of  such  a  volu- 
minous work,  and  how  little  he  himself  has  contributed  to  render 
the  work  of  the  historian  light,  or  to  add  one  single  item  that 
would  make  it  more  complete. 


In  dealing  with  county  history  it  is  thought  just  and  honora- 
ble, as  well  as  desirable,  that  the  writer  or  compiler  should 
utilize  that  which  has  been  written  on  the  affairs  of  the  county  by 
one  of  its  citizens,  when  the  subject  appears  to  be  treated  in 
an  impartial  manner.  The  following  sketches  were  penned  by  an 
old  settler  in  18(>6,  and  deal  with  the  first  three  years  of  pi- 
oneer life  here.  They  appear  to  deal  with  the  subject  minutely 
and  impartially,  and  are  so  subscribed:  "There  are  but  six  of  the 
first  settlers  who  came  here  in  the  spring  of  1830  now  left,  resid: 
ing  in  this  city,  namely:  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  R.  De  Land,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  E.  B.  ( lhapman,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  JohnT.  Durand.  Theothers 
are  gone  to  their  long  rest,  save  a  few  removed  to  parts  unknown. " 

The  first  settler  of  Jackson  county  was  Horace  Blackmail,  of  Berk- 
shire, Tioga  Co.,  N.  Y.,  who  came  here  in  the  summer  of  1829, 
and  located  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  34,  town  2  south,  range 
1  west,  on  which  the  first  ward  of  the  city  of  Jackson  now  stands, 
and  to  him  pertains  the  honor  and  enterprise  of  being  the  first  per- 
manent settler  of  Jackson  county.  He  was  assisted  in  his  under- 
taking by  Lemuel  Blackmail,  his  father,  and  Russell  Blackman 
1 196) 


his  elder  brother.  Michigan  at  this  time  was  a  Terrritory,  and  but 
a  very  small  part  of  it  settled.  Its  entire  population  was  about 
30,000.  The  city  of  Detroit  was  at  that  time  an  old,  dilapidated 
looking  town,  with  a  population  of  2,220.  The  Chicago  road  had 
just  been  built  at  the  expense  of  the  United  States  Government, 
opening  an  avenue  of  travel  through  the  southern  part  of  the  Ter- 
ritory, and  along  this  route  a  few  small  settlements  were  begin- 
ning to  emerge  from  the  wilderness.  Ann  Arbor  at  this  time  was 
the  extreme  frontier  settlement  west  of  Detroit.  It  was  a  small 
village,  containing  three  or  four  stores,  two  public  houses  and 
some  500  inhabitants.       Here  was  the  end  of  the  road  going  west. 

Blackmail  came  on  as  far  as  this  place  to  visit  some  friends 
who  resided  here.  From  these  and  some  others,  he  learned  what 
he  could  regarding  the  country  lying  west  of  AVashtenaw;  also  from 
the  map  of  survey  of  the  United  States  Government  which  had  re- 
cently been  completed.  Possessed  of  a  spirit  of  enterprise  and 
indomitable  energy,  and  led  on  by  a  pioneer  impulse,  he  was  deter- 
mined to  strike  tor  the  wilderness.  In  accordance  with  this  deter- 
mination he  made  up  his  mind  to  explore  the  country  as  far  as  the 
valley  of  Grand  river,  which  would  carry  him  forward  near  the 
heart  of  the  country.  Accordingly  he  set  out  on  his  journey  of  ex- 
ploration July  2,  1829,  accompanied  by  Capt.  Alex.  Laverty,  an 
experienced  pioneer  and  excellent  woodsman,  and  an  Indian 
guide  named  Pee-^oy-tum,  who  was  well  acquainted  with  the 
country  and  a  great  friend  of  the  Gem-o-Kmncni,  as  he 
called  the  white  settlers.  With  varying  success  they  pursued 
their  way  under  the  scorching  rays  of  a  July  sun,  sometimes 
fording  a  river  and  sometimes  wading  a  wet  and  quaggy  marsh, 
following  the  great  Indian  trail  leading  through  the  central  part 
of  the  Territory,  from  Detroit  to  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph  river. 
The  first  day  of  their  journey  they  arrived  at  the  foot  of  the  Short 
Hills  where  they  encamped  for  tlie  night.  The  next  they  pur- 
sued their  journey  with  renewed  ardor  over  hill  and  plain,  and 
long  vistas  of  oak  openings  covered  with  rich  and  luxurious  grass 
and  herbage,  and  interspersed  with  many  varieties  of  beautiful 
flowers.  When  faint  and  weary  with  traveling  they  would  sit 
down  and  rest  their  locomotive  muscles.  Pee-wy-tum  would  use 
all  his  powers  of  persuasion  to  cheer  them  on.  Pointing  west 
he  would  assure  them  that  they  would  soon  find  better  corn-fields, 
purer  and  brighter  rivers  and  more  sunny  spots  for  wigwams, 
when  they  arrived  at  the  great  valley  of  the  Washtenong  Sepee, 
as  he  called  the  Grand  river.  Washtenaw,  or  Washtenong,  means 
in  the  Pottawatomie  language,  a  clear,  swift  stream,  running  over 
a  bed  of  pebble  stones,  and  was  the  Indian  name  for  this  place 
and  vicinity. 

Near  the  close  of  the  second  day's  journey  our  travelers  began 
to  approach  their  long-wished-for  goal,  and  about  sunset  they 
arrived  on  the  last  bank  of  the  river,  with  hearts  gladdened  at  the 
prospects  before  them.     Pee-wy-tum  was  frantic  with  joy  at  the 


sight    ol   this  familiar  stream,   on   whose  waters  his  canoe  had  so 
often  swiftly  glided  in  pursuit,  offish,  with  which  it  abounded. 


On  the  eastern  bank  was  a  heavy  belt  of  timber  extending  from 
the  river  back  to  the  rising  ground  in  the  rear.  On  the  west  side 
of  the  river  the  land  was  more  elevated  and  open,  with  a  large 
Indian  corn-field  a  little  to  the  right.  Having  refreshed  them- 
selves with  the  pure  water  of  the  river,  for  the  first  time  drank  by 
the  Anglo-Saxon,  our  travelers  crossed  the  ford-way  on  the  trail, 
where  Trail  street  bridge  now  stands,  and  encamped  fur  the  night 
on  the  ground  near  the  intersection  of  Jackson  and  Trail  streets. 
Here  was  an  old  Indian  camping  ground,  which  formed  a  very 
convenient  resting  place  for  their  caravan,  as  they  traveled  through 
the  country.  Here  also  were  fine  fishing  grounds  on  the  river, 
and  hunting  grounds  in  the  surrounding  openings,  and  the  spot 
where  Jackson  now  stands  was  considered  a  point  of  great  impor- 
tance by  the  aborigines.  At  this  point  was  a  concentration  of  all 
the  leading  trails  of  the  Peninsula,  and  from  tins  fact  the  first  set- 
tlers were  lead  to  believe  that  it  would  become  a  central  and  im- 
portant place  of  business. 


After  enjoying  a  quiet  and  refreshing  repose,  our  travelers 
awoke  next  morning  to  behold  the  rising  of  a  beautiful  July  sun, — 
it  being  the  morning  of  the  53d  anniversary  of  American  Inde- 
pendence,— their  bodies  rested  and  invigorated  with  sleep,  their 
minds  flushed  with  the  bright  hopes  of  the  future, — to  think 
they  were  about  to  establish  a  new  home, — to  found  a  new  city 
whose  fame  might  outrival  Rome  itself  in  the  future.  Thirty-six 
years  ago  these  pioneers  of  the  wilderness,  standing  on  the  bank 
of  this  beautiful  river,  beheld  the  placid  morn  which  ushered  in 
the  birthday  of  our  nation's  freedom,  and  although  remote  from 
friends  and  home,  and  isolated  from  the  masses  of  populous  town 
and  city,  they  felt  the  spirit  of  liberty  and  patriotism  burning  in 
their  bosoms,  and  resolved  to  celebrate  the  day  in  as  solemn  and 
as  appropriate  a  manner  as  circumstances  would  admit,  A  dinner 
was  prepared  of  fish  and  game,  and  with  some  other  fixings  consti- 
tuted the  delicacies  of  their  banquet-table.  After  a  brief  oration 
in  Pottawatomie  by  Laverty,  the  dinner  was  soon  dispatched,  and 
with  plenteous  libations  of  wauboo  from  the  river,  several  patriotic 
toasts  were  drank  under  the  crack  of  Pee-wy-tum's  rifle,  which  re- 
verberated long  and  long  through  the  answering  forest.  A  more 
heartfelt  and  joyous  celebration  of  our  nation's  freedom  was,  per- 
haps, never  enjoyed,  the  recital  of  which,  by  Blackmail  and 
Laverty,  to  the  early  settlers  was  the  cause  of  much  amusement. 


horack  blackman's  STORY. 

Laverty  had  been  fishing  that  morning,  and  had  left,  his  fishing 
pole  standing  by  a  stump,  the  line  hanging  over  with  a  piece  of 
pork  on  the  hook;  Pee-wy-tum's  dog  had  eyed  tins  closely  for  some 
time,  and  just  as  they  had  finished  the  celebration,  concluded  to 
seize  it.  Lt  swung  some  four  feet  from  the  ground,  and  the  dog 
making  a  sudden  ]ea|>.  seized  the  pork,  and  hung  suspended  in  the 
air, — "  a  noble  specimen  of  the  dog  fish,"  as  the  Captain  had  it. 
A  few  kicks,  the  line  broke,  and  the  dog  ran  away  with  the  hook 
sticking  in  his  jaws,  keeping  up  a  continual  kl-i/i,  /'/-///,  rubbing 
first  one  paw  and  then  the  other  over  his  jaws,  which  the  hook 
had  so  cruelly  lacerated.  As  the  dog  disappeared,  Horace  quietly 
remarked  that  ir  was  the  first  dug  he  ever  saw  playing  the  Jew's 
harp.  The  Captain  said  he  believed  him  to  be  a  good  patriotic 
dog,  and  that  he  was  probably  playing  Hail  Columbia,  or  some 
other  national  air,  set  to  the  peculiar  measure  of  canine   music. 


The  festivities  of  the  day  being  ended,  our  explorers  began  to 
look  about  to  ascertain  their  position  and  examine  the  face  <">f  the 
snrrounding  country,  in  order  to  fix  a  site  for  laying  out  the  plot 
of  a  village,  embracing  as  many  local  and  other  advantages  as 
possible.  This  was  no  ordinary  undertaking,  requiring  a  thorough 
geographical  knowledge  of  the  country,  and  a  sound,  discriminating 
judgment  as  to  all  the  advantages  and  facilities  that  a  single  point 
might  possess. 

From  the  United  States  survey  previously  made,  he  traced 
townships  and  section  lines,  whose  markings  and  boundaries  were 
very  plain  and  visible.  Blackman  soon  ascertained  that,  he  was 
then  resting  on  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  34,  town  2  south, 
of  range  1  west,  two  miles  west  of  the  meridian  and  12  miles 
south  of  the  base  line,  the  two  great  quarforial  lines  drawn  north 
and  south,  and  east  ami  west  through  the  Territory,  on  which 
the  United  States  survey  is  based  in  regard  to  its  descriptions. 
He  found  that  this  quarter  section  embraced  a  good  water-power 
on  the  river,  was  on  the  direct  route  of  the  St.  Joseph  trail, 
the  most  important  and  heavily  traveled  trail  of  the  country;  that  it 
would  in  all  probability  become  the  county-seat  of  the  next  county 
west  of  Washtenaw,  and  also  that  it  might  become  the  future 
capital  of  the  State.  Under  all  those  circumstances  he  concluded 
to  make  it  his  location,  and  time  has  shown  us  with  what  accurate 
judgment  and  calculation  his  choice  was  made.  Most  of  his 
expectations  have  been  realized,  and  all  would  have  been,  had  jus- 
tice been  done  us. 

Here  then,  in  the  midst  of  a  vast  wilderness,  was  the  standard 
of  civilization  planted  by  a  humble  individual,  and  the  first 
initiatory  step  taken  in  the  march  of  a  vast  improvement.  Fifty-one 
years  ago  the  spot  on  which  this  beautiful  and  populous  city  now 

IllS-mm     (.IF    .lAI'KSON     I'OI'NTY. 

stands  was  naught  but  the  wild  and  desolate  abode  of  the  savage. 
Now,  instead  of  being  on  the  extreme  frontier,  we  are  scarcely 
midway,  and  looking  back  to  the  hills  of  the  olden  States  and 
forward  to  the  peaks  of  the  Rocky  mountains,  we  hnd  ourselves  in 
the  midst  of  a  vast  nation,  which  has  spread  the  light  of  science  and 
civilization,  and  the  arts  and  improvements  of  agriculture  and 
domestic  husbandry  from  ocean  to  ocean. 

The  site  which  Mr.  Blackman  fixed  upon  for  his  log  cabin  was 
the  same  where  the  dwelling-house  of  John  F.  Durand  now  stands, 
— a  spot  consecrated  in  the  memory  of  the  early  settlers. 

OFF    TO    MoNKoi  . 

Blackman  and  Laverty  returned  to  Ann  Arbor,  and  thence  went 
to  the  land  office  at  Monroe  to  obtain  the  duplicate.  Being  soon 
joined  by  his  brother,  Russell,  who  had  come  on  from  New  York 
with  some  hands  they  hired  at  Ann  Arbor,  came  out  to  Grand 
river  (then  called  Blackmail's  location),  put  up  a  log  house, 
and  covered  it  preparatory  to  their  reception  the  following  spring. 
This  was  the  first  log  house  built  in  Jackson  county.  Blackman 
now  returned  to  New  York,  leaving  Russell  at  Ann  Arbor  to 
watch  the  course  of  events  and  take  charge  of  his  new  possessions 
during  his  absence,  calculating  to  return  the  next  spring,  with  hie 
family  and  a  colony  of  other  settlers. 


At  the  session  of  the  council  of  the  Territory  (then  consisting 
of  only  13  members)  an  act  was  passed  setting  off  a  new  tier  of 
counties,  from  the  county  of  Washtenaw  west  to  Lake  Michigan. 
The  county  of  Jackson  was  to  contain  20  surveyed  townships,  thus 
giving  it  an  area  of  720  scpiare  miles,  being  24  miles  north  and 
south  by  30  east  and  west.  This  establishment  of  the  county 
limits  brought  Blackman's  location  within  half  a  mile  of  the  geo- 
graphical center  of  the  county,  and  within  12  miles  of  the  geo- 
graphical center  of  Michigan  Territory,  according  to  the  United 
Smtes  survey,  and  in  all  probability  the  most  eligible  point  for  the 
State  capital. 

Another  and  important  act  of  the  Legislature  was  the  laying  out 
of  the  Territorial  or  State  road,  running  through  the  tier  of  new 
counties,  thus  opening  a  new  route  for  the  immigrant  north  of  and 
parallel  with  the  Chicago  road.  This  road  was  to  commence  at  a 
point  near  Sheldon's  Corners,  in  Wayne  county,  and  running  in  a 
westerly  direction,  terminating  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph, 
along  the  route  of  the  great  Indian  trail,  called  the  "Detroit  and 
St.  Joe  trail."  The  principal  points  named  in  the  act  to  be  on 
the  line  of  this  road  comprised  among  others  Ann  Arbor  and 
Blackman's  location.  Tin-  location  of  this  road  was  suggested  to 
the  minds  of  our  wise  legislators  by  the  fact  that  it  was  the  great 
thoroughfare  of  Indian  travel  through  the  Peninsula  from  timeim- 


memorial.  The  survey  and  the  opening  of  this  road  was  a 
great  benefit  to  the  Territory,  as  it  gave  a  new  impulse  to  immi- 
gration, and  opened  a  wide  field  for  settlement  along  the  whole 
route  on  the  rich  and  fertile  lands  of  which  those  new  counties 
were  composed.  The  commissioners  appointed  to  locate  those 
roads  were  Col.  Orrin  White.  Jonathan  F.  Stratton  and  Seelej 
Neale,  of  Washtenaw.  Stratton  was  also  appointed  surveyor. 
They  immediately  proceeded  to  discharge  the  duty  devolving  upon 
them,  rightly  judging  that  the  winter  season  would  be  most  favor- 
able for  a  survey,  as  the  marshes  and  streams  would  then  be 
frozen  over,  and  the  chaining  performed  more  accurately.  Having 
made  the  necessary  arrangements  tor  a  winter  campaign,  they 
commenced  the  survey  about  .Ian.  1.  1830.  and  proceeded  as  tar  as 
the  village  of  Aim  Arbor.  Mr.  E.  Clark,  in  referring  to  the  sub- 
ject of  the  road,  and  to  the  settlement  of  Ann  Arbor  and  Jackson- 
burgh,  says:  "In  the  early  settlement  of  Washtenaw,  before  we 
had  facilities  for  transporting  produce  to  market,  and  indeed  be- 
fore we  had  much  to  send  off.  it-was  the  object  to  induce  emi-  , 
grants  t<>  come  among  us  to  settle.  They  made  a  home  market 
for  the  surplus  provisions  and  stock  we  had  to  spare.  They 
brought  all  the  money,  so  that  the  success  of  the  farmer,  mechanic 
or  merchant  depended  as  much  upon  a  good  season  of  immigration 

as  upon  g 1  crops."     Up  to  the  year  1829  there  wTas  no    road 

leading  west  beyond  Clement's  farm,  on  Mill  creek,  seven  miles 
from  the  court-nouse.  The  Chicago  road  was  only  traveled  then 
by  immigrants  in  search  of  homes.  Mr.  Clark  was  on  the  Chicago 
road  and  noticed  the  travel,  and  the  idea  suggested  itself  that  a 
road  might  he  opened  through  the  vcimt.ral-part  of  the  Territory; 
and  thus  open  to  the  new-comer  a  rich  district  in  which  to  make  a 
home.  A  few  days  after  tin.-  a  proposition  was  made  to  the  late 
Elnathan  Botsford,  thatthev  would  call  a  meeting  of  all  interested, 
and  if  the  project  was  deemed  feasible,  to  petition  the  Legis- 
lative Council,  praying  authority  to  lav  out  a  road  from  some 
Joint  on  the  Chicago  road,  in  the  county  of  Wayne,  west  to  St. 
oseph  river.  Notices  were  written  (they  had  no  printing  press 
in  those  days  at  Ann  Arbor),  and  Botsford  volunteered  to  post 
them\ilong  the  line.  The  meeting  was  duly  held,  and  the  plan 
adopted.  A  petition,  hearing  numerous  influential  names,  was 
presented  to  the  council,  and  at  its  first  session  an  act  was  passed 
in  accordance  with  the  prayer  of  the  petitioners. 

The  commissioners  began  their  work  Jan.  1.  L830,  on  the  farm 
of  T.  Sheldon,  in  Wayne  county.  On  the  evening  of  the  7th  they 
reached  Ann  Arbor.  The  next  morning  they  were  joined  by 
eight  persons,  citizens  of  the  village,  namely,  Henry'  Rumsey, 
Samuel  Van  Fossen,  Zenas  Nash,  Jr..  Wm.  Hunt.  Edward  Clark. 
Alex.  Laverty,  Jerry  McCarthy  ami  Isaiah  W.  Bennett,  who  vol- 
unteered to  accompany  them  as  far  as  Grand  river,  and 
open  and  work  the  road  by  removing  obstructions.  The  first 
night  after  leaving  Ann  Arbor  they  lodged  atMr.  Clement's  house, 
on  Mill  creek.      Here  they  were  at  the  remotest  point  of  th.  ir  set- 


dement  going  west,  and  the  end  ot  the  white  man's  path ;  beyond 
was  a  vast  wilderness.  That  was  in  1829,  and  where  now  is  the 
west  end  of  the  road  leading  west?  It  is  where  the  waves  of  the 
Pacific  Ocean  wash  the  strand.  The  second  day  they  crossed  the 
Short  Hills.  The  snow  was  now  nearly  a  foot  deep.  They  en- 
camped for  the  night  west  of  the  Hills. 


After  seven  days'  work  and  fatigue  they  crossed  Grand  river, 
where  they  found  the  body  of  a  log  house  that  had  been  put  up  by 
Mr.  Blackmail  the  fall  before.  The  roof  was  on,  but  was  without 
chinking,  floor,  door  and  windows, — indeed  they  had  to  cut  a  hole 
to  get  into  it.  being  left  in  that  condition  to  prevent  the  Indians 
from  destroying  it  during  the  winter.  Here  they  stayed  two 
nights.  This  was  the  first  building  erected  on  the  site  of  the  pres- 
ent city  of  Jackson,  and  the  first  in  the  county.  They  hung  up 
their  tents  as  curtains  on  the  Wall  to  break  off  the  winds.  This 
was  as  far  as  the  volunteers  proposed  to  go;  but  before  they  parted 
witli  the  commissioners  and  their  party,  it  was  thought  proper  to 
have  a  name  for  the  village  that  was  to  be.  Accordingly  the  last 
night  of  their  stay  here  they  organized  a  convention  by  electing 
Hon.  II.  Kumsey  as  president.  He  was  provided  with  a  log  for  a 
chair,  which  favor  he  appreciated  and  acknowledged  in  a  very  ap- 
propriate speech.  A  committee,  consisting  of  Messrs.  StrattOB 
and  White,  was  appointed  to  report  a  suitable  name.  While  the 
members  of  this  body  were  out,  that  is.  the  smoky  side  of  the  log- 
heap,  the  president  arose,  and  in  a  grave  and  solemn  manner, 
said:  "Gentlemen, — In  my  intercourse  with  mankind,  I  have 
remarked  that  men  who  are  respected  at  home  for  their  orderly 
and  moral  conduct,  when  away  from  home  and  in  a  strange  land 
are  too  often  forgetful  of  their  own  positions  as  gentlemen  and 
good  citizens,  and  thereby  bring  disgrace  not  only  upon  them- 
selves, but  upon  their  neighborhood.  You  are  all  respectable  at 
home,  and  while  you  are  here  I  trust  you  will  not  forget  or  forfeit 
your  character  as  gentlemen.  Soon  your  committee  will  return 
and  report  a  name  for  the  village  that  is  to  be  built  here.  After 
it  is  adopted  one  of  you  may  move  that  it  be  received  with  nine 
cheers.  If  that  may  be  the  wish  of  the  convention  I  hope  your 
noise  will  not  disturb  the  neighbors." 


The  committee  soon  after  came  in  and  reported  Jacksonburgh. 
The  report  was  on  motion  accepted  and  adopted  by  acclamation. 
It  was  then  resolved  that  nine  cheers  be  given  for  the  name  of  the 
future  city,  and  three  times  three  wilder  cheers  were  never  sent  up 
by  15  hearty  men  than  went  up  then  and  there.  The  volunteers 
had  provided  some  extra  fixings  for  the  occasion,  which  were  now 
produced,  and  after  partaking  of  a  good  supper,   the  festivities  ot 

HISTORY    OF    .l.M'KsnN'    COUNTY.  173 

the  night  were  prolonged  by  a  dance,  the  two  oldest  ot  the  com- 
pany opening  the  ball  to  the  tune  of  Yankee  Doodle,  and  for  a 
few  moments  there  was  a  strife  between  the  dancers  and  the  tid- 
dler to  see  which  could  get  ahead,  much  to  the  amusement  of  the 
lookers-on.  After  that  seven  of  the  number  appeared  bareheaded, 
to  represent  the  fair  sex.  and  the  other  seven  kept  their  hats  on 
like  gentlemen.  Before  daybreak  preparations  were  made  to 
leave,  the  commissioners  and  their  attendants  for  the  West,  the 
volunteers  for  home.  On  examination  the  latter  found  they  had 
only  one  quart  of  flour  left.  This  was  put  into  a  frying-pan,  mixed 
up  with  some  river  water,  and  cooked,  then  divided  into  eight 
parts,  when  each  took  his  share  and  ate  it.  Thirty  miles  of  un- 
broken snow  lay  between  them  and  the  place  where  they  could 
get  their  next  meal.  As  soon  as  it  was  light  enough,  the  tents, 
rifles,  axes.  etc..  were  put  into  the  wagon.  The  oxen  that  had 
subsisted  several  days  on  browse,  were  yoked,  and  two  men  were 
detailed  to  take  charge  of  the  team.  Leave  was  taken  of  the  com- 
missioners, and  their  party  and  the  volunteers  started  for  home. 
The  six  on  foot  leil  oft  in  single  tile,  each  taking  his  turn  in  leading 
and  breaking  the  track.  The  day  was  cold  and  the  snow  half- 
knee  deep.  All  went  well  until  the  former  reached  the  first  creek 
east  of  Grand  river.  There  one  of  the  party  fell  in  and  got  wet. 
In  the  afternoon  they  reached  the  top  of  the  Short  Hills.  There 
Nash  ami  Van  Fossen  left  the  rest  of  the  party  and  went  ahead. 

At  the  small  pond,  on  Pierce  farm,  in  Lima,  they  came  up  with 
the  volunteers,  and  found  them  sitting  upon  a  log.  They  hurried  on 
until  they  became  fatigued,  and  sitting  down  to  rest  they  soon  be- 
came chilled  and  drowsy;  but  after  some  exertion  they  started  on 
with  the  remainder  of  the  party,  and  soon  were  all  right  again. 
About  dusk  they  came  to  Mill  creek,  now  Lima  Center.  The 
water  was, about  waist  deep.  There  was  no  help  for  it;  cross  it 
they  must,  and  did.  Judge  Rumsey  stumbled  and  was  wet  nearly 
all  over.  Between  8  and  !•  o'clock  in  the  evening  they  reached 
Clement's.  Here  the  creek  was  shoal  and  the  crossing  much 
easier.  Some  of  the  party  stayed  at  Clement's  all  uight,  while 
others  accepted  the  hospitality  of  Jerry  McCarthy,  a  warm-hearted 
son  of  the  Emerald  Isle,  who  had  a  farm  two  miles  farther  on 
toward  Ann  Arbor.  The  next  day  they  were  all  comfortably  at 

The  commissioners  went  on  their  survey  as  far  west  as  Kalama- 
zoo county,  when,  their  provisions  becoming  exhausted,  they  struck 
across  to  the  nearest  settlement  on  the  Chicago  road,  and  returned 


In  the  foregoing  narrative,  given  by  Mr.  Clark,  we  have  ex- 
plained more  fully  the  objects  and  inducements  the  citizens  of  Ann 
Arbor  had  in  causing  this  great  thoroughfare  to  be  opened  through 
the  heart  of  Michigan.  It  also  reveals  the  manner  in  which  the 
city  ot  Jackson  received  its  original  cognomen.  "  Jacksonburgh." 
This  has  been  a  question  often  asked,  and  all  seem  anxious  to 
know  why  this  place  was  called  ' SJacksburg, "  or  "Jackson's  burgh." 


Beyond  all  controversy,  it  was  named  after  Mai. -Gen.  Andrew 
Jackson,  the  hero  of  New  Orleans,  and  the  then  President  of  the 
United  States. 


These  "volunteers,"  as  they  styled  themselves,  formed  the  first 
conventional  body  of  civilized  citizens  ever  assembled  in  this 
"  burgh,"  and  their  acts  were  the  first  inauguration  of  civil  comity, 
manners  and  decorum  of  life,  in  the  bush.  The  ball  which  followed 
was  the  first  gemo-komon  dance  of  the  thousand-and-one  which 
have  since  been  enacted,  and,  though  rude  in  outline  and  circum- 
stance, was  full  of  hilarity  and  warmth  of  social  feeling,  to  drive 
dull  care  away.  A  jollier  set  of  fellows  never  joined  in  the  dance. 
In  regard  to  the  political  opinions  held  by  the  members  of  that 
convention,  we  are  left  to  form  conclusions,  although  it  smacks 
strongly  that  they  were  Democratic  in  principle,  or  at  least  the 
sons  of'  Democratic  forefathers,  inasmuch  as  they  were  unanimous 
in  bestowing  the  name  of  the  great  Democratic  leader  of  the  age 
on  the  new  "burgh." 

When  these  men  returned  to  Ann  Arbor,  the  fame  of  Jackson- 
burgh  was  spread  over  the  land, and  a  company  was  soon  formed  to 
carry  out  this  work  of  improvement  with  activity.  Early  in  the 
following  spring  Alexander  Laverty,  Isaiah  W.  Bennett  and  Rus- 
sell Blackmail  became  residents  of  the  then  embryo  village.  Mr. 
Blackman,  although  not  mentioned  by  Clark,  was  one  of  the  party, 
assisting  the  surveyor  as  chain-bearer,  and  went  through  the  entire 
route  with  the  commissioners.    • 


Jacksonburgh — for  we  now  had  a  name  to  distinguish  our  new 
settlement — had  attained  a  considerable  notoriety  abroad,  being  the 
first  point  of  importance  west  of  Ann  Arbor,  now  ready  to  spring 
into  existence  as  if  by  magic  power.  It  was  now  unquestionably 
regarded  as  not  only  the  county-seat  of  Jackson  county,  but  as  the 
future  capital  of  Michigan. 

Early  in  the  spring  of  1830,  the  settlement  commenced.  A 
company  from  Ann  Arbor,  comprising  Isaiah  W.  Bennett,  W.  R. 
Thompson,  Benjamin  II.  Packard,  E.  W.  Morgan.  Chauncey  C. 
Lewis  and  some  others  came  and  located  lands  adjoining  Black- 
mail's purchase.  Messrs.  Bennett  and  Thompson  entered  some  lots 
on  sections  2  and  3,  township  3  south,  range  1  west,  lying  on  the 
river  and  directly  south  of  Blackmail's,  with  a  view  of  obtaining 
water-power  and  a  portiolrof  the  plat.  This  occasioned  some  alter- 
cation between  the  parties  interested,  but  this  difficulty  was  settled 
by  compromise  made  with  Russell  Blackman  as  the  agent  of  Hor- 
ace, his  brother,  who  was  then  East,  each  party  agreeing  to  share 
equally  in  the  village  plat,  and  the  original  plat,  which  contained 
less  than  one-fourth  of  the  present  area,  was  laid  out  by  Bennett. 


Thompson  and  Packard  in  March,  1 830,  on  the  west  side  of  Grand 
river,  extending  from  Trail  street  on  the  north  to  Franklin 
street  on  the  south,  and  running'  along  the  hank  of  the  river  on 
the  east  to  the  quarter-post  line  of  sections  -U  and  '■'>.  townships  2 
and  3  south,  1  west,  containing  an  area  of  abont  150  acres.  The 
plan  was  regular,  all  the  principal  streets  crossing  each  other  at 
right  angles,  forming  the  whole  into  blocks  of  convenient  size,  and 
subdivided  into  lots  of  4xS  roils.  Public  alleys  of  one  rod 
in  width  ran  through  the  entire  plan  once  in  eight  rods,  par- 
allel-with  the  streets,  so  that  every  lot  was  accommodated  with 
a  street  in  front  and  an  alley  in  the  rear.  The  whole  was  platted 
on  a  most  convenient  plan,  both  in  regard  to  its  streets  and  alleys. 
as  well  as  its  public  squares  and  sites  for  public  buildings.  In  the 
center  was  a  square  of  -fv4-  rods,  through  which  ran  the  two  prin- 
cipal streets,  forming  the  base  and  meridian  lines  upon  which  the 
Slat  was  predicated — Main,  or  St.  Joseph  street,  as  the  base,  and 
ackson  street  as  the  meridian  line.  Main  street  was  calculated 
as  the  great  commercial  avenue  of  the  village,  and  was  located  on 
the  township  line  of  townships  2  and  3,  range  '2  west,  with  a  width 
of  six  rods,  and  also  on  the  line  intervening  the  location  of  Black- 
man  and  Bennett.  Jackson  street  was  platted  to  be  the  same 
width  as  Main  street,  and  to  cross  it  at  right  angles  in  the  center 
of  the  square. 

Three-fourths  of  this  public  square  has  been  since  vacated  bj 
order  of  the  Circuit  Court,  upon  the  application  of  parties  inter- 
ested therein,  the  northwest  quarter  only  remaining.  On  that 
portion  of  the  square  north  of  Main  street,  and  where  the  Congre- 
gational church  now  stands,  was  a  patch  of  Indian  plantmg- 
ground.  the  corn-hills  of  which  were  plainly  visible  at  the  time. 


If  not  deemed  out  of  place,  we  would  here  append  a  little  epi- 
sode of  Indian  history,  as  related  by  Waup-ca-zeek,  a  semi-chiei 
of  the  Pottawatomie  tribe,  then  living  at  an  Indian  village  some 
ten  miles  southwest  of  Jackson,  in  the  town  of  Spring  Arbor. 
Sometime  during  the  war  of  1812,  an  American  soldier  was  taken 
captive  by  the  Indians  under  Tecumseh,  at  the  battle  of  Frenchtown, 
and  was  brought  to  this  place,  it  being  deemed  by  them  a  secure  re- 
treat. Here  he  was  tried,  condemned  and  executed  according  to  the 
rulesof  Indian  justice,  no  one  appealing  in  his  behalf.  He  was  con 
demned  to  be  burned  at  the  stake,  a  kind  of  immolation  most  common 
among  savages.  This  cruel  sentence,  passed  upon  the  unfortunate 
soldier,  was.  as  alleged  by  Waup-ca-zeek.  in  retaliation  for  the  bar- 
barous acts  of  the  American  soldiery  toward  the  Indians,  to  which 
he  alluded  in  justification.  Here,  on  this  devoted  spot — perchance 
the  very  spot  on  which  the  church  now  stands — the  execution  took 
place,  amid  the  imposing  and  barbarous  scenes  of  an  Indian  war- 
dance  and   pow-wow.     This  sad   story  was   known   by  very  few  of 


the  early  .settlers,  as  it  was  revealed  by  the  Indian  only  when  in 
a  state  of  intoxication. 


In  March,  1830,  the  second  colony  became  anxious  to  commence 
the  settlement,  thinking  thereby  to  gain  certain  advantages  by 
being  first  on  the  ground,  and  anticipating  some  '>t'  the  plans 
of  Blackman,  and  the  colony  of  settlers  expected  to  come  in  with 
him  from  the  East.  Bennett,  Thompson  and  Packard,  who  had 
already  shared  largely  in  the  plot,  and  had  almost  acquired  a 
controlling  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  settlement,  were  anxious  to 
obtain  possession  of  the  river  water-power,  by  flinging  a  dam 
across  Grand  river  about  a  half-mile  above  Blackmail's  location, 
thereby  depriving  him  of  the  privilege.  No  time  was  to  be  lost; 
they  engaged  a  number  of  men  at  Ann  Arbor  t<>  assist  them 
in  building  a  dam  and  getting  out  timber  for  erecting  a  saw-mill, 
in  order  to  secure  the  hydraulic  privilege  to  themselves.  Linus 
Gillett  and  wife,  and  Josephus  Case  and  wife  came  out,  being 
employed  by  Dennett  and  Thompson, — Gillett  and  his  wife  to 
board  the  workmen,  and  Case  to  do  the  blacksmithing. 

Mrs.  Gillett  and  Mrs.  Case  were  the  first  white  women  that 
came  into  Jackson  county. 

A  good  story  is  told  of  our  friend  Case.  Being  out  hunting  one 
day.  anil  coming  into  the  trail  he  overtook  a  traveler,  who  in- 
quired how  far  it  was  to  Jacksonburgh.  Case  said  he  was  going 
right  there.  The  traveler  next  inquired  if  there  was  a  black- 
smith there,  and  how  far  it  was  to  his  shop?  Case,  feeling  a  little 
jocose,  told  him  he  was  the  man;  and  said  they  were  in  the  s/wp, 
out  it  was  three  miles  to  the  aawil.  The  traveler  remarked  that 
his  was  the  most  extensive  one  he  ever  knew.  The  fact  was,  that 
his  shop  was  the  open  canopy,  his  anvil  being  placed  on  a 
huge  stump  beside  his  shanty.  Mr.  Case  was  a  brother  of  Daniel 
L.  Case,  late  auditor  of  state,  who  soon  after  became  a  resident  of 
Jacksonburgh,  and  is  now  a  resident  of  Lansing. 


John  Wickham,  a  millwright,  and  Caniff  worked  on  the  mills. 
Hiram  Thompson,  brother  of  Wm.  R.,  George  Mayo,  S.  Town 
and  Jason  Barlow  constituted  the  posse  of  hands  employed 
by  Mr.  Bennett.  Those  workmen  occupied  Blackmail's  log  house 
for  a  short  time;  they  soon  erected  a  double  log  house  for  their 
own  accommodation, — a  house  with  two  large  rooms.  Tins  was 
the  second  house  built  in  Jackson  county,  and  stood  on  the  spot 
now  occupied  by  Bennett  and  Thompson  as  a  public  house  for 
several  years. 

HIS'I'OHY    <'F    JAOK80H    COUNTY.  177 

The  preparations  for  building  the  dam  and  saw-mill  were  prose- 
cuted with  vigor.  Plats  of  the  village  were  completed  by  Surveyor 
Stratton.  Lots  were  offered  at  a  low  rate,  with  a  proviso  that  they 
should  be  built  upon  and  improved  immediately.  A  number 
ot  lots  were  soon  taken  by  Stratton,  Gillett,  Case',  ( 'an iff,  Wick- 
ham,  Mills,  Prusia  and  others;  and  their  rapid  sale  exceeded  the 
utmost  expectations  of  the  proprietors.  Immediately  after  this  the 
people  petitioned  the  Legislative  Council  praying  that  the  county- 
seat  be  established  at  once  in  Jacksonburgh.  The  council  acceded 
to  the  prayer,  and  sent  their  commissioners  to  locate  the  county- 
seat;  their  report  was  duly  confirmed  by  a  proclamation  of 
Gov.  Cass.  The  commissioners  defined  the*  location  of  the  pro- 
posed court-house,  fixing  the  site  on  the  sp«it  where  the  Union 
school-house  now  stands. 

Horace  Blackmail  started  <>n  his  second  trip  West  May  :;,  1830. 
accompanied  by  his  father,  Lemuel  Blackman,  and  family — three 
sons  and  two  daughters, — Elizur  B.  Chapman  ami  wife,  and 
Wm.  R.  De  Land,  wife  and  two  children. 

Wm.  R.  DeLand  was  the  first  justice  of  the  peace  in  Jacksonburgh, 
being  appointed  Oct.   18,   1830,  by  Gov.  Cass  for  the  county  of 

Washtenaw,  in  answer  to  a  petition  from  the  citizens.  Horace 
Blackman  was  appointed  deputy  constable. 

The  first  ground  broken  in  the  county  was  an  old  Indian  corn- 
field in  the  Hat  between  Blackman  creek  and  Ganson  street,  .lack- 
son,  extending  north  and  west  to  the  quarter-post  line  of  section 
34,  2  south  and  1  west.  It  was  done  by  Mr.  Blackman,  with 
a  large  plow  drawn  by  four  to  six  yoke  of  oxen,  and  managed 
by  three  men,  one  to  drive  the  team  and  two  to  hold  the  plow. 

In  the  fall  of  1830  a  number  of  fields  were  broken  and  sowed  to 
wheat,  by  Messrs.  Lewis,  Durand,  Daniels,  Pease,  Laverty, 
Roberts  and  others. 

In  August.  1830,  Messrs.  Blackman.  De  Land  and  others  cut  over 
75  tons  of  hay  about  three  miles  up  the  river. 

The  first  year  of  the  settlement  business  was  brisk,  money  plenty, 
provisions  'high,  the  saw-mill  was  completed,  and  the  people 
healthy.  Hiram  Thompson  was  the  first  to  get  sick,  taking  "chill 
fever."  and  the  only  other  case  was  that  of  Geo.  R.  Cooper.  Both 
these  gentlemen  have  since  been  distinguished  citizens.  Dr. 
Packard,  of  Washtenaw,  was  the  nearest  physician,  who  attended 
the  latter  in  his  illness. 

The  first .resident  physician  in  Jackson  was  Dr.  Samson  Stoddard, 
who  came  here  in  September,  1S30.  He  was  afterward  county 
clerk,  and  now  resides  at  Concord. 

The  first  sermon  preached  in  the  county  was  by  Rev.  John 
1).  Pierce,  a  Oongregationalist,  in  the  summer  of  1830,  at  the 
residence  of  Lemuel   Blackman.     The  first  regular  preaching  at 


this  place  was  by  Revs.  Elijah  H.  Pilcher  and  Henry  Colclazer,  of 
the  M.  E.  Church. 

In  1830  many  bridges  were  built,  the  first  across  Grand  river 
being  erected  in  December,  on  the  territorial  road,  now  Trail 


A  postoffice  was  established  in  the  tall  of  1830,  and  Isaiah  W. 
Bennett  appointed  postmaster,  being  the  first  incumbent  of  the 
office.  The  first  mail  brought  through  from  Ann  Arbor  was  by 
private  conveyance,  in  the  top  of  Hiram  Thompson's  hat.  The 
mail  for  some  time  was  carried  by  private  conveyance,  any  re- 
sponsible  citizen  carrying  out  and  bringing  in  the  same,  as  oppor- 
tunity offered.  Soon,  however,  the  business  increasing,  a  regular 
contract  was  made  with  George  Mayo  for  carrying  a  one-horse 
mail  once  a  week  between  Ann  Arbor  and  Jacksonburgli. 


The  name  of  the  office  was  designated  by  the  Postal  Depart- 
ment "Jacksonopolis,"  in  contradistinction  to  Jacksonburgli,  as 
there  were  so  many  offices  of  the  latter  name  in  the  United  States 
already.  This  was  the  official  name  of  the  postoffice  until  the 
organisation  of  1833,   when  it  received  the  simple  title,  "  Jack- 


The  arrival  of  the  first  regular  mail  for  Jackson  was  the  cause 
of  much  amusement  to  the  villagers.  Mayo,  of  that  class  of 
mankind  properly  designated  "Phunny  Phellows,"  was  desirous 
of  making  his  vocation  known  and  of  giving  to  the  people  an 
agreeable  surprise.  Having  provided  himself  with  a  suitable  in- 
strument while  at  Ann  Arbor,  he  came  over  the  route  for  the 
first  time.  When  near  the  verge  of  the  day  he  began  to  approach 
the  confines  of  the  village;  the  villagers  were  enjoying  themselves 
.n  their  quiet  vocations,  when  suddenly  they  were  aroused  from 
their  wonted  serenity  by  the  loud  tooting  of  a  tin  horn,  and  soon  a 
horse  and  rider  were  seen  galloping  furiously  up  the  river  bank, 
and  making  his  way  for  the  postoffice.  Reining  in  his  steed  he 
dashed  the  mail-bags  to  the  ground,  and  in  stentorian  voice  an- 
nounced— "The  Great  Eastern  Mail  from  Ann  Arbor!" 

HON.   GEO.   B.   COOPER 

succeeded  Mr.  Bennett  as  postmaster  in  1834.  The  business  of 
this  office  has  constantly  increased,  keeping  pace  with  the  growth 
and  improvement  of  the  country,  till  it  has  become  one  of  the 
largest  and  most  important  offices  in  the  country. 



hi  1830,  the  first  year  ot  actual  settlement,  the  Jacksonburghers 
determined  to  have  a  regular  "down-east"  celebration  of  Inde- 
pendence day,  attended  with  all  the  "pomp  and  magnificence"  ot 
the  occasion.  This  was  the  first  gala  day  in  the  new  settlement.  A 
committee  was  appointed  consisting  of  Wm.  R.  De  Land  and  Hiram 
Thompson,  of  Jackson,  and  Anson  Brown,  of  Ann  Arbor,  under 
whose  supervision  the  affair  was  managed  successfully.  A  num- 
ber of  citizens  of  Ann  Arbor  expressed  a  wish  to  join  in  the  cele- 
bration, and  so  an  invitation  was  extended  to  them  to  participate 
in  the  festivities  of  the  day.  This  invitation  was  accepted  by  a 
number  of  the  Ann  Arbor  friends,  among  whom  were  MissTrask, 
of  Ann  Arbor,  and  Miss  Dix,  of  Dixboro,  two  young  ladies  who 
came  the  entire  distance  on  horseback,  accomplishing  a  40-mile 
heat  in  12  hours,  over  an  Indian  trail  through  the  wilderness. 
Messrs.  Brown,  Clark,  Jewett,  Wilcoxson,  Packard,  Dix,  Lovell 
and  others  accompanied  these  ladies,  and  all  arrived  on  the  even- 
ing of  July  3,  having  traveled  from  sunrise  to  sunset.  The  com- 
mittee forwarded  an  invitation  to  Gov.  Cass,  which  could  not  be 
accepted,  owing  to  previous  engagements.  The  day  was  beautiful, 
and  was  ushered  in  with  an  anvil  salute  given  by  Case,  the  village 
blacksmith.  The  procession  was  formed  at  11  a.  m.  under  Lieut. 
Clark,  of  Ann  Arbor,  and  Horace  Blackmail,  of  Jacksonburgh, 
and  proceeded  to  the  rendezvous  on  an  elevated  plateau  east  of 
Jackson  street,  near  the  summit  level  of  that  street,  then  a  natural 
arbor.  Isaiah  Bennett  presided,  assisted  by  W.  R.  De  Land  and 
H.  Thompson  as  vice-presidents.  ,  Geo.  Mayo  read  the  -Declara- 
tion of  Independence,  Hon.  Gideon  Wilcoxson  delivered  the  ora- 
tion, John  Durand  officiated  as  chaplain  and  Captain  Alex.  Laverty 
commanded  a  platoon  of  musketeers  dressed  in  a  neat  uniform. 
At  1:30  p.  m.  the  celebrants  partook  of  the  banquet  prepared  by 
Mr.  Torrey  and  lady,  of  the  Bennett  and  Thompson  log-tavern 
house,  spread  upon  a  table  100  feet  in  length,  extending  along  the 
east  line  of  Jackson  street  to  Courtland  street,  in  the  rear  of  the 
tavern  house.  Eighty  persons  sat  down  to  the  first  table,  and  in 
turn  gave  place  to  others,  until  all  had  feasted.  Those  who  par- 
ticipated in  the  festive  joys  of  that  celebration  will  never  forget  it, 
or  the  pleasing  hopes,  the  friendships  and  acquaintances  formed, 
the  happiness  and  whole-heartedness  that  characterized  all  the 
proceedings.  There  will  never  be  a  pleasanter  or  more  patriotic 
commemoration  of  the  glorious  anniversary  of  American  inde- 
pendence while  our  country  lasts  or  the  monuments  of  freedom 


The  first  general  manufacturing  business  done  in  the  primitive 
stage  of  the  community  was  a  rough  and  unpolished  kind  of 
workmanship,  such  as  the  making  of  pole  bedsteads,  three-legged 

180  HISTORY    OF    .iaiKmin    COUNTY. 

stools  and  cross-legged  tables.  The  housewives  made  feather- 
beds  and  other  useful  articles  suggested  by  their  industry.  The 
first  regular  mechanic  who  came  into  the  county  was  Johri  Wick- 
ham,  who  with  Caniff  commenced  building  the  saw-mill  tor  Ben- 
nett tfe  Thompson  in  L830.  The  first  attempt  at  manufacturing 
was  made  by  Major  D.  Mills  and  Christian  Prusia,  who  erected 
a  tannery  on  the  west  bank  of  the  river,  on  the  spot  where  Mr. 
Gavan  subsequently  built  his  brewery.  The  business  was  satis- 
factory for  some  time,  but  owing  to  the  small  supply  of  material 
for  tanning,  the  business  was  finally  abandoned. 


Win.  D.  Thompson,  from  Batavia,  N.  V..  settled  here  in  the  tall 
of  1830,  and  opened  the  first  boot  and  shot'  shop  in  the  community. 
Mr.  Thompson  ranks  as  the  first  of  that  vocation  in  Jackson  county, 
having  established  the  tirst  manufactory  of  boots  and  shoes  in 
Central  Michigan.  He  pursued  the  business  for  several  years,  and 
was  honored  by  the  citizens  with  several  offices  of  trust  and  profit 
among  which  were  township  clerk,  deputy  postmaster,  county  clerk, 


was  Mr.  Kline,  who,  in  company  with  Lemuel  Woolsey.  a  turner 
and  chair-maker,  set  up  a  small  shop  forthe  manufacture  of  chairs 
and  cabinet-ware. 

They  were  succeeded  by  John  Penson,  Collamer  and  others. 


who  commenced  work  at  Jackson  was  Mr.  Campion,  who  estab- 
lished himself  here  in  1832.  He  was  succeeded  by  Messrs.  Stone, 
Graves,  Chittock,  Mitchell  and  a  host  of  others.  In  justice  to  an 
old  settler,  the  writer  would  here  recount  that  Mrs.  John  Wellman 
commenced  the  trade  the  first  year  of  the  settlement  of  Jackson, 
and  lias  plied  her  needle  unremittingly  every  year  since,  so  that 
she  ought  to  stand  at  the  head  of  the  profession. 


The  first  merchant  was  Daniel  Hogan,  from  Schoharie  Co.,  N. 
Y.,  who  brought  in  a  small  stock  of  dry-goods  and  groceries  in  the 
summer  of  1830,  and  opened  a  trade  on  North  Blackstone  street. 
corner  of  Luther  street,  now  No.  1  North  Blackmail  street,  then 
the  residence  of  W.  K.  De  Land,  who  was  the  first  settler  on  this 
street.  Strange  as  it  may  seem,  it  was  on  this  street  the  com- 
mercial business  of  Jackson  was  first  commenced.  The  amount  of 
trade  at  this  time  was  small,  a  considerable  portion  being  traffic 
with  the  Indians.     As  soon  as  lumber  could  be  procured  Mr.  1  h  igan 


commenced  building-  a  store  on  the  north  side  of  the  public  square, 
which  was  finished  in  March,  1831. 

This  was  the  first  frame  building  and  the  first  store  erected  in 
Jackson  county.  It  stood  in  the  rear  of  Coulter's  Block.  Thomas 
J.  McKnight.  a  young  man  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  was  Mr.  Hogan's 

Daniel  Dwight  succeeded  Hogan  in  the  commercial  business, 
having  bought  out  his  entire  establishment,  which  being  increased 
by  a  new  stock,  a  very  respectable  trade  was  acquired.  Mr.  Dwight 
continued  trade  at  this  location  for  about  one  year,  when  anew 
store  was  built  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street,  the  goods  removed 
to  the  new  building,  and  John  X.  Dwight  became  principal  of  the 
new  firm.  This  might  properly  be  called  the  first  permanent  dry- 
goods  establishment  in  the  place.  David  F.  Dwight  was  afterward 
associated  as  one  of  the  partners  in  the  firm,  which  continued  for  a 
number  of  years,  as  one  of  the  principal  dealing  houses  of  the  vil- 

In  1833  Messrs.  Wm.  E.  Perrine  and  0.  II.  Van  Dorn  brought 
a  large  stock  of  dry-goods  and  groceries,  and  commenced  trade  in 
a  new  store  they  erected  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street,  a  little 
east  of  Dwight's.  About  this  time  the  first  grocery  store  was 
opened  by  Guy  II.  Grorham,  ami  soon  after  Moore  and  Warner 
opened  a  general  store. 


Up  to  the  spring  of.  1835  the  settlement  was  a  little  republic 
under  the  rule  and  authority  of  a  single  magistrate.  During  the 
session  of  the  Legislative  Council  1830-'31,  an  act  was  passed 
organizing  the  20  townships  of  the  county  into  one  township  by 
the  name  of  Jacksonburgh,  attaching  the  same  to  Washtenaw  county 
for  judicial  purposes.  The  first  township  meeting  was  to  be  held 
at  the  house  of  Win.  R.  Thompson.  April  4.  ls:;i. 


We  now  arrived  at  a  period  at  which  the  political  sentiments  of 
the  settlers  were  to  be  made  known  by  an  election.  Politics  at  this 
time  were  a  good  deal  mixed,  being  divided  into  three  or  four  dis- 
tinctive parties — "Jackson  men" — "Adams  men" — "Mason" 
and  Anti-Mason, — the  two  latter  constituting  the  distinguishing 
antagonism  of  party  at  the  time.  The  manner  of  voting  then  was 
to  ballot  separately  for  each  candidate  until  a  choice  was  made, 
and  then  for  the  next  in  regular  rotation.  If  no  choice  were  made 
on  the  first  ballot  a  second  was  taken,  and  so  on  until  all  the  offices 
were  filled.  It  was  in  fact  the  caucus  as  well  as  the  election,  and 
altogether  more  democratic  than  the  present  system,  as  it  enabled 
those  who  wielded  the  political  franchise  to  vote  for  men  instead  of 
the  ticket.  This  was  the  modus  operandi  in  the  early  days  of  our 
little  republic. 


At  this  time  the  community  was  without  any  board  of  election 
or  township  officers,  except  a  justice  of  the  peace.  The  Territorial 
laws  provided  that  in  such  cases  any  justice  or  legal  township  of- 
ficer might  call  the  meeting  to  order  and  proceed  to  choose  a  mod- 
erator and  clerk,  wdio  being  duly  sworn,  together  with  the  jus- 
tice of  peace,  should  form  a  board  of  inspectors  of  election,  and 
thus  were  authorized  to  receive  and  canvass  the  votes  and  declare 
the  result. 

Under  these  provisions  the  first  township  meeting  was  held 
April  4.  1831,  at  the  house  ofWm.  R.  Thompson.  It  was  called  to 
order  by  Wm,  R.  De  Land.  Justice  ofthe  Peace,  and  proceeded  to 
elect  vi/oa  voa .  Alexander  La  verty,  Moderator,  and  Hiram  Thomp- 
son. Clerk.  With  the  election  of  supervisor  came  the  tug  of 
war.  when  freemen  met  foemen  in  open  ballot.  The  masonswere  cer- 
tain they  would  carry  the  election;  the  Anti-Masons  were  confident 
the  choice  would  be  in  their  favor.  The  ballots  for  supervisor 
being  called  for  and  counted  by  the  board,  it  was  ascertained 
that  the  wdiole  number  of  votes  cast  was  SI,  of  which  Ralph 
Updyke.  Anti-Mason,  received  17.  and  Wm.  R.  Thompson,  Mason, 
13.  Mr.  Updyke  cast  his  vote  for  Capt.  John  Durand.  Christian 
Prussia.  Anti-Mason,  and  David  Stuker,  Mason. the  candidates  for 
township  clerk,  received  a  similar  vote  to  that  recorded  for  the 
supervisor.  Horace  Blackman  and  Ezekiel  T.  Critchett  received 
14  votes  each.  They  represented  the  Anti-Masonic  section.  Horace 
Blackman  received  no  opposition  in  seeking  the  collectorship,  and 
guardianship  ofthe  peace.  Isaac  Sterling.  Mason.  Alex.  Laverty, 
Anti-Mason,  and  Isaiah  Bennett,  Mason,  were  elected  highway 
commissioners  without  opposition.  Lemuel  Blackman,  Anti-Mason 
was  elected  overseer  of  the  poor.  "Wm.  R.  De  Land  and  S. 
Stoddard,  Anti-Masons,  and  Dr.  Oliver  Puss,  Mason,  were  chosen 
school-commissioners.  Hiram  Thompson,  W.  R.  De  Land,  Osgood 
II.  Fifield.  Isaac  N.  Swain  and  James  Valentine,  were  elected 
school  inspectors.  John  Durand.  Martin  Flint.  Samuel  Roberts 
and  Timothy  Williams  were  chosen  fence-viewers,  and  Martin 
Flint,  pound-master.  After  establishing  some  municipal  by-laws 
for  the  regulation  ofthe  township  in  regard  to  cattle,  etc.,  running 
at  large  as  free  commoners,  and  in  regard  to  fixing  a  bounty  on 
wolf  scalps,  the  meeting  dispersed. 


The  first  road  surveyed  and  established  was  one  commencing  at 
a  point  on  Trail  street  near  where  Blackstone  crosses,  running 
north  to  the  north  line  of  T.  2  S..  1  W..  now  the  town  of 
Blackman.  This  road  was  surveyed  by  Jonathan  F.  Stratton,  W. 
R.  DeJLand  and  Daniel  L.  Case,by  order  of  J.  W.  Bennett  and  A. 
Laverty.  Commissioners.  It  wascalled  the  Grand  Riverroad.  and 
gave  a  public  and  authorized  highway  to  a  number  of  settlers  who 
had  located  along  the  route  and  commenced   improvements.      The 


record  of  this  road  like  all  the  primitive  records  of  the  township 
for  the  first  throe  years,  is  not  to  be  found. 
Tin- next  road  laid  out  was  onefrom  Jacksonhurgh  to  Spring 

Arbor,  surveyed  by  John  T.  Durand,  who  had  succeeded  Mr. 
Stratton.  Being  a  very  correct  and  practical  surveyor  Mr.  D. 
was  thenceforth  employed  in  all  public  and  private  surveys, 
although  as  yet  there  was  no  county  organization  by  which  he 
could  be  elected.  In  1833,  however,  the  county  was  organized, 
and  John  T.  Durand  elected  county  surveyor. 

Roads  were  subsequently  opened  and  worked,  as  settlements 
were  advanced.  The  Indian  trails  leading  to  various  sections  were 
tor  some  time  the  real  roads,  and  many  of  the  earliest  territorial 
and  county  highways  were  laid  very  nearly  upon  or  contiguous  to 
those  once  deeply  worn,  and  smooth  paths  of  the  red  men. 

During    1830   the   little   colony     hail    gained   a   population   ot 

over  120  souls:  25  log-houses  and  shanties  had  been  built:  a  saw- 
mill had  been  erected  and  put  in  operation,  anil  a  considerable 
amount  of  summer  crops — corn,  potatoes  and  vegetables — had 
been  raised.  The  breaking  plow  had  been  kept  running,  and 
many  fields  had  been  sown  to  wheat  to  supply  the  wants  of 
the  coming  year.  The  river  had  been  spanned  by  a  log  bridge, 
the  logs  being  split  into  plank,  spotted  and  laid  on  the  stringers 
like  sawed  plank.  A  large  amount  of  hay  had  been  put  up 
for  winter  use  if  needed.  All  these  improvements  were  the  neces- 
sary beginnings  of  a  new  settlement  in  the  unbroken  forest.  Very 
fortunately  the  community  was  in  the  possession  of  good  health  dur- 
ing that  year  and  enabled  them  to  perform,  as  one  of  their  number 
worded  it,  "a  prodigious  amount  of  work  preparatory  to  a  winter 
in  the  West,  a  winter  of  whose  mildness  or  severity  we  knew 
little.  That  winter  was  one  of  unusual  severity;  so  our  neighbors, 
the  Nitch  NcMes,  informed  us.  and  the  provision  we  had  made  for 
it  was  insufficient:  so  that  the  erection  ot  temporary  sheds  was 
found  necessary  to  protect  our  cattle,  etc..  from  the  cold  and  chill- 
ing storms.  " 

The  foregoing  pages  set  forth  very  fully  the  labors  of  the  immi- 
grants. For  a  few  brief  years  they  battled  with  every  obstacle, 
industriously,  honorably,  earnestly,  and  ultimately  raised  their 
adopted  land  from  a  wilderness  to  a  little  republic,  where  peace 
and  good  will  reigned.  It  has  been  truly  said  that  the  value  of 
immigrants  is  not  to  be  measured  by  the  coin  they  bring  in  their 
pockets.  Of  infinitely  greater  worth  are  the  physical  vigor  and 
acquired  industrial  i>kill  of  the  immigrants  themselves.  As  to  the 
rate  at  which  these  ought  to  be  appraised, opinion  will  differ  widely, 
for  all  estimates  of  their  value  are  necessarily  more  or  less  specu- 
lative. We  cannot  apply  to  this  wealth-producing  power  the 
brutal  though  fairly  conclusive  test  which  fixed  the  value  of  slave 
labor  by  the  price  it  brought  under  the  hammer  of  the  auctioneer. 


It  is  only  by  indirect  and  imperfect  modes  that  any  idea  ot  its 
worth  can  be  obtained,  and  so  intricate  is  the  problem  that  little 
reliance  can  be  placed  upon  the  must  elaborate  calculations.  For 
our  present  purpose,  however,  it  is  not  necessary  that  any  very 
minute  estimates  should  be  attempted.  The  work  of  the  settlers 
of  Jackson  county  cannot  be  reduced  to  figures.  Their  labors  are 
above  all  price.  They  exercised  their  physical  and  mental  facul- 
ties almost  at  the  same  moment,  and  all  combined  to  elevate  the 
village  which  they  raised  in  the  wilderness  to  the  position  of  a 
city,  at  once  prosperous  and  elegant.  In  the  following  pages  the 
primary  land  transactions  of  the  county  are  recorded,  and  some 
important  events  described. 


As  early  as  1826-7  a  tract  of  land,  beginning  two  and  a  half 

miles  north  of  the  city  boundary,  and  extending  along  Grand 
river  north  of  the  Au  Foin,  now  Portage  branch,  was  in  the  pos- 
session of  an  Indian  band,  under  a  Russian  named  Peter  Riley,  or 
O'Reilly.  This  land  he  desired  to  dispose  of,  and  by  the  following 
letters  patent  he  obtained  the  necessary  permission,  so  that  very 
soon  it  passed  out  ot  his  hands  : 

Whereas,  By  the  third  article  of  the  treaty  made  and  concluded  at  Chicago,  iu 
the  State  of  Illinois,  between  Lewis  Cass  and  Solomon  Sibley,  Commissioners  of 
tbe  United  States,  and  tbe  Ottawa,  Chippewa,  and  Pottawatomie  Indians,  on  the 
20th  day  of  August,  1821,  there  is  granted  to  Peter  Riley,  the  son  of  Me-naw-cum- 
e-go-qua,  one  section  of  land  at  the  mouth  of  the  River  Au  Foin,  on  the  Grand 
river,  with  a  provision  that  the  lands  granted  by  tbe  said  third  article  "shall  never 
be  leased  or  conveyed  by  tbe  said  grantees  or  their  heirs  to  any  persons  whatever 
without  the  permission  of  the  President  of  the  United  States; " 

And  whereas,  Tbe  said  Peter  Riley,  having  obtained  the  permission  of  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  to  sell  and  convey  the  land  granted  to  him  by  tbe  said 
article,  has  made  an  assignment  of  the  same  unto  John  R.  Williams,  of  the  City  of 
Detroit ; 

There  is  therefore  granted  by  the  United  States  unto  tbe  said  John  R.  Williams, 
as  assignee  of  Peter  Riley,  the  tracts  of  land  reserved  for  the  said  Peter  Riley,  being 
the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  one,  containing  80  acres;  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  two,  containing  100  acres;  tbe  north  part  of  the  south- 
west fractional  quarter  of  section  two,  containing  fi2  acres  and  23-l00th's  of  an  acre; 
the  south  part  of  the  southwest  fractional  quarter  of  section  two,  containing  72  acres 
and  00-lOOth's  of  an  acre:  the  north  part  of  the  northeast  fraction  of  the  north  half 
of  section  eleven,  containing  102  acres;  the  south  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  eleven,  containing  SO  acres :  and  tbe  west  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of 
section  twelve,  containing  so  acres:  in  township  two  south,  of  range  one  west,  in  the 
Southern  Land  District  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan  : 

To  have  and  to  hold  the  said  tracts,  with  the  appurtenancf  s,  unto  the  said  John 
R.  Williams,  as  assignee  of  Peter  Riley,  the  son  of  Me-naw-cmn-e-go-qua,  and  to 
bis  heirs  and  assigns  for  ever. 

In  testimony  whereof,  I,  John  Quincy  Adams,  President  of  the  United  States, 
have  caused  these  letters  to  be  made  patent,  and  the  seal  of  tbe  General  Land  Office 
to  be  hereunto  affixed. 

Given  under  my  hand  at  tbe  City  of  Washington,  the  sixteenth  day  of  April,  iu 
the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  twenty-seven,  and  of  the 
Independence  of  the  United  States  the  fifty -first. 

By  the  President.  J.  Q.  Adams. 

Geo.  Graham, 

C.  G.  L.  Office. 


The  next  patent  was  issued  to  Horace  Blackmail,  who  repre- 
sented his  father,  Lemuel.  It  proves  beyond  doubt  that  he  was 
the  first  patentee  house  builder,  and  therefore  may  claim  the  title  ot 
the  first  settler;  although  his  visit  to  New  York,  and  consequent 
absence  from  his  new  home,  gave  others  the  opportunity  to  enter 
upon  a  permanent  residence  before  him.  The  following  is  a  copy 
of  the  letters  patent : 

Whereas,  Horace  Blackman,  of  Tioga  county,  New  York,  has  deposited  in  the 
General  Land  Office  of  the  United  States  a  certificate  of  the  Register  of  the  Land 
Office  at  Monroe,  whereby  it  appears  that  full  payment  has  been  made  by  the  said 
Horace  Blackmail,  according  to  the  provisions  of  the  art  ot  ( ongress  of  the  24th  of 
April,  182H,  entitled,  "  An  act  making  further  provisions  for  the  sale  of  the  public 
lands,"  for  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  o4,  in  township  two  south,  of  range  one 
west,  in  the  district  of  lands  offered  for  sale  at  Monroe,  Michigan  territory,  con- 
taining 1G0  acres,  according  to  the  official  plat  of  the  survey  of  the  said  lands, 
returned  to  the  General  Land  Office  by  the  Surveyor  General,  which  said  tract  has 
been  purchased  by  the  said  Horace  Blackman; 

Now  know  ye,  That  the  United  States  of  America,  in  consideration  of  the  prem- 
ises, and  in  conformity  with  the  several  acts  of  Congress  in  such  case  made  and 
provided,  have  given  and  granted,  and  by  these  presents  do  give  and  grant,  the  said 
tract  of  land  above  described  unto  the  s'aid  Horace  Blackman  and  to  his  heirs  and 
assigns  for  ever. 

In  testimony  whereof,  I,  Andrew  Jackson.  President  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  have  caused  these  letters  to  be  made  patent,  and  the  seal  of  the  General 
Land  Office  to  be  hereunto  affixed. 

Given  under  my  hand  at  the  (  ity  of  Washington,  the  tenth  day  of  November,  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty,  and  of  the  Independ- 
ence of  the  United  States  the  fifty-fifth. 

Andrew  Jackson. 

In  1831  a  patent  was  issued  to  Jeremiah  Bennett,  on  presenta- 
tion of  a  duplicate  certificate  of  purchase  made  at  the  Monroe  Land 
Office  in  1830.  This  document  is  recorded  in  the  office  of  the 
Registrar  of  Deeds  of  Jackson  county.  In  it  the  extent  of  the 
second  purchase  is  laid  down,  and  the  signature  of  President 
Jackson  attached  : 

Whereas,  Jeremiah  Bennett,  ot  (ienesee  count v,  New  York,  has  deposited  in  the 
General  Land  Office  of  the  United  states  a  certificate  of  the  Register  of  the  Land 
•  Mtice  at  .Monroe,  Michigan,  according  to  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  <  'ongress  of  the 
24th  of  April,  1820,  entitled,  "An  act  making  further  provision  for  the'sale  of  the 
public  lands."  for  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  two,  in  township  three,  south  of 
range  one  west,  in  the  district  of  land  subject  to  sale  at  Monroe,  Michigan,  contain- 
ing 161  acres  and  St9-100th's  of  an  acre,  according  to  the  official  plat  of  the  survey 
of  the  said  lands  returned  to  the  General  Land  Office  by  the  Surveyor  General, 
which  said  tract  has  been  purchased  by  the  said  Jeremiah  Bennett  : 

Now  know  ye.  That  the  United  States  of  America,  in  consideration  of  the  prem- 
ises, and  in  conformity  with  the  several  acts  of  Congress  in  such  case  made  and 
provided,  have  given  and  granted,  and  by  these  presents  do  give  and  grant,  unto 
the  said  Jeremiah  Bennett  and  to  his  heirs  the  said  tract  above  described,  to  have 
and  to  hold  the  same,  together  with  all  the  rights,  privileges,  immunities,  and 
appurtenances  of  whatsoever  nature  thereunto  belonging,  unto  the  said  Jeremiah 
Bennett  and  to  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever. 

In  testimony  whereof,  I,  Andrew  Jackson,  President  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  have  caused  these  letters  to  be  made  patent,  and  the  seal  of  the  General 
Land  Office  to  be  hereunto  affixed. 

Given  under  my  hand  at  the  city  of  Washington,  the  fourth  day  of  January,  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-one,  and  of  the  Inde- 
pendence of  the  United  States  the  fifty-fifth. 

'By  the  President.  Andrew  Jackson. 

Elijah  Hayward, 

Commissioner  of  the  General  Land  Office. 

1st)  HISTORY    01    JACKSON    COCNTT. 

The  purchase  made  by  B.  H.  Packard  is  cotemporary  with  the 
Bennett  transaction,  and  in  the  patent  of  which  the  following  is  a 
copy,  the  location  and  extent  of  land  bought  by  him,   is  set  forth  : 

Whereas,  Benjamin  H  Packard,  of  Washtenaw  County,  Michigan,  has  depos- 
ited in  the  Land-Office  of  the  United  States.a  certificate  of  the  Register  of  the  Land 
Office  at  Monroe,  Michigan,  whereby  it  appears  that  full  payment  has  been  made 
by  the  said  Benjamin  IT  Packard,  according  to  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Con- 
gress of  the  24th  April,  1820,  for  the  north  east  quarter  of  section  three,  in  township 
three  south,  of  range  one  west,  in  the  district  of  lands  subject  to  sale  at  Monroe, 
Michigan,  containing  162  acres,  and  77-100  of  an  acre,  according  to  the  official  plat 
of  survey  of  said  lands,  which  said  tract  has  been  purchased  by  Benjamin  II.  Pack- 

Xo»  kmiw  vk,  That  the  United  States  of  America,  in  consideration  of  these 
premises,  and  in  conformity  with  the  several  acts  of  Congress,  have  given  and 
granted  unto  the  said  Benjamin  II.  Packard,  and  to  his  heirs,  the  said  tract  of  land 
above  described,  to  have  and  to  bold  the  same,  together  with  all  the  rights,  privi- 
leges, immunities  and  appurtenances  thereunto  belonging  to  the  said  Benjamin  H. 
Packard,  bis  heirs  and  assigns  forever. 

This  document,  like  those  offered  to  Messrs.  Bennett  and  Black 
man.  were  signed  by  Andrew  Jackson,  President,  and  Elijah  Hay 
ward.  General  Land-Commissioner. 


The  emigration  excitement  in  the  Eastern  State.-  between  H-27 
and  1840  was  participated  in  by  Washington  Irving,  as  well  as 
many  other  publicists  of.the  time.  He  purchased  a  tract  of  land 
in  the  county,  and  formed  the  intention  of  coming  here  to  live; 
but  as  the  following  power  of  attorney  will  show,  his  enthusiasm 
abated,  and  he  resolved  to  remain  East  : 

Washington  Irving,  ^  Know  all  men  by  these  presents,  that  whereas.  I.  Wash- 
•ro  •  ington  Irving,  of  the  County  of  West   Chester,  and  state 

David  Godfrey.  \  of  New  York.  Gentleman,  am  seized  in  fee  of,  and  in  all 
that  certain  farm  or  piece  of  land  situate,  lying  and  being 
in  the  State  of  Michigan,  being  the  west  half  of  section  number  thirty-six,  in  town- 
ship number  six  nor.h,  of  range  number  five  west,  containing  20(5  (Hi  101)  acres,  as 
the  same  is  described  in  certificate  No.  14, o60  of  Thomas  C.  Sheldon,  Receiver, 
dated  March  .'4.  ]s:',i,,  at  the  Receiver's  Office,  Branson;  also  all  that  other  certain 
farm  or  piece  of  land  situate,  lying  and  b  ing  in  the  State  of  Michigan  aforesaid, 
being  the  south  part  of  the  northeast  fractional  section  number  two.  in  township 
one  south,  of  range  two  east,  containing  SO  acres,  as  the  same  is  described  in  cer- 
tificate No.  19,180,  of  J.  Kearslev,  Receiver,  dated  April  2:!.  ix:',i>.  at  the  Receiver's 
Office.  Detroit; 

Now  know  Ye,  that  I.  the  said  Washington  Irving,  have  made,  constituted  and 
appointed,  and  by  these  presents  do  make,  constitute  and  appoint  David  Godfrey, 
of  Ann  Arbor,  in  the  State  of  Michigan,  aforesaid,  my  true  and  lawful  attorney,  for 
me  and  in  my  name  to  sell  and  dispose  of  (he  said  two  pieces  of  land  above  described, 
absolutely  in'fee  simple  for  such  price  and  sum  of  money  as  to  such  person  or  per- 
sons as  he  shall  think  fit  and  convenient,  and  also  for  me  and  in  my  name  to  make, 
sign,  seal,  execute  and  deliver  such  deeds  and  conveyances  for  the  same  or  any 
part  thereof  as  may  be  proper,  with  or  without  the  usual  covenants  of  warranty, 
and  generally  to  do.  execute  and  perform  every  act  and  deed  that  may  be  necessary 
in  and  about  the  premises,  as  fully  in  every  respect  as  I  myself  might  do  if  I  was 
pet sonally  present,  and  attorney  or  attorneys  under  him  for  all  or  any  of  the  pur- 
poses aforesaid  to  make  and  substitute,  and  again  at  pleasure  to  revoke;  and  I  here- 


by  ratify,  allow  and  confirm  all  and  whatsoever  ray  said  attorney  shall  do  or  cause 
to  be  done  in  and  about  the  premises  by  virtue  of  these  presents. 

In  witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  seal  this  fifteenth  day  of 
August,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-eight. 

Washington- Irving.        (L.  S.) 
Sealed  and  delivered  in  presence  of    * 
Gerard  Morris.  \ 

State  of  New  York,  j      On  this  fifteenth  day  of  August,  1838,   be- 

City  and  County  of  New  York,  (fore  me  came  Washington  Irving,  known  to 

me  to  be  the  person  and  individual  described 

in,  and  who  executed  the   foregoing  power  of  attorney,  and   acknowledged  that  he 

executed  the  same. 

Geo.  Ireland, 
Commissioner  of  Deeds. 

The  statement  of  the  commissioner  oi  deeds  was  further  veri- 
fied by  Joseph  Hoxie,  Clerk  of  the  City  and  County  of  New  York, 
and  the  three  documents  registered  in  the  registrar's  office  of 
Jackson  county  by  Wm.  E.  Perrine,  May  20th,  1839,  at  8:30  a. 
m.  The  patent  was  signed  by  Martin  Van  Buren,  President  of 
the  United  States,  Aug.  2,   1837. 


Wm.  J.  Moody,      )      This  Indenture,  made  July  12th,  1836.  between  Wm.  J. 
to  ■  Moody,  of  Jackson  County,  Michigan  Gentleman,  of  the  one 

Abram  F.  Bolton.  )  part,  and  Abram  F.  Bolton,  of  Jackson   county,  of  the  other 

Witnesseth.  That  whereas  Hawnopawjatin  and  Otothtongoomlisheaw,  chiefs  of 
the  Naudowissie  Indians,  did  by  their  certain  deal,  under  their  respective  seals, 
grant  and  convey  to  a  certain  Jonathan  ( 'arver  in  the  words  following,  viz  : 

"To  Jonathan  Carver,  a  chief  of  the  most  Mighty  and  Potent  George  the  Third, 
King  of  the  English  and  other  nations,  the  fameTof  whose  courageous  warriors  has 
readied  our  ears,  and  has  been  now  full}-  told  us  by  our  good  1  net  her  Jonathan  afore- 
said, whom  we  rejoice  to  see  amongst  us.  and  bring  us  good  news  from  his 

We,  chiefs  of  the  Xaudowissies.  who  have  hereon  to  set  our  hands  and  seals,  do  by 
these  presents  for  ourselves  and  our  heirs  forever  in  return  for  the  many  presents 
and  good  services,  done  by  the  said  Jonathan  to  ourselves  and  allies,  give,  grant  and 
convey  to  him,  the  said  Jonathan,  and  his  heirs  and  assigns  forever,  the  whole  of  a 
certain  tract  or  territory  of  land  bounded  as  f(  illows  :  From  the  falls  of  St.  Anthony, 
running  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  nearly  south  east  as  far  as  the  south 
end  of  Lake  Pepin,  where  the  Chippawa  river  joins  the  Mississippi,  and  thence 
eastward  five  days' travel,  accounting  twenty  Knglish  miles  per  da}',  and  thence  to 
the  falls  of  St.  Anthony,  in  a  straight  Hue. "  We  do  for  ourselves,  our  heirs  and  as- 
signs forever  give  unto  the  said  Jonathan  all  the  said  lands,  with  all  the  trees,  rocks 
and  rivers  therein,  reserving  to  ourselves  and  heirs  the  sole  liberty  of  hunting  and 
fishing  on  the  lands  not  planted  or  improved  by  said  Jonathan,  his  heirs  or 

To  which  we  have  affixed  our  respective  seals  at  the  Great  Cave.  May  the  first, 
one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty-seven. 

Hawnopawjatan:     Turtlt . 
Otothtongoomlisheaw:     Snah . 

This  deed  was  recorded  at  Whitehall.  London.  Carver  died  he- 
tore  1780,  leaving  two  sons  and  five  daughters,  who  sold  their  title 
to  this  tract,  to  <>ne  Samuel  Peters,  L.L.  D.  In  1815  Peters  con- 
veyed his  interest  to  Ben.  O'Conner,  and  he  in  turn  sold  out  to 
Davicl  Watson,  of  Maine,  in  Mav.  lsi't;.     Ten  years  later.  Watson 



sold  to  John  Bradbury,  of  Maine,  and  the  same  year,  1836,  he  dis- 
posed of  his  interest  to  Wm.  J.  Moody,  in  5,760  acres  of  land. 
This  was  a  year  of  trading.  W.  J.  Moody  sold  his  real  estate  near 
the  present  City  of  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  to  Abram  F.  Bolton,  for  the 
sum  of  $800,  and  the  agreement  was  signed  in  presence  of  Henry 
Chapman,  Justice  of  Peace  of  Jackson  county. 

A  patent  was  issued  to  Anson  To wnley  of  Tompkins  county.  X. 
Y.,  granting  to  him  a  tract  of  land  in  township  one  south,  of  range 
two  west.  "This  document  bears  date  March  5,  1839,  and  the  sig- 
nature of  Martin  Van  Buren,  President.  Previously,  in  1835,  a 
patent  was  granted  to  Nicholas  Townley,  for  a  tract  of  so  acres  in 
the  same  township.  This  parchment  was  signed  by  Andrew  Jack- 
so, ,.  Oct.  1,  1835. 

The  other  patents  issued  to  settlers  in  Jackson  county  and 
signed  by  Presidents  of  the  United  States  embrace  the  following 

Wm.  R.  De  Land. 
Wm.  M.  Sullivan. 
James  Dowling. 
Harriet  Cook. 
Anthony  Brown. 
Hiram  Williams. 
John  Henry. 
James  Hawkins. 
Jas.  Townson. 
Leml.  Woodworth. 
Richmond  Brigg. 
John  Pratt. 
Michael  Nowlin. 
Seth  l  iris  wold. 

F.  Jaqisinoit. 
Foster  Tucker. 
Alfred  H.  Kyes. 
Thomas  Field. 
R.  Henry. 

(i.  Lumpkin. 
V.  J.  Teftt. 
Lewis  Snyder,  Jr. 
A.  Henry. 
Sumner  Wing. 
John  P.  Hitchii 
Geo.  Aln 
J.  D.  Wadhum. 
Arsahel  King. 
Saml.  Kutz. 
Danl.  Laddock. 
Wm.  Gallup. 
1.  W.  Price. 
Theo.  Updike. 
J.  W.  Whitney. 
Obed  Hall. 

G.  I).  Godfrey. 
Ann  Marsh. 
David  Haumer. 
Geo.  Snyder. 
T.  Skeel. 

E.  W.  Comstock. 
E.  S.  (Javit. 


S.  Adams. 

Hiram  Fowler. 

T.  F.  Towler. 

Layton  Pulrner. 

John  Donoghue. 

Lor.  Graham. 

James  Wake. 

N.  Dever. 

O.  H.  Guitman. 

Hiram  Phelps. 

Hiram  Austin. 

J.  Tunnicliff. 

Salmon  Hale. 

H.  Putnam. 

Lois  and  Abial  Tripp. 

Seth  Sergeant. 

Seymour  Fitch. 

James  Devell. 

Edward  Belknapp. 

Alanson  Shelly. 

Stephen  Town. 

James  D.  Clilland. 

Elijah  T.  Cole. 

Hiram  Brown. 

C.  M.  Bostwick. 

Daniel  Turmo. 

A.  K.  Austin. 

John  Fenton. 

Peter  Showeeman. 

Sira  R.  Grosvenor. 

Joseph  Dunlap. 

John  Reithmiller. 

Calvin  and  Nathan  Burr. 

Precilla  Colgrool 

S.  A.  Randall. 

John  M.  Colgrood. 

N.  Jones. 

H.  Choute. 

F.  B.  Ward 

Bosvelt  Davis. 

R.  M.  Davis. 

Robert  Davis. 

CM.  Keer, 

Timothy  Pratt. 
Veeder  Green. 
Wm.  A.  Crane. 
L.  Reynolds. 
B.  Whitney. 

E.  Van  Oman. 
Anthony  TenEyck. 
John  Tilfair. 

G.  Filley. 
Elijah  Hazelton. 
Gilbert  &  Hanford. 
Geo.  Hickkox. 
Lafayette  Knight. 
Chester  Clarke 
Nathan  Roberts. 
Barkley  Mount. 

F.  A.  Kennedy. 
Hiram  Karr. 
Eben.  Manley. 
Nathan  Clark. 
L.  G.  Perry. 
Ber.  Pratt. 
Peter  Neargrass. 
Charles  Kelchin. 
O.  Pribble. 

D   F.  Moore. 

E.  II  Swan. 

John  Durand. 

A  P.  Wixone. 

O.  D.  Thompson. 

J.  Met  ollum. 

Gardner  Tripp. 

Al'iu-ail  Tripp. 

T.  B.  Pierce. 

Abraham  Kehl. 

Patrick  Fullan. 

Amos  Brown. 

Jones.  Butler.  Corning  and 

Lepe.  (  hapman. 
('.  Bouthworth. 
Perriu  Concern. 
Alvinzie  Hunt. 


Jacob  Demaret. 
tSeth  Burgo. 
James  B.  Cole. 
""John  Curtis. 
J.  P.  Smith. 
II.  S.  Skinner. 
Wm.  Kose. 
John  Murphy. 
Owen  Ellison. 
Dan  C.  Wildey. 
J.  A,  Curtin. 
B.  Robinson. 

F.  P.  Stillman. 
N.  B.  Lemm. 
Spraym  &  Bowen. 
Ezra  Brown. 
Wm.  Deebrowe. 
Josiah  Whitman. 
Andrew  Simmons. 
J.  H.  Nowlan. 
Simon  Peterson. 
Amos  Peterson. 
John  Williams. 
Henry  Wood. 

L.  Huffman. 
Alpheus  Putnam. 
Lewis  Snyder. 
Joshua  Thayer. 
Tenny  Peabody. 
Isaiah  S.  Kaywood. 
S.  Gidley. 
John  C.  Griswold. 
John  A.  Downey. 
John  A.  Dironer. 
Wm  G,  Sandford. 
I).  W   Whitman. 
Mary  Kelcey. 
A.  C.  Maxon. 
J  .  V.  Carmer. 

A.  M .  McKenzie. 
Garrett  Chapman. 
Cornelius  Sullivan. 
«  'harlcs  Guile. 
Geo.  Williams. 
Mary  S.  Walsh. 
.Mitchell  Gue. 
Goodwin  and  Coffin. 

B.  Harrington. 
A  J.  Crandall. 
Chatfield  and  Cross. 
Lewis  Motrv. 

N.  Archibald. 
Henry  Wooden. 
A.  Shutt. 
IF.  Masin. 
Alfred  P.  Brown. 
Harvey  Austin. 
L.  P.  Spratt. 
Grindall  Reynolds. 

G.  Holland. 
David  Cole. 

L.  A.  Bostwick. 
John  Wilber. 
Allen  Green. 

Henry  O'Neill. 

E.  M.  Skinner. 
Peter  A.  Pulmer. 
James  Williams. 
Wm.  Miles. 

F.  A.  Bolles. 
John  Adams. 
J.  C.  Cornell. 
John  Gilliland. 
Clarke  Foot. 
O.  D.  Taylor. 
Culver  B.  Bragg. 
Randall  Kellogg: 
Henry  Berrine. 
John  Manning. 
J.  MeKenney . 
James  M.  Mc Kenny. 

!  Nathl.  Wadsworth." 
J.  D.  W.  Scwnamatter. 
John  R.  Williams. 
David  A.  Conoon. 
A.  &  A.  McKnight. 
A.  W.  Knight. 
Ambrose  Arnold. 
Noah  Clarke. 
Chas.  A.  Crary. 
Ira  C.  Backus. 
Wm.  Drake. 
S.  C.  Dalton. 
Martin  Lautis,  Jr. 

G.  Filley. 
John  Davidson. 
TenEyek,  Bun  &  Brown. 
Lyman  Huntley. 

Geo.  Field. 

Wm.  Tilden. 

Peter  Cochran. 

Danl.  Coleman. 

Thomas  Coleman . 

Allen  Kennedy,  Jr. 

G.  W.  Marsh. 

Wm.  Roberts. 

Thomas  Cranson. 

Sam.  B.  Wolcott. 

James  Kress. 

Thomas  Vreeland. 

Nathl.  Cooper. 

Geo.  W.  Bentley. 

John  Southworth. 

Geo.  Byrne. 

El.  Ring. 

Henry  Lewis. 

John  Burnett. 

Wm.  Wilcox. 

McClelland  A  Christiancy. 

Elisha  Burns,  Jr. 

J.  C.  Bailey. 

Amanda  F.  Fitch. 

Abel  F.  Fitch. 

James  Cole. 

James  McConnell. 

Prosper  J.  Wheeler. 

Joseph  Clark. 

W.   (iilliland. 

Perrine  Moe. 

John  Westren. 

Isaac  V.  Stage. 

Stephen  P.  Spear. 

A.  L.  Beaumont. 

Laura  Chapman. 

John  Bostedor. 

Ben.  H.  Packard. 

Joanna  and  P.  C.  Vreeland. 

Gordin  Fox. 

Wm.  Clay. 

Eben  Taylor. 

Roswell  Weston. 

J.  Nottingham. 

Isaac  Quigley. 

Kobert  Hums, 

John  Willett. 

Samuel  Roberts. 

David  Ostrander. 

James  Bell. 

David  D  Trumbull. 

Samuel  Bassett. 

John  Daniels. 

David  Laverty. 

Benj.  Davis. 

M .  B.  Adams. 

C.  H.  Sheldon. 

Martin  Fuller. 

Joseph  Whitney. 

Jas.  E.  North. 

Abner  Bartlett. 

Burgess  Hoyt. 

Wm.  R.  Bixbe. 

•las.  Clark. 

Jos.  Gardner. 

Thomas  Rhoades. 

James  Fisher. 

Abraham  Quick. 

Matthew  Stanfield. 

C.  B.  Seeley. 

Mary  J.  Haire. 

Addison  P.  Cook. 

Gardner  H.  Shaw. 

Lowell  W.  Tinker. 

Amos  Root. 

Samuel  Thomas. 

A.  J.  Van  Riper. 

James  Connolly. 

John  Palmer. 

Squire  Rice. 

Justice  Fowler. 

Cornelius  Titus. 

Royal  D.  Hendee. 

James  Ready. 

J.  A.  Knight. 

Geo.  Gates. 

Maurice  Ready. 

Wm.  Hall. 

John  C.  Douglas. 

P.  B.  Crowl. 

Edwin  K.  Whitman 

John  Callar. 

Henry  Tivinor. 

Michael  Keables. 

1  on 

HfSTciRY     "I''    .lAi'K>.«N     c'OUXTY. 

Jobn  McConnell. 
Moses  Tuthill, 
Lortnzo  D.  Chapell. 
L.  Cahoon. 
Joshua  Tuthill. 
Hulda  Shaw. 
Horace  Blackmail. 
Mary  J.  Welch. 
Charles  P.  Woodruff 
Chauncey  Hawley. 
Samuel  Upton. 
Wni  Pool 
Phillip  Cook. 
John  Stevtns. 
Isaac  Amnieruian. 
Joseph  Clark 
Isaac  Townsend. 
M.  W  South-worth. 
John  Preston. 
Henry  Palen. 
Ira  Barber. 
N.  B.  Ayres. 
Mosis  Benedict. 
Nicholas  Townley. 
Henry  Ackley. 
Richard  Townley. 
Aaron  Davis. 
John  Guinan. 
A.  F.  Campan. 
Gardner  F.  Goold. 
W.  O.  Stone. 
Ben   Longyear. 
Sands  Gidley. 
Henry  Pelton. 
W.  B.  Gaidner. 
John  Brewer. 
Constant  Maguire. 
Marvin  Burk. 
Miller  Yeckley. 
Nathan  G.  Latimer. 
Timothy  Collins. 
John  G,  Perry. 
John  Hitchcock. 
Almon  Cain. 
Ezra  Brown. 
Asa  M.  Clark. 
S.  L.  Videtto    -  ■ 
Thomas  Tanner. 
Ed.  Arnold 
Geo.  B.  Fuller. 
Washington  Irving. 
Geo.  Kemble. 
Harrv  Denison 
Geo.'W.  Stolp. 
John  Crego. 
M.  B.  Thomas. 
Geo.  Hall. 
R.  S.  Armitage. 
H.  N.  Rider. 
Robert  Monier. 
Ben.  Huntley. 
John  Maxon. 
Almus  V.  Main. 
Margaret  Chapin. 
F.  W.  Peters. 

J.  H.  Dubois. 
Jasper  Thomas. 
Orrin  Seeley. 
Jas.  Hayten. 
Samuel  Works 
L.  C.  Salisbury. 
Hilas  Hayes. 
Robert  Bradford, 
Wm.  M.  Lee. 
M.  C.  Patterson. 
John  Van  Rankin. 
Samuel  Hamlin. 
John  S.  Brown. 
John  M.  Carter. 
Ezekiel  Lader. 
Chauncey  Kennedy. 
D.  Sweeney. 
Daniel  B.  Miller. 
Joseph  Hodge. 
John  Kern. 
John  C.  Wateman. 
Betsy  I'tly. 

<  Mis  Cranson. 
Wm.  O.  Cross. 
Abraham  Catlin. 
Harriet  Catlin. 
Sam.  R.  Feeks. 
P.  D.  Hall. 
R.  B.  White. 
Bradley  Freeman. 
Samuel  Swezy. 
Bart  W  Smith. 
Daniel  Smith. 
Lor.  M.  Chanter. 
Abram  Van  Gorden. 
Edwin  Perry. 
J.  S.  Williams. 
Baxter  Howe. 
Anson  Townley. 
Reuben  Croman. 
Isaiah  Croman. 
Soloman  Croman. 
Joseph  McCloy. 
Elias  Carwin. 
Wm.  Gould. 
W.  W.  Wetherly. 
Eleazer  Finley. 
David  Finley. 
Henry  Lay  cock. 
Horace  Wheelock. 
Alanson  Woodwatt. 
Samu- 1  Higgins. 
Ira  Wheaton. 
JohnM.  Root. 
John  A.  Bacon. 
N.  N.  Hayden. 
Francis  Woodbury. 
Ledna  d  A.  Waldo. 
John  X.  Dwight. 
D.  F.  Dwight. 
B.  P.  Hutchison. 
Silas  Titus 
Charles  Ferry. 
David  B.  Dwight. 

James  M.  Barber 
John  M  Hunt. 
Lyman  Fox. 
Sherman  A.  Randall. 
Benjamin  Walker. 
Ben.  S.  King. 
James  H.  Case. 
Samuel  Sheldon. 
T.  W.  Pi  ay. 
Richard  Hendee. 
H  G.  Dickinson. 
B.  T.  Webster. 
Asbury  Fassttt. 
Samuel  Fassett 
Robert  Lawrence 
Daniel  B.  Hibbard. 
Patrick  Brosnahan. 
John  D.  Vandusou 
Henry  Jean . 
Daniel  Porter. 
John  Todd. 
Merrit  Johnson. 
Amasa  R.  Stone. 
Washington  Hewitt. 
Martha  Hewitt. 
Dudley  Hewitt. 
Dennis  Carreu. 
Ira  Petrie. 
Geo.  Cogswell. 
Sidney  N  Soper. 
Janus  Fisher. 
Chauncey  C.  Smith 
John  J.  Markle. 
John  Glann. 
Ira  Davenport. 
Sally  Wolcott. 
Erastus  Wolcott,  Jr. 
J.  P.  Christiancy. 
John  W.  Fiske. 
John  Chester. 
Reuben  Luttenten. 
Geo.  Field. 
Stephen  Morehouse. 
Alvin  Whedin. 
John  Dunning. 
D.  H.  Mills 
Joseph  C.  Watkins. 
Geo.  Denmark. 
Anson  Willis. 
Joel  Clemens. 
James  Tullmau. 
Joseph  B.  Lockwood 
David  Osborne. 
J.  Sugendorf. 
Paul  B.  Ring. 
Thomas  Godfrey. 
H.  S.Gregory. 
James  Graham. 
Hiram  Alison. 
Peter  Brown. 
Asa  C.  Thompson. 
Ansel  Bissell. 
John  Conn' ry man 
Jacob  Waikle. 
John  Russ. 

Hl^rol;-!      m.     .1  \<'K"inN     <'"»(  -N  n  . 

Isaac  Giles. 
Alex.  Richmond 
Sterling  Wentworth. 
Joe.  Wightman,  Jr. 
Nelson  McArthur. 
John  Tate. 
Stephen  Chesebro.  Jr 
H.  Phillips. 
F.  C.  Watkins. 
T.  J  Lewis. 
Simon  Davidson. 
J.  and  A.  Chesebro. 
Geo.W.  Bush. 
Hiram  A.  Barber. 
Chauncey  S.  Cross. 
John  J.  ('rout 
Adelia  ('rout. 
De  Witt  Knowlton. 
Win.  Showerman. 
H.  Spaulding. 
Benj.  Sneden. 
Sincler  Bean. 
Lester  P.  Beebe. 
Josephus  Darling. 
B.  B.  Bradford, 
.las.  Loranger. 
John  Worth. 
Lathrop  L.  Sturgess. 
Lois  Swain. 
W.  W   Carter. 

J.  Wood. 
Fred.  Johnson. 
Mason  Cabine. 
James  Weekes. 
Abraham  J.  Crego. 
Samuel  B.  Darrow 
D.H.  Rogers. 
Lyman  Harrington. 
Wm.  B.  Mills. 
P.  B.  Ripley. 
Amasa  B  Gileson. 
L.  W.  Douglass. 
Alfred  Draper. 
Nicholas  McC'ann. 
Joseph  Avery. 
Kilwanl  Smith. 
Wm.  Killicut. 
Martin  Austin. 
Wm.  M.  Sullivan 
John  A.  Schmidt. 
John  S.  Hurd. 
John  G.  Blanchard. 
Orson  Lnderwood. 
Eri  E.  Underwood. 
CharL  s  Townley. 
John  Baiber. 
Edward  Strong. 
Oliver  B.  Ford 

John  W.  Pardee. 

John  Smiley. 

James  Slayton. 

Leander  Mc(  lain. 

S.  Patrick. 

Bissel  Huraplmy. 

Caleb  Osgood. 

Barzilla  Mutler. 

Joseph  Patch. 

Barney  Christopher. 

John  E  Barton. 

J  E.  Parham. 

M.  J  Hudler. 

Norman  Allen. 

Wilson  Spencer. 

Sarah  S  Chapel. 

Abraham  H.  Bennett. 

Aaron  Pnston. 

Edwin  Adams. 

Alamon  Carpenter 

Wm.  H.  Boland 

Geo.  Huxford 

Jesse  Uarduer. 

A.  J.  Williamson. 

Andrew  Smith. 
A  Updi 
E  Maltby. 

Mornian  Sanford. 

D.  H.  Lockwood. 



One  of  the  results  oi  pioneer  organization  is  shown  forth  in  the 
following  series  of  old  settlers'  recollections.  That  within  six 
years,  such  a  number  of  historical  papers  could  lie  collected  from 
the  pioneers  is  equally  a  subject  of  surprise  and  congratulation — 
surprise,  because  for  a  period  bordering  on  half  a  century, 
such  an  important  labor  was  forgotten,  and  congratulation  for 
the  reason  that  the  influence  of  the  organizers  of  the  pioneer 
society,  and  the  tendency  of  such  an  organization  to  effect  some 
good,  drew  firth  from  old  settlers  a  statement  of  their  coining  and 
their  stay.  No  one  but  he  who  knows  what  the  want  of  a  pioneer 
history  is  can  thoroughly  appreciate  such  memoirs;  yet  enough 
will  be  found  in  the  pages  devoted  to  them  to  interest  and  instruct. 

JACKSON  COUNTY  l\  1830. 

Henry  Little,  a  pioneer  of  Kalamazoo  county,  and  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  early  history  of  this  section  of  the  State,  read 
a  paper  at  the  pioneer  anniversary  meeting  of  June  18,  which  was 
subsequently  lost:  and  to  gratify  numerous  friends  he  has  repro- 
duced it  for  publication.  It  will  be  read  with  much  interest.  He 
said : — 

•'It  affords  me  great  pleasure  to  be  with  you  upon  this  very 
interesting  occasion,  to  exchange  friendly  greetings  and  congratu- 
lations with  you.  and  to  listen  to  the  recital  of  pioneer  experiences 
which  you  passed  through  during  those  diversified  and  trying- 
scenes  which  marked  your  progress  all  the  way  onward  and 
upward,  from  the  first  log  cabin  to  the  crowning  glory  of  the 
achievements  which  are  now  so  conspicuously  apparent  all  around 
us  as  to  excite  the  admiration,  if  not  the  profound  astonishment, 
of  every  beholder;  while  seeing  our  populous  county,  with  its 
productive  farms,  manufacturing  interests,  thriving  villages,  and 
this  beautiful  city. — all  having  sprung  into  existence  within  the 
last  50  years.  While  Jackson  is  justly  celebrated  for  the  intelli- 
gence, morality,  thrift  and  enterprise  of  its  inhabitants,  its  unin- 
terrupted growth  ami  prosperity,  its  beautiful  public  and  private 
buildings,  ami  its  excellent  public  institutions.  It  is  not  renowned 
for  great  antiquity.  Jackson  is  a  voting  city,  and  still  in  its 
infancy,  but  what  an  infant!  There  are  still  some  persons  remain- 
ing with  us  who  well  remember  when  it  was  born.  I  distinctly 
remember  the  time  when  that  little  youngster  which  hail  been 
christened  Jacksonburgh  was  being  cradled  or  nurtured  in  its  little 


rude  log  crib  or  cabin.  But  that  child  grew  with  astonishing 
rapidity,  and  soon  became  an  active  and  precocious  youth,  and  the 
next  moment  he  was  a  mature  man:  and  after  a  brief  space  of  time, 
a  few  revolutions  of  our  earth,  instead  of  that  feeble,  tottering 
child,  a  powerful  giant,  walked  forth  by  bis  own  inherent  strength, 
dispensing  his  favors  in  all  directions  and  commanding  the  respect 
and  admiration  of  all.  I  bad  known  many  villages  in  the  Eastern 
States  which  were  150  years  old.  with  but  5,000  or  6,000  in- 
habitants, and  we  supposed  that  a  much  longer  time  would  be 
required  in  this  county  to  reach  similar  results;  but  by  the 
magic  power  of  science,  aiding  and  impelling  forces  in '  these 
modern  times,  a  city,  a  nation,  is  born  in  a  day! 

"In  the  early  days  of  .lacksonburgh.the  old  Washtenaw  trail  was 
the  only  traveled  route  from  East  to  West  through  this  section  of 
country  for  many  years.  Between  Ann  Arbor  and  Kalamazoo 
county,  as  tin  n  called,  the  log-cabins  of  the  pioneers  were  located 
only  upon  the  Indian  trail.  The  distance  between  those  primitive 
dwellings  as  found  by  me  48  years  ago,  was  14  miles  in  some 
cases  and  7  miles  in  others,  with  no  improvement  whatever  be- 
tween them.  Mr.  Allen  was  located  at  (iras-  Lake,  from  which 
place  an  unbroken  wilderness  extended  ten  miles  to  Jacksonburgb, 
where  a  wide  belt  of  heavily  timbered  land  extended  up  and  down 
on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  When  we  passed  over  that  route 
the  river  had  overflowed  its  eastern  bank,  and  the  water  extended 
over  that  low  timbered  land  about  so  rods,  partially  concealing 
many  large  and  small  stones,  and  many  large  roots  of  trees,  which 
caused  our  wagons  to  be  contorted  most  fearfully,  as  they 
plunged  up  and  down  and  rocked  from  right  to  left.  By  much 
time  ami  careful  management  three  of  our  wagons  passed  over 
without  much  harm,  while  two  wagons  became  fast:  but  by  the  as- 
sistance of  Mr.  Blackman  and  two  pair  of  oxen,  they  were  brought 
over.  The  bridge  across  the  river  was  a  rude  structure  of  logs,  and 
the  east  end,  being  much  lower  than  the  other,  was  under  water. 
At  that  time  (1831)  Jacksonburgb  contained  about  a  dozen  log- 
cabins.  Among  the  number  was  that  of  Mi-.  Blackman,  the 
double  log  cabin,  used  for  a  tavern  by  William  R.  Thompson, 
Hiram  Thompson,  the  postmaster  of  Jacksonburgb.  Mr.  Hogan, 
the  merchant,  and  Mr.  Richey — a  schooll-house  and  blacksmith's 
shop — all  being  of  logs. 

••While  stopping  a  few  days  with  Mr.  Thompson,  I  learned 
that  he  was  about  to  send  out  teams  to  White  Pigeon  Prairie  for 
flour  and  other  provisions.  Therefore,  two  of  my  teams  returned 
to  the  East  and  Thompson's  took  their  places,  the  postmaster  of 
Jacksonburgh  having  charge  of  one  team,  and  Mr.  Richey  the 
other.  Do  you  still  send  out  ox  teams  on  a  three  or  four  weeks' 
trip  for  your  provisions  2  And  do  you  now  obtain  your  meat  as 
you  did  a  few  months  later,  when  Mr.  Thompson  brought  a  drove 

ot  100  hogs  from  Indiana  '.      As  we  had  good  teams,  g 1  weather, 

and  no  detentions,  we  made  the  run  to  the  place  now  called  Gales- 
burg  in  six  days  ;  two  full  weeks  having  been   required  in  passing 

194  msT"KY    OF    JACK60M    COUNTY. 

irom  Detroit  to  Galesburg.  We  stopped  over  night  with  Mr. 
Allen,  of  Grass  Lake,  Thompson  Blashfield,  and  Roberts  at  Sand- 
stone Creek.  Crane  and  Abbott,  a  tew  miles  west  of  Rice  Creek, 
where  the  Rev.  John  I).  Pierce  was  located  ;  having  stayed  over 
night  at  every  cabin  on  the  route  trom  Grass  Lake  to  Rice  Creek, 
except  at  Jacksonsburgh. 

••  In  those  good  old  times,  the  latch-string  always  hung  outside 
every  door,  if  they  had  a  door,  and  however  poor  and  destitute 
the  inmates  might  have  been,  they  willingly  entertained  all  trav- 
elers, who  were  then  very  few.  Some  of  the  dwelling  places  on 
that  route  were  nothing  but  shanties,  sheds  or  pens,  without  doors, 
windows,  floors  or  chimneys,  and  no  furniture  except  such  as  was 
made  on  the  ] premises;  the  whole  outfit  being  novel  apologies  for 
human  comfort.  The  picture  is  not  as  gloomy  and  disheartening 
as  some  might  suppose  ;  but  it  is  a  very  hopeful  and  encouraging 
state  of  things  for  those  times. 

"In  1832  Roswell  Crane,  formerly  of  Jackson  county,  called  at 
my  residence  on  <tu11  prairie,  and  informed  me  that  he  had  located 
near  to.  and  on  the  west  side  of.  Battle  Creek,  and  was  therefore 
my  neighbor.  It  was  very  gratifying  to  learn  that  I  had  a  neigh- 
bor 14  or  15  miles  in  an  eastern  direction;  because  J.  D.  Pierce  at 
Rice  Creek  had  thus  tar  been  my  nearest  neighbor  in  this  direction. 
Whoever  thinks  that  the  movements  of  the  world  are  slow,  let  him 
compare  matters  and  things  of  the  present  time  here  with  those  ot 
a  few  years  ago.  when  it  might  have  been  said  that  even  since  the 
dawn  of  creation,  wdien  the"  morning  stars  sang  on  that  glorious 
event,  that  the  greatest  part  of  Michigan  was  unoccupied,  unknown 
and  avoided,  because  it  was  supposed  to  be  a  pestilential  waste. 

"It  is  within  the  recollection  of  many  persons  still  living,  when 
Ann  Arbor  was  the  extreme  west  end  of  the  habitable  world,  be- 
yond which  the  sun  went  down  into  a  bottomless  morass;  where 
the  frightful  sounds  of  yelling  Indians,  howling  wolves,  croaking 
frogs,  rattling  massasaugas,  and  buzzing  mosquitoes  added  to  the 
awful  horrors  of  that  dismal  place.  But  very  fortunately  for  us, 
that  illusion  was  dispelled,  so  that  out  of  that  worthless  region 
there  arose  one  of  the  most  beautiful,  productive  and  prosperous 
States  in  the  Union.  Michigan  has  the  largest  lakes,  which  are 
literally  alive  with  delicious  fish,  the  best  climate,  soil,  crops, 
minerals,  timber,  school-,  colleges,  churches,  laws,  smart  old  men 
and  women,  bright  boys  ami  good  girls. 

"While  we  have  a  grateful  sense  of  rich  profusion  of  the  various 
inexhaustible  natural  resources  of  Michigan.  I  am  not  at  liberty  to 
withhold  the  merited  meed  of  praise  from  the  hardy,  energetic, 
persevering  pioneers  who  patiently  submitted  to  great  and  long 
continued  hardships  and  privations;  while  they  utilized  the  great 
works  of  nature,  by  converting  a  great  wilderness,  previously  the 
abode  of  wild  beasts  and  wild  men.  into  fruitful  fields  and  gardens, 
so  that  it  became  a  land  of  corn  and  wine,  and  of  the  finest  ot 
wheat. — a  land  of  milk  and  honey.  They  beautified  the  face  of 
nature  with  the   decorative   works    ot   art;  founded  cities,  villages. 


towns,  and  elegant  rural  palaces;  highways  and  railroads  through- 
out our  broad  domain;  caused  the  light  of  science  to  illuminate 
every  corner,  gave  us  laws  and  educational  and  religious  and  char- 
itable institutions,  which  would  be  an  honor  to  the  older  States; 
and  instead  of  a  Territory  of  less  than  30,000,  we  now  have  a  State 
containing  over  1,500,000  inhabitants  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  all 
the  rich  bounties  of  nature  and  art.  But  has  Michigan  arrived  at 
the  zenith  of  its  prosperous  progression,  and  hereafter  to  remain 
stationary  ?  '  No  ! '  will  be  the  emphatic  exclamation  of  every  one, 
because  the  history  of  the  past  and  the  present  indication  in  regard 
to  the  future  are  such  as  to  justify  a  firm  belief  in  a  steady  and 
continued  onward  movement  in  all  the  good,  ennobling  character- 
istics of  a  great  and  prosperous  commonwealth. 

"Veteran  pioneers,  respected  fathers  and  mothers,  you  do 
not  need  monuments  of  brass  or  marble  to  proclaim  the  re- 
membrances of  your  glorious  achievements  to  coining  generations; 
because  your  footprints  are  deeply  and  indelibly  impressed  upon 
this  fair  land,  where  the  result  of  the  magnificent  work  of  your 
handsare  the  best  of  testimonials  for  you.  Here  you  not  only  hewed 
out  and  laid  those  deep  and  broad  foundations,  but  you  were 
the  architects  and  builders  of  a  grand  superstructure,  whose  lofty, 
imposing  towers  and  pinnacles  greet  the  rays  of  the  rising  sun.  and 
afford  shelter  and  protection  to  life  and  property.  " 


was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  in  the  northwestern  portion  oi 
Jackson  county,  where  he  located  in  Tompkins,  in  the  spring  ot 
1833.  At  that  time,  in  that  now  prosperous  township,  there 
was  but  a  handful  of  people,  and  Adams1  nearest  neighbors 
were  Abel  Lyon,  who  lived  half  a  mile  away,  Joseph  Wade, 
one  mile.  Deacon  Townley,  two  miles.  Mr.  Adams,  J.  M. 
Jamieson,  Henry  Hecox  and  D.  W.  Parchal  came  into  the  county 
together,  and  located  lands  for  future  homes.  Adams  ami 
Jamieson  were  the  only  ones  of  the  company  who  had  means 
enough  to  move  their  families,  and  the  following  fall  they  made 
clearings  and  put  up  houses.  Jamieson  kept  batchelor's  hall; 
and  the  next  summer  Adams's  family  came  on  via  the  Erie 
canal  to  Buffalo,  whence  they  took  steamboat  to  Detroit.  From 
the  latter  place  they  were  conveyed  to  their  future  home  in  a 
wagon;  a  three  days'  journey  over  rough  logways,  and  through 
almost  bottomless  marshes,  with  mosquitoes  swarming  about  them 
in  clouds.  They  often  got  stuck  in  the  swales,  when  they  were 
forced  to  unhitch  and  double  teams  to  pull  them  out.  One  of  the 
drivers  on  this  trip  declared  that  "his  team  went  in  out 
of  sight,  but  he  kept  whipping  and  hallooing  at  the  hole,  and 
they  eventually  came  out  all  right  on  the  other  side!  " 

Of  the  many  discouragements  and  hardships  of  those  early  days 
it  is  unnecessary  to  speak,  as  the  old  settlers  have  had  experience 
in  that  direction  and  know  all  about  them;  while  the  younger  gen- 

l'.)*>  HISTORY    OF    JACKSON    COUNTY. 

eration  could  not  realize  how  great  they  were,  even  if  told  them. 
But  those  early  days  were  not  without  their  pleasures  of  a  social 

nature.  The  oxen  would  be  yoked  to  the  large  lumbering  ox-sled; 
there  were  no  horses  in  those  days;  straw  would  be  used  to  sit 
upon,  and  a  buffalo  robe  or  a  few  bed-quilts  employed  to  wrap 
women  and  children,  and  off  would  start  a  family  to  spend  the 
day  or  evening  with  neighbors,  taking  other  families  on  the  way 
along  with  them.  There  were  no  broadcloths,  no  silks,  no  ••fuss" 
in  the  way  of  preparation;  they  were  ready  at  a  moment's  warn- 
ing; there  was  no  necessity  to  notify  anyone,  as  they  were  every 
dav  alike,  and  went  just  as  they  were,  as  regards  their  personal 
outfits.  Nor  was  it  deemed  necessary  to  apprise  the  family  they 
intended  visiting  that  they  were  coming,  as  "pot-luck"  was  the 
word  in  those  day,-. — there  being  no  luxuries  to  offer.  What  was 
lacking  in  high  living  was  made  up  in  good  feeling.  All  went  in 
for  a  good  time  generally — singing,  dancing,  telling  stories,  and 
merry-making;  and  often  an  entire  night  would  lie  thus  spent,  as 
it  was  found  difficult,  seemingly,  for  the  settlers  to  separate  early 
when  they  got  together  on  such  occasions.  They  were  hail  fel- 
lows well  met,  and  ready  with  a  helping  hand  in  time  of  need. 

Mr.  Adams  was  thrown  upon  his  own  resources  at  an  early  age. 
While  a  boy  he  learned  the  shoemaking  trade,  and  later  learned 
the  jeweler's  trade,  in  the  days  when  spoons  were  made  by  hand. 
He  located  and  opened  a  shop  in  Lyons.  X.  Y..  where  he  married 
Hannah  Perrine,  who  proved  to  be  a  help  indeed,  cheering  and 
assisting  in  every  womanly  way  to  make  their  home  bright  and 
happy.  She  was  noted  for  never  complaining,  but  always  making 
the  best  of  everything  as  it  came.  In  his  younger  days  he  was 
one  of  those  generous,  wholesouled  men.  to  whom  a  dollar's  worth 
of  fun  was  worth  five  dollars  of  cash  at  any  time:  consequently  he 
was  not  overburdened  with  this  world's  goods.  He  often  re- 
marked that  had  he  not  married  a  prudent  wife  he  would  probably 
never  have  laid  up  anything.  When  he  came  West  he  was  not 
rich,  but  had  enough  to  keep  the  wolf  from  his  own  door,  and 
some  to  help  his  less  prosperous  neighbors;  for  he  was  no  niggard, 
but  generous  to  a  fault,  often  putting  himself  out  to  accommodate 
a  friend.  He  never  turned  any  away  hungry  from  his  door;  his 
'•latch-string"  was  always  out;  his  unvarying  price  for  a  meal  was 
"$14."  He  was  always  an  earnest  politician.'  He  and  T.  E.  Gidley, 
with  a  few  others  of  like  political  faith,  met  at  Slab  City,  a  little 
west  of  where  Parma  now  stands,  and  organized  the  Whig  party 
in  this  county,  lie  remained  in  that  party  until  it  went  to  pieces, 
or  was  merged  into  the  Republican  party  ot  which  he  was  an  earn- 
est worker. 

In  the  early  days  the  circuit  court  consisted  of  a  judge  and  two 
associates.  Mr.  Adams  was  one  of  the  associates,  hence  his  title 
of  "Judge."  [n  Woodbridge  and  reform  times  he  was  appointed 
"agent"  of  the  State  prison,  then  in  its  infancy,  which  office  he 
held  two  years,  when  the  political  complexion  of  the  State  changed, 
and  he  was  rotated  out  for  another,  returning  to  his  farm.     Shortly 


after  this  time  lie  joined  the  M.  E.  Church,  of  which  he  remained 
a  consistent  member,  ever  ready  with  his  talent,  time  and  money 
to  help  on  the  cause  he  espoused.  His  temperament  was  of  the 
nervous,  sanguine  order,  which  always  made  him  look  on  the 
bright  side  ot  events  ;  consequently  he  was  always  cheerful  and 
happy,  with  a  good  word  for  all.  Although  an  earnest  Christian, 
he  was  no  bigot  ;  his  charity  was  large,  always  contending  that 
there  was  much  more  good  than  evil  in  man.  He  had  many  warm 
friends  and  but  few  enemies.  The  latter  never  questioned  his 
honesty  of  purpose  or  the  purity  of  his  intentions. 

now  of  New  York  State,  but  formerly  of  this  State,  was  recently 
interviewed  as  follows  : 

■'I  suppose,"  said  the  interrogator,  "that  your  journey  from 
Xew  York  State  to  Michigan  at  that  early  day  was  not  a  very  lux- 
urious experience  '." 

"Well,  we  certainly  did  not  come  in  a  palace  car,  nor  did  we 
go  to  bed  at  home  and  awake  next  morning  in  Detroit,"  was  the 
reply  ;  "  however,  we  got  here.  1  particularly  well  remember  that 
we  crossed  into  Canada  at  Lewiston,  May  14,  1831.  The  next 
day  we  dined  atBrantford,  with  Brandt,  a  son  of  the  renowned 
chief  of  the  Mohawks.  Our  host  on  that  occasion  was  educated,  I 
believe,  in  England,  and  although  he  held  a  commission  from  the 
crown  he  was  himself  chief  of  his  tribe.  He  was  one  of  the  most 
perfectly  formed  men  I  oversaw.  At  dinner  he  was  in  military 
undress,  and  he  acted  the  host  with  all  the  possible  graces  and  re- 
finements of  the  oldest  civilization. 

"  The  next  point  that  especially  attracted  my  attention,  and 
that  lives  freshest  in  my  memory,  was  the  town  of  Oxford,  which 
seemed  to  me  one  of  the  most  beautiful  portions  of  the  country  I 
had  ever  seen.  We  crossed  the  Thames  at  Moravian  Town,  not 
far  from  which  j dace  both  of  my  horses  were  poisoned.  One  of 
them  died  right  there,  and  the  other  lived  only  about  long  enough 
to  reach  Detroit.  Goodale  took  my  wife  in  his  wagon,  and 
through  his  good  nature  we  were  enabled  to  get  our  stuff  through. 
I  never  knew  who  poisoned  my  horses,  but  I  always  believed  it 
was  the  work  of  a  female  tramp  who  had  taken  offense  at  my  re- 
fusal to  allow  her  to  make  one  of  our  party." 

"How  long  did  you  remain  in  Detroit?" 

"Let's  see.  We  arrived  here  Sunday,  May  21,  1831,  and  I 
left  for  Jackson  on  the  following  Wednesday — three  days.  I  left 
Goodale  here  and  went  on  alone.  I  say  alone,  but  of  course  had 
my  own  family.  Ann  Arbor  was  our  first  halting  place — forty 
miles  I  believe  they  call  it — but  we  made  it  in  one  day  ;  and  the 
end  of  our  second  day's  journey,  after  crossing  Detroit  river, 
brought  us  to  Jackson,  where  I  had  decided  to  settle.  There  was 
no  road  or  sign  of  a  road  west  of  Ann  Arbor,  and  the  only  families 
in  Jackson  were  those  of  William   R.  Thompson  and  his  brother, 

198  HISTOKX    OF    JACKSON    '  HI'STV. 

Mr.  Bennett  and  Mr.  Elackman.  I  was  the  fifth  married  man 
that  settled  in  that  neighborhood,  and  I  put  up  the  first  frame 
building  in  Jackson  county.  When  I  arrived  there,  the  town  of 
four  bouses — two  of  which  were  taverns  and  all  built  of  logs — 
boasted  two  physicians  whose  names  1  have  forgotten.  Half  a 
mile  out  of  the  'city'  lived  a  man  named  Deland.  I  believe  there 
were  no  other  settlers  near  Jackson  then. 

''On  the  path  from  Ann  Arbor  a  Mr.  Sloat  kept  a  tavern  at 
Honey  creek,  five  miles  west  of  Ann  Arbor,  and  nine  miles  further 
on  a  man  named  Garlick  had  built  a  house.  There  was  only  one 
family  at  Grass  Lake,  and  not  a  building  from  there  to  Jack- 

In  the  further  course  of  conversation  Mr.  Moore  said  that  he  re- 
mained in  Jackson  less  than  a  year,  owing  to  both  his  own  and 
his  wife's  ill  health. 

On  leaving  Jackson  he  moved  to  the  town  of  York.  Washtenaw 
county,  and  became  one  of  the  founders  of  Mooreville,  at  which 
place  he  was  the  first  postmaster,  and  carried  the  first  mail  through 
from  Saline  to  Raisin,  lie  subsequently  returned  to  the  East, 
and  since  1843  has  lived  in  New  York.  During  the  many  years 
of  his  proprietorship  of  the  Madison  Square  and  other  hotels  in 
the  metropolis,  Michigan  people  always  found  a  hospitable  wel- 
come. He  is  now  living  in  retirement  at  Mt.  Vernon,  on  a  beau- 
tiful place  not  far  from  the  city,  in  the  serene  enjoyment  of  a  hale 
and  happy  old  age.  with  all  his  faculties  as  brigfit  as  they  were 
half  a  century  ago.  and  his  genial  love  of  human  kind  in  no  de- 
gree abated. 


Rev.  Mr.  King,  at  present  pastor  of  the  Lone  Star  Baptist 
Church,  at  Chepstow.  Kansas,  prepared  the  following  interesting 
paper  for  this  work.  The  subject  is  well  treated,  although  it 
claims  to  be  a  plain,  unvarnished  tale: 

"My  grandfather,  Asahel  King,  was  born  in  Massachusetts, 
Sept.  15,  17^1.  In  the  12th  year  of  his  age  he  was  hired  to  go  as 
a  drummer  in  the  State  militia.  He  was  drum-major  in  the  war 
of  1812.  His  company  was  ordered  to  Sacket's  Harbor  in  1814. 
Before  it  got  there  the  British  surrendered.  An  important  event 
happened  at  the  harbor,  which  is  worthy  of  record.  As  the  Brit- 
ish were  surrounding  the  harbor,  led  by  their  general,  and  shout- 
ing '  the  victory  is  ours,'  the  American  soldiers  were  few  in  num- 
bers and  expected  defeat;  a  young  boy  lay  sick  in  a  log  cooper- 
shop;  but  seeing  the  danger,  he  leveled  his  musket  at  the  general, 
fired,  and  he  fell  dead.  The  British  became  terrified,  and  suppos- 
ing the  building  to  be  full  of  soldiers,  they  fled  in  dismay.  This, 
added  to  other  defeats,  proved  to  be  a  great  event  in  the  closing 
of  the  war.     This  was  in  1814. 


"My  grandfather  had  eight  daughters  and  four  sous.  He 
moved  from  Lafayette,  N.  V..  to  Rives,  Jackson  Co.,  Midi.,  in 
1837.  lie  was  a  tanner  and  currier,  also  a  shoemaker  and  a 
farmer.  His  boys  were  all  fanners  here  except  my  uncle,  Asaliel 
King,  who  lived  on  a  farm  at  Cardiff.  Onondaga  Co.,  X.  Y..  where 
the  famous  Cardiff  Giant  was  exhumed. 

"  When  my  father  and  grandfather  settled  here.  Michigan  was 
a  wilderness;  no  clearing  for  miles  around;  the  wolves  howled 
around  during  the  night,  and  Indians  prowled  about  by  day;  they 
suffered  for  food,  they  lost  cattle,  etc.;  they  used  to  go  to  Detroit 
for  all  their  provisions  and  to  sell  their  wheat,  etc.  driving  oven 
instead  of  horses,  and  there  sold  their  wheat  for  :!.">  cents  per 
bushel.  Jackson  was  only  a  small  village  then.  My  father  has 
often  mired  fast  in  Main  street,  his  oxen  not  being  able  to  extricate 
the  wagon. 

••  When  grandfather  came  here  in  1836,  in  company  with 
Horace  G.  Cole,  the  soldiers  were  just  returning  from  the  Toledo 
war.  Of  course  they  had  done 'exploits.'  My  father  had  been 
all  through  Michigan  to  ( Jhicago,  the  year  before,  in  company  with 
two  other  men  named  CalebJackson  and  Hiram  Anderson  (I  be- 
lieve); they  rode  Indian  ponies,  going  through  <  Janada  on  their  re- 
turn to  NewYork.  When  my  father  returned  to  his  wilderness 
home  he  was  yet  a  single  man,  in  1838.  He  was  married  to  Miss 
Rebecca  Emily  Smith,  daughter  of  John  Smith,  who  came  from 
Dover,  England.  Mr.  Milton  J.  Draper  was  then  justice  of  the 
peace,  and  he  married  our  parents  according  to  the  Methodist  rule. 
which  ceremony  occupied  a  whole  hour. 

"When  father  was  living  in  his  log  house,  and  my  brother  Jef- 
ferson was  about  eight  years  old,  a  black  hear  came  into  his  wood- 
shed and  tried  to  get  a  calf-skin  hanging  there.  My  brother 
thought  it  was  a  dog,  and  whistled  to  call  it.  My  father  shot  at  it, 
but  it  only  shook  itself  and  ran  off.  One  day  when  my  mother 
was  alone,  two  large,  fat  deer  came  and  stood  side  by  side  in  front 
of  the  door  and  very  near.  A  rifle  was  loaded  in  the  house,  but 
she  dared  not  shoot  it,  although  they  needed  meat  very  badly. 
Father  often  started  large  herds  of  deer  away  from  his  cellar  while 
digging  it.  He  shot  a  large  turkey  just  where  he  built  his  house; 
the  turkey -an  his  head  into  a  brush  heap  and  supposed  he  was 

"The  Indians  were  all  around  and  often  came  for  something  to 
eat.  When  they  were  through  eating  they  always  took  all  the 
food  from  the  table,  away  in  their  blankets.  Mother  was  often 
frightened  at  night  when  alone,  by  some  old  Indian  looking  at  her 
through  the  window.  The  young  Indians  used  to  steal  corn  for 
roasting,  then  hide  it  (as  they  supposed)  under  their  blankets; 
eyery  now  and  then  an  ear  would  drop;  they  would  conceal  it 
again  as  soon  as  they  could. 

"The  wolves  used  to  howl  terribly  at  night.  In  the  winter 
of  1837  they  killed  and  ate  an  Indian,  near  the  corner  of 
Tompkins,   Eaton  Rapids,  Springport  and  Onondaga  townships. 


He  bucked  up  against  a  tree  and  fought  with  his  hatchet  until 
he  killed  seven  wolves;  then  he  was  overpowered.  His  hatchet, 
some  of  his  clothing  and  part  of  his  body  and  the  wolves  were 
soon  found.     Many  others  made  verv  narrow  escapes. 

"Once  father  went  to  Detroit  with  a  load  of  wheat.  He  sold 
it  ami  bought  live  barrels  of  vinegar.  He  started  home;  but  a 
storm  set  in  and  lie  was  obliged  to  leave  his  vinegar  with  an 
'honest'  farmer,  who  was  to  sell  it  for  him  and  send  him  the 
money.  He  sold  it,  but  never  yet  sent  the  money.  This  was  a 
great  loss.  1  suppose  that  man  will  say,  on  the  day  of  judgment, 
'Here  is  your  vinegar.  ' 

"Twenty-three  years  ago  last  fall  our  atmosphere  was  so 
smoky  that  it  was  very  difficult  to  see  any  distance.  Travelers 
used  hells  on  their  teams  to  avoid  collisions.  It  made  tears 
come  in  the  eyes,  the  fish  large  and  small  died  in  the  streams,  etc. 
It  was  caused  by  tires  in  the  forests  of  Michigan  and  Canada. 

"Jan.  1,  1864,  17  years  ago,  was  the  coldest  day  on  record 
in  our  State.  The  night  before  we  attended  a  war  meeting, 
and  on  going  home  at  11  o'clock  it  was  raining;  by  daylight  it  was 
exceedingly  cold.  Some  people  froze  to  death.  Cattle,  sheep 
and  poultry  were  also  found  dead.  Very  little  work  was  done, 
except  to  feed  and  run  the  stock  to  keep  them  from  freezing. 

"  In  March,  1868,  we  had  one  of  the  heaviest  snow  falls  in  the 
remembrance  of  our  settlers.  It  came  on  Sunday  night,  I  will 
relate  an  instance  of  interest  to  many  of  our  young  people  and 
some  who  are  older.  Eleven  of  our  young  Americas  left  Rives  in 
a  sleigh  for  Jackson,  to  attend  service  at  the  Baptist  church  and  see 
some  friends  baptized.  When  we  got  our  load  gathered  and  were 
about  two  miles  from  our  community,  the  snow  began  to  come 
down  by  measure.  It  was  not  very  cold.  We  stopped  to  debate 
whether  we  would  go  on  or  not.  The  majority  said,  'Go.'  So 
go  it  was.  I  had  my  team.  The  storm  raged  so  that  we  were 
very  late  in  town.  We  went  to  the  Marion  House,  and  warmed, 
put  the  team  in  the  barn,  then  went  to  the  church  just  as  the 
last  candidate  came  '  up  out  of  the  water. '  We  went  back  to  the 
hotel  and  waited  for  the  storm  to  abate,  but  it  raged  terribly. 
We  staid  all  night.  In  the  morning  there  was  six  feet  of  snow  on 
a  level.  We  got  breakfast  and  started  for  Rives.  We  got  in 
the  community,  a  distance  of  eight  miles,  just  at  sunset.  We  were  a 
hugry  set,  tired  and  forlorn.  We  fed  our  team  and  had  supper  at 
Rev.  Mr.  Osborn's.  We  then  commenced  to  distribute  our  load, 
and  we  finally  got  to  my  mother's  about  11  o'clock  at  night,  having 
driven  over  fences,  etc. ;  but  I  could  not  get  near  the  house;  so 
I  got  my  brother-in-law  to  carry  '  my  girl '  to  the  house  in  his 
arms.  The  next  day  I  took  her  home  on  horse-back.  We  got  into 
a  gravel  pit,  climbed  fences,  etc.,  but  I  landed  her  safe  at 
home,  her  parents  fancying  that  we  were  all  buried  in  the  snow. 

"During  the  Civil  war  a  great  many  of  my  cousins  and  some 
uncles  enlisted.  In  one  family  of  eight  boys,  five  were  soldiers. 
They  were  the  sons  of  Charles  and   Lucy  Smith,  of  North  Plains, 


Ionia  Co.  Uncle  Charles  went  to  Memphis,  Tenn..  to  care  tor 
three  of  them.  He  died  about  two  weeks  after  his  arrival  there.  I 
had  three  cousins,  sons  of  Horace  S.  and  Lucinda  Cole,  who  served 
all  through  the  Rebellion.  Again,  two  cousins,  sons  of  John  H. 
and  Amanda  King,  were  among  the  first  to  enlist.  They  came 
home  after  re-enlisting.  One  of  them,  David  Marion  King,  was 
Sergeant  in  Co.  E.,  3rd.  Michigan  ( lavalry.  He  went  back,  and  SOOB 
after,  while  going  through  a  piece  of  woods  with  a  small  squad  of 
men,  they  were  attacked  by  'bushwhackers,'  and  as  tliev  ran  down 
a  hill,  my  cousin's  horse  fell  in  a  miry  place  called  a  bayou;  the 
last  ever  seen  .if  him  by  our  'boys  in  blue,'  he  was  under  his 
horse,  struggling  to  extricate  himself.  Soon  after  our  boys  returned 
and  seached  diligently  for  him,  but  he  was  gone;  we  have  never 
heard  from  him  since.  He  is  the  only  cousin  out  of  many  but 
that  came  home  at  the  close  of  the  war.  '  Any  information  concern- 
ing him  would  be  gladly  received  by  the  relatives.  I  think  he 
died  as  a  prisoner  in  Libby  or  Andersonville  prisons." 


"In  November.  L834,  my  parents  moved  to  Jackson  county,  and 
composed  one  of  the  11  families  who  settled  in  Rives  township 
that  year. 

"In  January,  L835,  my  father  moved  into  the  log  house  which 
he  had  then  erected.  The  flooring  was  sawed  from  frozen  logs, 
and  the  boards  laid  down  Loose  and  rough,  with  a  rough  partition 
forming  a  room.  One  of  the  windows  of  this  house  served  as 
a  chimney,  as  the  stove-pipe  passed  through  it.  .  Having  been  thus 
far  established  in  the  land,  my  father  took  a  journey  east  to  pro- 
cure a  breaking-up  team,  as  it  required  three  or  tour  yoke  of  oxen 
to  do  the  first  plowing.  He  returned  in  April  with  his  team,  and 
also  four  cows.  ( )n  Ids  arrival  we  had  the  chimney  built,  and  the 
laying  down  of  the  floor  completed,  together  with  many  other  little 
improvements  which  render  the  log  cabin  at  least  comfortable. 
All  were  happy  in  this  home  in  the  wilderness  except  mother,  who 
suffered  sometimes  from  home-sickness.  She  had  to  return  to  look 
again  at  the  old  homestead  in  Monroe  county,  N".  Y.,  after  which 
visit  she  returned  to  her  new  home,  and  was  ever  afterward  con- 
tent to  dwell  here. 

"Our. nearest  school-house  was  about  three  miles  distant,  and 
for  three  years  the  children  had  to  walk  thereto,  before  a  school 
was  pro\  ided  for  this  district.  At  that  time  the  whole  district  was 
called  Jacksonburgh.  We  could  walk  through  the  country  then 
with  as  much  ease  and  pleasure  as  we  can  drive  through  it  now. 

" Our  farm  produced  good  flax,  and  we  made  our  own  cloth. 
Mother  wove  a  piece  for  grain-bags,  and  disposed  of  each  bag  for 
seven  shillings.  We  manufactured  starch  from  green  corn  or 
potatoes;  band  boxes  we  made  from  elm  bark,  and  indulged  in 
many  branches  of  domestic  economy. 


"The  Indians  visited  ns  from  time  to  time,  and  frequently 
brought  venison  to  trade  for  bread  and  potatoes. 

"  In  1842  I  taught  school  in  what  was  called  the  -Draper  neigh- 
borhood,'' a  district  extending  about  four  miles.  Mv  pupils  were 
Harriet  Draper,  Ann  Phelps,  Cordelia  Cook,  Sarah  Hatten,  Eliza- 
beth Hatten,  Charlotte  Draper,  Eunice  Tingley,  Josephine  Snyder, 
Mary   Draper,   Violet    Anderson,    Andrew  Phelps,    Wm.   Bates, 

Edwin   Smith,  Austin  Draper,   Frank  Quigley,   —  Quigley, 

Edward  Draper,  .lohn  Anderson  and  James  Anderson. 

"In  January,  1842,  I  made  a  visit  to  Ohio,  and  became  ac- 
quainted with  D.  II.  Ranney,  who  subsequently  came  out  here, 
where  in  ls-M  we  were  married  by  Rev.  Mr.  Harrison,  of  Jackson. 

'•  When  settlers  first  entered  on  their  locations  it  was  thought 
by  some  that  tame  grass  would  never  grow  here.  My  father,  Alva 
Triu',  said  lie  thought  it  would,  and  very  soon  afterward  discovered 
a  blade  of  plantain;  clover  followed  plantain,  and  in  a  short  time 
we  had  a  pleasant  green.  When  father  moved  into  the  township 
there  was  neither  of  these  herbs.  Now  all  the  grasses  and  cereals 
are  produced,  and  wild  berries  are  abundant. 

"  The  first  orchard  was  planted  in  the  spring  of  1835,  on  the 
farm  now  known  as  the  'Wilbur  farm,"  then  owned  by  Mr. 
Elmer.  The  following  year  it  produced  two  apples,  which  I  picked; 
as  the  owner  did  not  live  there.  As  recently  as  1S47  a  man 
from  ( )hio  was  out  prospecting  for  a  location;  but  he  formed  such 
a  strange  opinion  of  the  country  that  he  said:  'This  country  will 
soon  he  deserted;  the  log  houses  will  soon  be  left  tenantless;  people 
cannot  live  here;  it  is  a  barren  waste! '  What  would  that  man  say 
now  were  he  to  visit  us?  The  contrary,  —  we  think  it  is  one  of  the 
richest  countries  on  the  continent." 

"I  left  Herkimer  county.  X.  company  with  Allen  Bennett, 
Sen.,  in  March,  L833.  Mr.  Bennett  came  as  far  as  Buffalo,  went 
aboard  a  steamboat,  but  suddenly  changed  his  mind  and  returned. 
I  came  on  to  Detroit  ami  there  met  an  acquaintance,  who  traveled 
with  me  west.  We  took  the  stage  and  reached  Ann  Arbor  the 
first  day.  -lacks, mi  the  second,  and  Marshall  the  third  day.  We 
then  took  our  knapsacks,  traveling  westward  to  Gull  Prairie.  At 
Battle  Creek  there  was  but  one  house.  We  reached  Cull  Prairie 
the  fourth  day.  and  started  thence  to  Grand  Rapids,  in  company 
with  a  pioneer  who  was  moving  thither  with  his  family,  and  who 
carried  our  luggage.  We  stopped  the  first  daylong  enough  be- 
fore night  to  build  a  bough  house  of  brush,  having  brush  without 
leaves  for  our  bed  and  covering. 

"  On  the  morning  of  the  second  day  our  pioneer,  whose  team 
was  a  yoke  of  oxen  and  a  single  horse,  found  his  horse  missing.  I 
started  out  with  him  to  search  for  the  horse,  but  not  finding  him, 
went  on  to  Grand  Rapids,  and  from  thence  to  Ionia.  <  >nour  way 
to  Ionia  we   came  across    our  friend    who  had  lost  the  horse,  who 


had  himself  been  lost,  and  had  wandered  in  the  woods  seven 

"During  our  travels  we  camped  in  the  woods  or  open  prairie 
wherever  night  overtook  us.  My  valise  was  my  pillow,  and  a 
camlet  cloak  my  covering,  and  in  the  absence  of  water,  we  washed  our 
hands  in  the  dew  on  the  grass.  During  our  travels  looking  for 
land  on  which  to  make  a  home,  we  were  often  for  long  distances 
without  water,  and  one  time  dug  with  our  hands  ahollow  place  on 
the  border  of  the  marsh,  which  tilled  with  water,  and  muddy  as  it 
was,  it  tasted  sweet.  We  used  an  egg-shell  for  a  goblet.  We 
traveled  through  Ionia.  Clinton,  Shiawassee  and  Oakland  counties 
to  Detroit,  occupying  on  our  trip  through  the  State  over  four  weeks. 
I  located  some  Government  land  near  Lyons,  Ionia  county,  and 
returned  to  Herkimer  county,  N.    Y. 

••  In  the  spring  of  1837  I  started  with  my  family  and  effects  for 
Michigan,  to  make  a  permanent  settlement.  I  drove  a  team 
through  Canada  and  reached  Jackson  April  12,  having  been  four 
weeks  on  the  journey.  We  remained  in  Jackson  a  few  weeks,  and 
then  went  on  to  my  farm  in  Rives,  about  ten  miles  north  of  the 
city.  For  the  next  ten  years  we  went  through  all  the  hardships 
and  privations  of  a  pioneer  life.  We  then  moved  to  the  city  and 
resided  four  years,  again  upon  the  farm  a  few  years,  and  for  the 
last  15  years  in  the  city. 

••  In  the  retrospect  I  have  found  a  great  source  of  enjoyment, 
whether  as  a  pioneer  or  otherwise,  in  an  active,  busy  life. 

REMINISCENGES    OF    MRS.     M.     W.    CLAIM'. 

•■  In  May,  1837,  we  left  my  native  place,    Farmington,    Ontario 

Co.,  N.  Y.,  in  company  with  Azariah  Mallory  and  family, of  Mace- 
don,  Wayne  Co.,  who  were  also  bound  for  the  same  destination, 
the  then  tar  West,  the  State  of  Michigan,  my  husband  having 
purchased  three-eighties  in  the  north-west  portion  of  Hanover  town- 
ship the  year  previous,  where  we  now  reside.  Emigration  in  those 
days  was  less  expeditious  than  in  these  modern  times.  We  went 
aboard  the  canal  boat,  and  jogged  along  at  a  slow  rate;  but  as  it 
ran  both  night  and  day,  we  made  considerable  progress.  Arrived 
at  Buffalo,  we  took  the  steamboat  for  Toledo,  not  much  of  a  vil- 
lage at  that  time,  there  being  but  a  few  houses.  We  made  out  to 
climb  the  bank,  and  then  started  by  team  for  Adrian,  Mr.  Mallorv 
having  transported  his  wagon  and  horses  across  the  lake.  We 
found  the  roads  rough  passing  through  the  Cottonwood  swamp, 
through  mud  and  muck,  where  many  a  wagon  had  been  stuck, 
Mrs.  Mallory  and  myself  walking  four  miles  on  logs  and  rails.  We 
saw  the  first  locomotive  with  cars  making  their  first  trip  in  Michi- 
gan. My  uncle,  Darius  Comstock.  and  Geo.  Crane,  from  Farm- 
ington, N.  Y.,  who  were  stockholders,  were  on  board.  When  the 
train  stopped  at  Blissfield  the  old  gentlemen  alighted  with  buckets 
in  hand,  and  descended  the  bank  of  the  River  Raisin,  and  up 
again  as  sprightly  as  young  men,  with    their   buckets    of  water  to 


supply  the  tender.  Both  men  are  now  dead.  "We  arrived  at 
Moscow  Plains,  and  put  up  with  an  old  acquaintance  of  ours  for 
six  weeks,  who  made  our  stay  very  pleasant  until  our  houses  were 
finished,  which,  of  course,  were  built  of  logs.  We  then  began 
keeping  house.  We  experienced  many  privations,  having  to  go 
thirty  miles  to  mill  with  an  ox-team,  taking  two  (lavs  for  the  jour- 
ney. <  >ur  neighbors  were  few  and  far  between.  Xn  roads  at  that 
time  except  the  main  traveled  road,  three  miles  south,  known  as 
the  Chicago  turnpike.  Now  and  then  we  came  across  an  Indian 
trail,  though  only  one  Indian  called  on  us.  Though  our  mode  of 
conveyance  for  a  few  years  was  by  ox-teams,  we  could  expedite  by 
taking  a  bee  line  nearly  to  the  different  points,  as  there  was  no  un- 
derbrush, the  Indians  having  kept  it  burned  down.  Afterward, 
by  chipping  the  trees,  or  blazing  the  lines,  the  tracks  were  followed 
by  others  until  they  became  established  roads. 

"  Jonesville  had  only  one  store  at  that  time.  Immigration  was 
very  great  in  L837.  It  made  very  hard  times,  on  account  of  the 
scarcity  of  provisions.  Many  were  afflicted  with  ague,  for  which 
Michigan  became  proverbial.  The  first  fall  my  husband  had  4!t 
'shakes"  in  4!)  days;  our  daughter  suffered  from  it  at  the  same 
time,  and  none  of  us  escaped  it  entirely.  Mr.  Mallory's  people 
seemed  like  relatives,  though  living  three  miles  away.  On  Sun- 
day the  old  gray  horse  would  bring  the  wife  and  youngest  child, 
while  he  and  one  or  two  others  trudged  on  foot;  then  we  ap- 
preciated the  face  of  a  friend,  and  the  attachment  thus  formed  has 
ever  since  existed.  In  the  spring  the  fire  \v<  raid  run  thn  ragh  the  woods, 
which  warmed  up  the  ground  and  caused  vegetation  to  spring  up, 
beautiful  to  behold.  The  flowers  covered  the  earth  and  yielded  a 
fragrant  perfume.  The  wild  deer  would  gambol  over  the  plains. 
and  the  turkey  was  also  seen.  Now  and  then  a  massasaugaj  put 
in  an  appearance,  and  the  wolves  and  screech-owls  would  some- 
times make  night  hideous. 

'•We  soon  had  a  rioek  of  sheep,  from  which  we  spun  and  wove 
our  own  cloth,  and  had  to  be  tailoress  and  dressmaker  too;  but 
clothes  were  made  in  plainer  style  then  than  now-a-days. 

"  Where  the  village  of  Hanover  is  located  were  only  two  or 
three  residences,  and  one  log  school-house,  a  few  rods  northeast 
of  where  the  M.  E.  church  now  stands,  where  we  \ised  to  attend 

"The  first  tombstone  in  the  cemetery  marked  the  grave  of  our 
son.  It  was  a  brown  sandstone,  taken  from  the  quarry  at  Stony 
Point,  some  ten  years  before  its  inexhaustible  stones  were  de- 

"And  thus  we  might  extend  our  view  of  pioneer  life;  but 
perhaps  enough  has  been  said.  The  improvements  since  those 
days  that  tried  men's  souls  are  before  us:  our  State  being  traversed 
by  the  numerous  railroads,  and  the  facilities  we  enjoy  for  com- 
munication, enable  us  to  see  the  progress  in  civilization:  that  which 
50  years  ago  was  an  unbroken  wilderness  is  now  dotted  with  cities 


and  villages,  with  the  advantages  of   modern  improvements,    and 
we  truly  ean  sit  under  our  own  vine  and  fig  tree. 


South  and  west  from  the  little  village  of  Onondaga  the  land 
gradually  rises  until  you  reach  the  county  line,  about  a  mile  and 
one-half  directly  west;  then  turning  south  about  half  a  mile  you 
find  yourself  traveling:  along:  a  summit  level  which  divides  tin- 
waters  that  flow  into  Grand  river  on  the  one  hand,  from 
those  that  flow  into  Spring  brook  on  the  other.  Without  being 
hilly,  the  land  has  those  long  undulations  that  make  it  not  only 
easy  of  drainage  and  cultivation,  but  attractive  to  the  lover  of 
rural  scenery.  To  the  east  and  north  the  view  is  extensive,  as  the 
eye  ranges  across  the  valley  of  the  river.  Here,  on  the  corner, 
where  the  east  and  west  roads  meet,  the  county  line  road  at 
right  angles,  is  situated  the  residence  of  Win.  W.  Wolcott,  the 
first  settler  in  this  part  of  the  county.  The  honse  is  attractive. 
being  built  in  the  Italian  style  and  having  a  tower,  and  is  situated 
on  a  natural  building  spot,  well  back  from  the  road,  in  a  handsome 
grove  of  oaks.  .lust  hack  of  the  house  Mr.  Wolcott  has  a  fine 
grapery,  and  one  of  the  finest  peach  orchards  in  this  part  of  the 
country,  and  when  we  were  there  tree  and  vine  were  laden  with 
luscious  fruit.  The  barns  are  across  the  way  from  the  house,  and 
near  by  there  is  a  water-hole  with  no  source  of  supply  but  the 
rainfall,  yet  which  furnishes  water  for  his  stock  throughout  the 
year.  .The  farm  consists  of  1  74  acres,  all  but  30  acres  of  which 
are  under  improvements.  It  is  one  of  the  finest  in  this  part  of  the 
country.  He  owns  besides  150  acres  in  Jackson  county,  about 
one  mile  south. 

Mr.  Woh-ott's  forefathers  lived  at  Weathersfield,  Conn.  The 
old  building  is  still  standing  in  which  his  great-grandfather  used 
to  do  business,  and  it  may  be  that  some  of  his  relatives  took  part 
in  the  celebrated  Union  war.  so  graphically  narrated  by  that 
prince  of  historians.  Dedrich  Knickerbocker. 

Wm.  W.  Wolcott  was  born  in  Austerlitz,  Columbia  Co.,  N.  Y.. 
1N07.  lie  lived  there  until  1823,  when  his  father  moved  to  Gen- 
esee county,  and  it  was  on  the  hunting  ground  of  the  Senecas 
that  he  acquired  that  love  for  hunting  which  has  been  one  of  his 
diversions  through  life.  June  29,  1832,  he  was  married  to  Miss 
Elizabeth  Baldwin,  who  was  born  Nov.  4.  1808J  at  Dorrest,  Ben- 
nington Co.,  Vt. 

He  first  came  to  Michigan  in  1 834,  and  having  formed  a  travel- 
ing acquaintance  with  an  old  gentleman  by  the  name  of  Daniels, 
they  footed  it  out  from  Detroit  to  Ann  Arbor.  The  cholera  was 
raging  in  Detroit  at  that  time. 

On  arriving  at  Ann  Arbor,  the  old  gentlemen  found  themselves 
so  foot-sore  that  they  concluded  to  try  the  stage,  which  proved  to 
be  a  peddler's  wagon  "altered  over"  for  the  accommodation  of 
travelers.     They  came  in  bv  the  way  of  the  Washtenaw  trail,  the 


road  along  which  was  laid  out  by  Firmferin  in  1834.  and  extended 
west  to  St.  Joseph.  This  trail  entered  and  crossed  the  river  not 
far  from  where  the  State's  prison  now  stands,  and  Dr.  Russell's 
brother  kept  tavern  there  on  or  near  the  site  of  that  popular  board- 
ing establishment.  The  land  now  occupied  for  that  purpose  could 
then  lie  bought  for  $300. 

Since  then  it  is  safe  to  say  that  Jacksonburgh  has  grown.  John 
M.  Dwight  was  then  the  only  dealer  in  goods  and  notions;  Bill 
Bothwell  kept  the  Thompson  House,  which  sported  Indian  blan- 
kets at  the  windows  in  lieu  of'a  more  transparent  medium.  Black- 
man  kept  the  rival  establishment  across  the  street.  The  Hamlins, 
since  of  Eaton  Rapids,  lived  there  then.  Bailey  was  justice  of  the 
peace.  There  were  Moody,  Durand,  Russey  and  Allen,  the  last 
of  whom  was  the  first  dealer,  aspiring  to  dispense  groceries  and 
provisions  to  his  fellow  sojourners;  and  this  constituted  about  the 
entire  nucleus,  around  which  has  grown  up  one  of  the  most,  prom- 
ising inland  cities  of  Michigan. 

The  surveyors  were  at  that  time  employed  in  running  out  the 
line  of  the  old  Clinton  road.  Their  contract  specified  that  they 
were  to  lay  out  a  road,  following  generally  a  northwest  course 
between  the  villages  of  Clinton  and  Grand  Rapids.  In  those  days 
it  would  seem  that  Clinton  was  one  of  the  prospective  points  in 
the  territory.  In  looking  out  the  line  of  roadj  the  surveyors  sent 
out  two  men,  who,  taking  opposite  directions,  prospected  for  the 
most  eligible  lines  of  communication  and  worried  their  way  around 
swamps,  or  plunged  through  them  according  to  circumstances. 
Mr.  Wolcott  and  his  friend,  Geo.  Woodworth,  were  the  first  men, 
after  the  surveyors,  over  the  newly  laid  out  road  west  of  Jackson. 
When  he  came  there  the  surveyors  were  encamped  on  the  hill  not 
far  from  the  site  of  ex-Gov.  Blair's  residence.  The  friends  re- 
solved to  take  time  by  the  forelock,  and  having  procured  some 
ponies  they  started  out  but  a  day  behind  the  gentlemen  of  the  com- 
pass and  chain.  They  followed'  the  line  to  where  it  struck  Sand- 
stone creek,  near  where  the  bridge  now  spans  the  stream  at  the 
head  of  the  pond  at  Tompkin's  Center.  Not  being  able  to  cross 
at  that  point,  they  went  down  the  creek  and  felled  a  tree  to  serve 
as  a  bridge.  They  spent  a  part  of  the  day  on  the  section  of  land 
where  Marcus  Wade  now  lives,  and  returned  the  same  night  to 
Jackson.  The  next  morning,  starting  before  daylight,  they  set 
out  for  Tompkin's  again,  and  when  about  two  miles  on  the  route 
it  began  to  snow,  and  kept  it  up  until  12  o'clock  the  following 
night.  On  the  way  up  they  crossed  a  number  of  fresh  bear  tracks 
in  the  snow;  plenty  of  deer,  but  got  nothing,  as  their  guns  were 

Mr.  Wolcott  resolved  to  locate  a  mill-site  at  Tompkins,  and 
visited  the  land  office  at  Monroe  with  that  intention,  but  found 
that  the  land  had  long  been  taken.  Becoming  discouraged,  he 
concluded  that  the  whole  country  was  a  succession  of  tamarack 
swamps,  and  returned  to  the  East.  In  the  fall  of  1835,  he 
returned  to  Michigan  and  located  on  the  land  where  he  now  lives. 


At  that  time  a  man  by  the  name  of  Booth,  living  near  Onondaga, 
was  said  to  be  the  only  white  man  in  Ingham  county. 

This  time  he  visited  the  land  office  at  Kalamazoo,  and  he 
gives  a  graphic  account  of  the  journey  through  the  wilderness 
at  that  date.  A  party  of  14  set  out  from  Jackson  on  foot:  but 
when  they  reached  Graham's  Tavern,  a  little  west  of  Albion, 
they  concluded  to  wait  for  the  stage,  and  they  changed  con- 
veyances six  times  between  there  and  Kalamazoo.  Then,  if  there 
was  a  settler  along  the  route,  the  stage  went  to  his  door,  and  every 
shanty  was  a  public  house.  In  taking  passengers  it  was  part 
of  the  contract  that  they  should  walk  up  hill,  and  even  push  a 
little  at  times,  and  the  party  had  more  than  one  laugh  over  paying 
fares  and  going  a-foot.  At  Searles'  Tavern,  eight  miles  this  side 
of  Kalamazoo,  while  the  party  was  there,  the  landlord's  son 
went  out  and  shot  two  noble  bucks,  which  had  got  their  horns 
clinched  in  fighting.  On  the  way  hack  Mr.  Wolcott  put  up  at 
Birneg's  Tavern,  at  Battle  Creek,  and  was  strongly  urged  by 
that  gentleman  to  invest  in  town  lots  at  Si\">  each:  hut  Mr.  Wolcott 
had  no  faith,  and  responded  that  he  would  not  give  25  cents. 

Returning  to  Detroit,  he  visited  a  cider  mill  on  the  river 
Rouge,  and  washed  out  a  bushel  of  apple-seeds,  with  which  to 
start  a  nursery  near  Jackson.      This  was  (lone  in  company  with  his 

friend    W Iworth;    hut  from    a    variety    of  reasons    the    project 

was  not  a  success,  though  it  furnished  the  new  county  with 
many  trees.  The  large  and  thrifty  trees  in  Mr.  Wolcott's  orchard 
are  from  those  seeds.  The  grafts  were  brought  by  Thomas  Baldwin 
from  ( >hio. 

In  the  fall  of  1835  he  returned  to  New  York  State,  stopping 
over  winter  in  Ohio,  and  in  the  spring  oi  1837  he  came  back 
to  Michigan  to  build  a  house  and  get  ready  for  his  family.  While 
doing  so  he  boarded  at  Lyon's  Tavern,  then  located  where  Mr. 
Ford  now  lives.  It  was  three  or  four  miles  away,  yet  he  went 
to  and  from  his  labors  night  and  morning,  and  paid  $5  per 
week  for  board.  This,  in  the  new  country,  was  something  scanty; 
but  the  hungry  could  always  find  two  essentials  at  every  public 
house,  however  poor,  milk  and  whisky.  Returning  again  to 
New  York  State  he  worked  through  harvest  for  10  shillings  per 
day, — 75  cents  for  haying. 

In  the  fall  of  the  same  year  he  purchased  the  best  horses  and 
wagon  he  could  find,  to  please  his  wife,  who  dreaded  the  journey 
by  water,  ami  they  started  tor  their  home,  through  Canada; 
but,  after  17  days  in  the  mud,  they  were  glad  to  embark  at  Chat- 
ham. Having  arrived,  he  was  not  able  to  keep  his  team  and 
wagon,  and  they  were  sold  at  Jackson,  to  Paul  I».  King,  for  *:'>77. 
They  were,  perhaps,  at  that  time,  the  best  span  of  horses  ever 
driven  into  the  place,  and  were  purchased  for  the  use  of  Dan  Ilib- 
bard  in  carrying  the  mail.  At  home  in  the  wilderness,  the  ques- 
tion of  provisions  made  itself  felt,  and  Mr.  AY.  started  to  spy  out 
the  fatness  of  the  land,  and,  if  possible,  bring  some  of  it  home 
with  him.      He  visited  Spring  Arbor,  but  the  farmers  wanted  25 


cents  per  poundfor  pork.  Mr.  W.  contented  himself  with  flour  and 
a  somewhat  antiquated  ox,  which  he  purchased  for  beef.  Being  out 
of  meat,  in  the  spring  he  purchased  12  hens  from  Gartner  Gould,  for 
three  shillings  apiece,  and  carried  them  home  on  his  back.  Forty- 
two  years  have  passed  since  then.  andMr.  W.  has  still  the  same  breed 
ot   fowls,  and  has  never  been  out  of  eggs  <>r  fat  chickens.      Yet  it 

would  not  do  to  begin  t -ashlv  on  the  poultry  ;  and,  after  getting 

terribly  hungry,  Mi-.  W.  started  out  with  a  pillow-case,  in  pursuit 
of  pork  and  butter,  lie  purchased  a  small  hog  at  $15.00  per  hun- 
dred, but  butter  was  not  to  be  had,  though  he  visited  all  the  farm- 
ers in  the  vicinity  of  Parma.  Strong  in  his  determination  to  have 
some  butter,  he  returned  to  Jackson,  but  Mas  dismayed,  on  arriv- 
ing, by  the  intelligence  that  there  was  none  in  the  city.  However, 
the  dealer  said  that  he  bad  sent  his  team  for  some,  and  that  he  ex- 
pected it  in  that  night.  The  team  came,  with  butter  from  Ohio. 
Peace  was  restored  to  the  households  of  Jackson,  and  Mr.  W. 
turned  his  steps  homeward  with  gladness  in  his  heart  and  25 
pounds  of  butter  in  his  pillow-case:  and  after  his  20  miles  march 
through  slush  ami  mini,  he  felt  no  disposition  to  accuse  that  gro- 
cery man  of  light  weight. 

the  winter  of  1836  was  remarkable  in  the  annals  of  the  county. 
.V  snow  fell  is  inches  deep  and  crusted.  The  wolves,  driven  by 
hunger,  came  up  from  the  northern  wilderness  and  killed  the  deer 
in  droves.  Mr.  W.  saw  20  or  2.~>  lying  dead  together  where  they 
had  been  pulled  down  by  their  ravenous  enemies.  They  even  killed 
young  stock.  The  cold  was  something  terrible.  Quails  and  prairie- 
chickens  were  almost  exterminated.  From  November  15  to  January 
1  it  did  not  thaw,  and  it  thawed  then  but  little.  Prom  February  20 
to  April  20  the  sky  was  without  a  cloud,  and  the  cold  was  steady 
and  intense.  However,  April  1,  Mr.  W.,  being  in  Jackson,  ob- 
served that  it  thawed  a  little  on  the  north  side  of  the  street.  April 
20  the  snow  went  off,  and  the  long,  hard  winter  was  at  an  end. 
The  wolves  went  back  to  their  northern  haunts,  and  none  have 
been  heard  of  in  the  county  since. 

When  Mr.  Wblcott  was  here  in  1835  he  hired  ten  acres  broken 
up.  and  let  out  five  of  them  to  Daniel  Dunn,  and  has  never  been 
out  of  wheat  since.  For  meat  Mr.  W.  depended  more  on  his  gun 
than  his  pocket.  He  became  an  adept  in  bagging  wild  turkeys, 
and  through  the  fall  and  winter  the  family  was  seldom  without  a 
fat  turkey  in  the  larder.  He  used  to  delight  in  getting  in  the 
friends,  and  with  a  big  tire  in  the  old  fireplace,  and  the  children 
at  home,  have  a  feast  on  baked  turkey. 

lie  used  to  hunt  through  the  woods  to  Jackson,  get  his  mail, 
and  hunt  back  again,  without  thinking  it  much  of  an  undertaking. 
On  one  occasion,  having  business  to  do  at  Mason,  he  set  out  on  a 
trail  through  the  woods  with  dog  and  gun.  On  his  return,  when 
he  was  north  of  Leslie,  night  fell;  it  clouded  up  and  became  fear- 
fully dark,  and  he  lost  his  trail.  After  groping  on  the  ground  for 
some  time  he  found  it  again,  but  without  being  sure  which  way  he 
was  facing.     However,  it  must  bring  him  somewhere,   and  tinallv 

HISTORY    of    JACKSON    COUNTY.  209 

he  came  out  to  the  house  of  Mr.  Phillips,  on  the  right  track.  He 
awoke  the  inmates  to  learn  where  he  was,  and  they  were  surprised 
that  any  human  being  should  undertake  to  traverse  these  woods  in 
the  night.  Arriving  at  the  river  it  was  necessary  to  halloo  out  the 
ferryman,  Mr.  Allen,  who,  with  the  generosity  of  a  frontiers- 
man, refused  to  receive  pay  from  a  new  settler. 

He  killed  one  hear — a  large  one — famous  in  the  country  for 
killing  hogs.  The  bear  was  easily  recognized  from  the  fact  that 
he  had  lost  one  of  his  feet  iii  a  trap.  It  had  recently  killed  one  of 
Mr.  Sibley's  hogs,  and  Mr.  W.  went  for  Rue.  Perrine's  bear-trap; 
but  bruin  was  posted  on  traps.  Finally  Mr.  Sibley  saw  the  ani- 
mal while  looking  after  his  cow,  and  with  Perrine  and  Wolcott 
turned  out  to  hunt  him.  The  bear  first  undertook  to  pass  Messrs. 
Sibley  and  Perrine.  who  shot  at  him  and  turned  him  back.  This 
drove  him  toward  Wolcott,  who  saw  him  coming  along  the  path 
in  which  he  was  standing;  feeding  sure  that  he  must  kill  him  at 
the  first  shot  or  have  an  encounter,  Wolcott  aimed  for  his  eye, 
and  with  the  crack  of  his  rifle  bruin  went  down.  He  proved  to  be 
very  large  and  fat. 

Mr.  Wolcott  had  six  children,  all  of  whom  are  Hying  but  one. 
Grove  11.  Wolcott  is  a  lawyer  in  Jackson;  William  V.  Wolcott  is 
one  of  tin-  publishers  of  the  Times  Herald,  St.  Louis;  Mark  S. 
is  a  lawyer  in  Jackson;  Thomas  ('.  now  takes  charge  of  the 
farm;  Charles  C.  is  a  hotel  proprietor  and  hardware  dealer  in 
Nashville,  Mich.;  his  only  daughter.  Josephine,  he  buried  in 


BY    00L.    M.    SHOEMAKER. 

William  Doliville  Thompson  was  born  Feb.  24,  1815,  and  is  a 
native  of  Shenango  county,  N.  Y.  He  removed  to  Le  Koy,  in 
Genesee  county,  when  quite  young,  and  continued  to  reside  there 
until  1831. 

The  great  stream  of  emigration  from  New  England  and  New 
York  to  Michigan  and  the  then  far  West,  which  set  in  about  1830, 
caught  in  its  flow  many  of  the  most  enterprising  and  industrious 
of  the  young  meD  of  those  States,  who  sought  in  these  then 
unoccupied  fields  a  proper  sphere  for  their  labors,  and  for  the 
expansion  of  that  spirit  of  enterprise  which  was  denied  to  them 
in  the  m<  ire  densely  populated  regions  of  the  East.  This  was  more 
especially  the  case  with  those  young  men  who  had  only  their 
willing  hands  and  strong  hearts  with  which  to  carve  their  way  in 
the  world  to  wealth  and  tame. 

Among  those  who  determined  at  an  early  day  to  strike  out 
and  try  his  chances  in  a  new  country,  where  he  could  "grow  with 
its  growth  and  strengthen  with  its  strength,"  was  young  Mr. 
Thompson.  He  came  to  Jacksonburgh,  as  the  infant  settlement 
was  then  called,  in  1831,  and  was  among  the  first  to  make  it  his 


The  first  house  in  the  place  was  built  and  occupied  in  1830,  and 
they  could  all  be  counted  on  the  fingers  of  one  hand  when  he 
decided  that  in  it  and  with  it  he  would  try  his  fortunes. 

In  the  fall  of  1832  Mr.  Thompson  opened  a  boot  and  shoe  store, 
the  first  of  the  kind  in  the  village.  In  1834  he  built  and  occupied  a 
store  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street,  just  east  of  the  public 
square.  Mr.  Thompson  was  elected  county  clerk  on  the  Democratic- 
ticket,  and  served  for  the  years  1836-7.  He  was  one  of  the  school 
board  in  1837.  In  1838  he  sold  his  stock  in  trade  to  Walter  Fish, 
and  entered  into  partnership  with  George  B.  Cooper,  who  was 
transacting  a  general  mercantile  business.  In  184-1,  upon  the 
completion  of  the  Michigan  Central  railroad  to  Jackson,  Mr. 
Thompson  was  appointed  freight  agent.  He  continued  on  the 
road  at  Jackson  and  west  of  this  point,  as  completed,  to  Niles,  for 
a  period  of  ten  years,  including  the  administration  of  the  road 
while  owned  by  the  State,  and  after  it  had  passed  into  the  hands  of 
the  Michigan  Central  Railroad  Company. 

A  period  of  two  years  elapsed  after  the  completion  of  the 
railroad  to  Niles  before  it  was  built  to  Chicago,  and  during  this 
time  all  the  freight  and  many  of  the  passengers  were  taken  by 
boats  to  and  from  the  railroad  depot  at  Niles  and  St.  Joseph, 
at  the  mouth  on  the  river  St.  Joseph.  This  was  the  most  desirable 
route  from  Niles  to  Chicago  and  the  great  West,  then  rapidly  being 
settled  by  the  emigration  which  had  now  assumed  such  magnitude 
that  every  avenue  and  means  of  conveyance  was  tilled  to  over- 
flowing. The  service  of  the  St.  Joseph  river  was  undertaken  by 
Mr.  Thompson  on  his  own  responsibility,  and  for  his  own  account. 
It  was  conducted  with  marked  success.  During  most  of  the  time 
he  owned  and  controlled  a  small  fleet  of  steamboats  and  towboats. 
The  extent  of  the  business  was  such  that  while  Commodore 
Thompson,  as  he  was  then  called,  conducted  the  business  to  the 
perfect  satisfaction  of  the  shippers  and  the  railroad  company. 
he  also  made  it  largely  remunerative  to  himself.  He,  while  at 
Niles,  accumulated  a  capital  which  enabled  him,  on  the  completion 
of  the  railroad  to  Chicago,  to  return  to  Jackson,  after  closing- 
out  his  stock  on  the  river,  and  in  connection  with  George  B. 
Cooper,  to  establish  the  banking  house  of  Cooper  iv;  Thompson. 
The  integrity,  strict  attention  to  duty,  and  business  ability  dis- 
played by  Mr.  Thompson  in  the  several  places  at  which  he  was 
stationed  and  in  the  positions  which  he  tilled,  were  so  well  under- 
stood and  appreciated  that  he  has  ever  since,  in  a  marked  degree, 
retained  the  confidence  of  the  managers  of  the  Michigan  Central 
Railroad  Company:  and  his  influence  has  been,  many  times  since, 
of  decided  advantage  to  Jackson,  when  questions  of  importance 
to  the  interest  of  the  city  have  been  under  consideration  by  the 
officers  of  that  company.  In  1S51  Mr.  Thompson  returned  to  Jack- 
son and  engaged  in  the  business  of  banking.  As  a  member  of  the 
firms  of  Cooper  &  Thompson,  Cooper,  Thompson  &  Co.,  and  of 
the  Jackson  City  Bank,  he  has  ever  since  been  the  leading  banker 
of  Jackson.     Of  the  Jackson  City  Bank,   which   does  much  the 

HISTORY    <>k    JACKSOS    COUNTY,  211 

largest  business  of  any  of  the  six  banks  of  Jackson — and  probably 
more  than  all  the  rest  of  them  together — Mr.  Thompson  has 
always  been  general  manager  and  president,  and  is  now  under- 
stood to  be  sole  proprietor. 

On  the  first  of  July,  1856,  Mr.  Thompson  was  married  to  Alma 
M.  Mann,  in  Madison,  Wisconsin.  They  have  two  children,  a  son 
and  a  daughter. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thompson  have  traveled  in  Europe,  and  the 
many  works  of  art  selected  during  their  sojourn  in  the  old  world, 
which  make  their  home  attractive,  bear  ample  testimony  to  the 
correct  judgment  and  good  taste  manifested  in  their  selection. 

In  1862  Mr.  Thompson  took  part  in  the  organization  of  the 
Jackson,  Lansing  &  Saginaw  Railroad  Company.  Its  successful 
completion  to  Mason  in  1865,  to  Lansing  in  the  spring  of  1866, 
and  to  Wenona,  on  the  Saginaw  bay,  in  1*67.  is  in  a  great 
measure  due  to  the  labors  and  influence  of  Mr.  Thompson.  He  not 
only  gave  it  his  personal  attention,  but  also  furnished  material  aid 
at  times  when,  but  for  the  money  advanced  by  him,  the  building  of 
the  road  must  have  stopped  for  a  time  at  least. 

This  railroad  is  now  extended  through  the  pine  woods  to  within 
one  hundred  miles  of  the  straits  of  Mackinac,  and  will  doubt- 
less soon  be  completed  to  that  point,  there  to  connect  with  a 
railroad  to  Marquette  and  the  iron  and  copper  regions  of  the  upper 
peninsula.  The  one  hundred  miles  of  this  road  terminating  at 
Gaylord  were  built  exclusively  by  Mr.  Thompson,  and  finished  in 
July,  1873. 

In  1866  the  Jackson,  Lansing  &  Saginaw  Railroad  Company 
bought  that  part  of  the  Lansing,  Amboy  &  Traverse  Bay  railroad 
lying  between  Owosso  and  Lansing,  and  with  it  the  land  grant- 
made  by  the  United  States  to  the  latter  company.  This  purchase 
gave  much  greater  value  to  the  stock  of  the  Jackson.  Lansing  & 
Saginaw  Railroad  Company. 

Mr.  Thompson  is  noted  for  his  broad  and  comprehensive  business 
views.  Many  enterprises  which  have  added  much  to  the  growth 
and  prosperity  of  Jackson  owe  their  success  to  the  fearless  manner 
in  winch  he  in  some  cases  invested  his  capital,  and  in  others 
sustained  those  who  were  interested  in  building  them  up.  He  is  one 
of  the  firm  of  Bennett,  Knickerbocker  &  Co.,  who  built  and  still 
own  and  run  the  extensive  steam  flouring  mill  known  as  the  "City 
Mills."  The  same  firm  also  own  and  run  the  "Stone  Mills"  at 
Albion,  and  is  one  of  the  largest  manufacturers  of  flour  in  the 
State.  Mr.  Thompson  is  one  of  the  principal  stockholders  in  the 
"George  T.  Smith  Middlings  Purifier  Manufacturing  Company," 
now  extensively  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  their  "purifiers" 
in  Jackson.  lie  is  also  largely  interested  in  the  costly  "Chemical 
Works  "  and  "  Pulp  Mills  "located  in  the  northern  part  of  the  city, 
and  he  has  aided  to  develop,  and  is  one  of  the  proprietors  of 
coal  mines  now  worked  within  the  city  limits.  But  it  is  as  a 
banker  that  Mr.  Thompson  is  most  widely  and  favorably  known. 
No  man  in  Michigan  enjoys  a  higher  reputation  in  his  particulai 


calling  than  does  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  The  business  men  of 
Jackson  look  to  him  and  rely  upon  him  in  time  of  need;  and 
to  him  his  customers  never  look  in  vain  for  those  accommodations 
often  so  necessary  to  success  in  their  business. 

Mr.  Thompson  stands  prominent  among  the  citizens  of  Jackson 
for  his  generosity  and  benevolence.  His  name  is  always  found 
among  the  most  liberal  subscribers  to  all  projects  of  a  business  or 
charitable  nature,  and  the  calls  are  many  in  a  city  so  fertile  in 
new  enterprises  as  in  Jackson.  Both  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thompson 
make  the  most  praiseworthy  use  of  the  goods  of  this  world,  with 
which  they  are  so  amply  endowed,  in  dispensing  that  unostentatious 
charity  most  acceptable  to  its  recipients,  and  most  creditable  to 
themselves,  fulfilling  the  Scriptural  injunction:  '"But  when  thou 
doest  alms,  let  not  thy  left  hand  know  what  thy  right  hand 

The  integrity  and  liberality  of  Mr.  Thompson  have  placed  him 
in  the  front  rank  in  the  State  in  the  estimation  of  its  people.  He 
also  stands  prominent  as  one  of  the  very  few  remaining  of  those 
pioneers  who  cast  their  lot  in  Jackson,  when  it  had  little  to  boast 
of  and  was  held  in  light  estimation  by  villages  now  of  tar  less  im- 
portance, because  of  its  marshes,  sand-hills  and  the  general  unin- 
viting appearance  of  its  surroundings.  There  are  now  living  in 
Jackson  but  two  of  its  citizens  who  made  it  their  home  previous 
to  the  advent  of  Mr.   Thompson. 

Without  the  knowledge  attained  by  actual  experience,  it  is  im- 
possible to  realize  the  changes  which  have  taken  place  in  Jackson, 
in  Michigan,  in  the  Northwest,  and  in  the  great  West,  extending  to 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  during  the  business  lifetime  of  a  man  even  now 
in  the  midst  of  his  usefulness.  No  succeeding  generation  will  be 
able  to  look  back  upon  and  realize  the  wonderful  growth  of  an  em- 
pire, and  the  spread  of  a  civilization  in  their  own  time,  as  can  Mr. 
Thompson  in  contemplating  what  he  has  seen  grow  up  under  his 
own  observation  since  he  came  to  Jackson  in  1831. 

jacob  Cornell's  reminiscences. 

"  In  the  autumn  of  1833  my  father,  Stephen  Cornell,  of  Pough- 
keepsie,  New  York,  came  to  Michigan  and  jmrchased  of  the 
United  States  120  acres  of  land  in  the  township  of  Unadilla,  and 
with  the  help  of  two  men,  a  yoke  of  oxen,  and  a  rope,  erected  the 
first  log  house  in  the  county.  He  hauled  the  clapboards  and  the 
lumber  for  the  floor  from  Dexter,  14  miles  southeast  of  our  home. 
He  and  his  men  built  a  camp  of  brush  and  marsh  hay  in  which 
they  lodged  and  cooked  for  three  weeks,  using  brush  for  a  spring 
bed.  My  father  returned  home  late  in  the  fall,  preparatory  to  re- 
moving his  family  the  following  spring  to  our  home  in  the  Territory 
of  Michigan.  About  the  middle  of  April,  1834,  we  packed  up 
our  little  all,  together  with  a  year's  supply  of  provisions  and  medi- 
cines, and  employed  a  sloop  to  carry  us  to  Albany,  a  distance  of 
80  miles,  on  the  Hudson   river,  the  trip  from   Poughkeepsie  occu- 

HISTORY    OF   JA(  KSOK    COUNTY.  213 

pying  nearly  a  week.  At  Albany  we  took  a  boat  on  the  Erie 
canal  for  Buffalo,  reaching  that  city  in  about  nine  days  ;  thence  by 
way  of  Lake  Erie,  on  the  steamboat  Daniel  Webster  to  Detroit. 
At  Detroit  we  made  a  contract  with  two  teamsters  to  take  us  the 
remainder  of  our  journey,  60  miles,  through  the  mud.  We  counted 
up  our  funds  and  found  we  could  foot  the  bill  and  have  50 
cents  left.  We  left  Detroit,  plodding  our  way,  when  not  stuck 
in  the  mud.  over  a  wild  and  horrible  road  to  Dexter,  being  then 
within  14  miles  of  our  new  home,  for  eight  miles  of  which  we 
were  blessed  with  an  Indian  trail  to  guide  us.  the  remainder  being 
trackless  marshes  and  lakes.  We  waded  about  50  rods  through 
a  lake,  and  this  seemed  close  akin  to  shipwreck,  and  my  mother 
and  sister  thought  that  if  this  was  Michigan  life  their  days  were 
numbered  ;  but  we  reached  the  shore  in  safety,  and  three  miles 
more  brought  us  up  in  front  of  our  new  log  house,  and  although 
without  paint  or  cornice,  and  having  a  chimney  of  sticks  plastered 
with  mud,  we  all  repaired  to  it  with  great  relief  from  a  long  and 
fatiguing  journey  of  three  weeks,  being  obliged  to  walk  most  of 
the  way  from  Detroit.  We  soon  discovered  that  several  hundred 
miles  lay  between  us  and  our  New  York  home,  and  to  return,  with 
but  50  cents  in  the  treasury,  was  impossible,  so  we  resolved  to 
submit  to  the  fortunes  of  the  pioneer  and  protect  our  scalps  from 
the  swarm  of  Indians  that  surrounded  us  as  best  we  could  ;  they 
were  so  numerous  we  felt  that  we  were  completely  in  their  power. 
When  our  goods  were  unpacked  and  the  rough  floor  was  cleaned 
my  mother  remarked  that  she  was  now  prepared  to  receive  com- 

THE    INDIAN     I-  K I  ENDS. 

After  a  hearty  laugh  over  the  remark,  sure  enough,  in  marched 
her  company  in  single  tile,  to  the  number  of  nine,  all  reel  men, 
squaws  and  pappooses  ;  this  was  a  stunner,  as  was  shown  by  the 
pale  face  of  my  mother,  who  soon  distributed  among  them  all  the 
cooked  provisions  she  had  in  the  house,  hoping  to  save  her  life 
thereby,  but  they  soon  departed  in  a  friendly  manner,  and  we 
found  it  a  great  convenience  to  have  such  friends,  for  they  often 
brought  us  venison  to  exchange  for  flour,  and  we  ever  found  them 
friendly  and  honorable  unless  influenced  by  whisky.  We  expe- 
rienced very  close  times  the  first  two  years,  and  one  year  our 
scanty  supply  of  provisions  gave  out  before  harvest  time,  and  we 
were  compelled  to  cut  the  unripe  wheat,  dry  it  in  the  sun,  thresh 
it  on  sheets,  fan  it  in  the  wind,  grind  it  in  the  coffee  mill  and  bolt 
it  through  crape,  and  this  flour  made  into  biscuits  we  partook  of 
with  a  relish  that  I  shall  never  forget.  As  we  were  14  miles 
from  post-office,  mill,  or  store,  it  required  three  days  to  make  the 
trip  with  an  ox  team,  so  that  the  bread  box  sometimes  got  lone- 
some before  the  new  grist  came  from  the  mill. 




The  howling  of  wolves  of  a  winter  evening  was  of  frequent  oc- 
currence, but  we  were  never  disturbed  by  them  or  any  other  wild 
animals  ;  the  worst  enemy  to  mankind  with  which  we  came  in  con- 
tact was  whisky  ;  some  of  our  nearest  neighbors  who  settled  about 
us  the  first  year  being  intemperate  men  who  sought  to  injure  every 
outspoken  temperance  man  ;  my  father,  being  of  the  latter  class, 
undertook  to  raise  a  barn  without  the  customary  aid  of  intoxicating 
liquors,  but  inviting  all  to  the  raising.  The  whisky  lovers  came 
with  bottles  of  whisky  of  their  own,  and  a  more  disgraceful  scene 
than  the  one  that  occurred  on  that  occasion  I  never  witnessed. 
After  furnishing  them  with  a  good  supper,  they  remained  till  a  late 
hour  drinking  and  carousing  ;  they  broke  our  dishes,  butchered 
the  dog,  tore  flown  all  the  outbuildings,  and  threatened  to  destroy 
the  barn  frame.  Nearly  all  of  these  rioters  have  dropped  into 
drunkards"  graves. 


Mr.  Shearer  was  in  the  county  i?>  years  ago,  and  stopped  at 
Ring's  tavern,  the  site  of  which  he  could  not  find  during  his  visit 
in  1877.  Then  he  could  see  the  whole  city  easily;  but  now  it  had 
been  built  up  so  that  he  could  not.  Forty-three  years  ago  he  set- 
tled in  Ingham  county,  in  the  town  he  himself  christened  Bunker 
Hill.  There  was  no  school-house  there,  none  in  Jackson,  and  none 
in  Flint,  so  he  went  to  Plymouth,  and  finding  one  there  located  in 
that  town,  and  has  lived  there  ever  since.  In  that  time  he  lost  his 
way  near  Lansing,  while  traveling  through  the  woods,  and  tell  in  with 
Coi.  Hughes  and  Maj.  Wilson,  who  were  in  the  same  predicament. 
They  wandered  together  looking  for  the  trail,  but  without  success. 
Their  provisions  ran  out  and  they  ate  elm  bark;  and  after  that 
failed  then  they  used  bass-wood  root  bark  as  a  substitute.  After  a 
time  they  fell  in  with  an  Indian  who  directed  them  to  a  house 
which  had  just  been  built,  eight  miles  or  so  from  Jacksonburgh. 
They  walked  along  and  at  last  saw  a  cow,  and  then  Mr.  Shearer 
exclaimed  to  his  companions,  "Glory  to  God!  we  have  reached 
the  pale  of  civilization." 

They  found  the  house  was  newly  built,  with  a  blanket  hung  up 
for  a  door.  They  were  delicate  about  putting  the  blanket  aside; 
so  they  knocked  on  the  logs,  and  a  beautiful  tittle  woman  showed 
her  face.  The  travelers  saw  there  no  floor,  but  on  the  shelf  they 
saw  johnny-cake  that  made  their  mouths  water.  They  told  her 
they' were 'hungry,  and  asked  for  food.  She  t"ld  them  they  might 
have  all  they  wanted,  and  she  supplied  them  with  bread  and  milk, 
and  kept  them  over  night.  When  they  went  away  next  day,  they 
left  her  four  silver  dollars.  Afterward,  he  learned,  she  told  a 
neighbor  that  they  were  angels,  and  that  money  never  was  so  good 
before,  as  they  were  entirely  out  of  it  at  the  time.  Her  name  was 
Mrs.  Tanner,  and  the  narrator  was  quite  affected  by  the  intelligence 
of  her  death. 



He  came  to  the  county  in  1839,  when  the  settlement  was  10 
years  old,  that  is  10  years  after  the  first  white  settler  located.  At 
that  time  the  county  was  not  organized,  but  was  a  township  of 
Washtenaw  county. 

W.  R.  De  Land  was  the  first  justice  of  the  peace,  and  his  juris- 
diction extended  all  over  the  county.  One  of  the  members  of  the 
tirst  grand  jury  that  sat  in  the  county  was  present  at  the  pioneer 
meeting  of  1877, — Chester  Wall,  of  Sandstone. 

After  Mr.  Livermore  came  to  Jacksonburgh,  he  was  admitted  to 
the  Bar,  and  the  next  year  was  appointed  to  take  the  census  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  county.  lie  rode  from  house  to  house  on  a  pony 
lent  him  by  old  Mr.  Shaw.  His  credit  had  improved;  the  year 
before  he  could  not  borrow  a  wheelbarrow.  The  animal  was  a 
stout  Indian  pony,  and  would  carry  a  man  over  a  bog  where  the 
man  could  not  walk. 

He  carried  with  him  a  large  portfolio  to  hold  blanks,  and  he 
used  it  as  a  desk;  he  would  sometimes  hear  the  remark  made 
that  he  had  to  carry  a  guide  board  to  tell  him  where  he  was;  while 
others  thought  he  was  a  picture  seller.  In  that  six  weeks  he 
earned  $400.  He  brought  it  from  Detroit  in  a  sachel.  The  stage 
was  full  of  men,  and  didn't  he  hold  tight  to  that  bag?  He  reached 
home  and  poured  it  out  on  the  bed,  and  how  proud  he  felt  as  he 
said  to  his  wife,  "  We  are  all  right  now."  There  was  enough  to 
carry  them  through  a  year. 

The  people  then  were  united,  full  of  good  feeling,  and  stood  by 
one  another. 

He  could  remember  when  there  were  not  well  people  enough  to 
take  care  of  the  sick,  but  now  this  is  the  healthiest  country  in  the 
nation.  He  related  a  number  of  incidents  in  his  early  life  here, 
and  told  a  story  of  Dr.  Buss.  One  Sunday  morning  on  getting 
up,  he  saw  smoke  rising  in  the  willows  on  the  river  bank  and 
walked  over  there.  He  found  two  men  named  Fox  and  Savacool 
dressing  a  hog  they  had  just  killed.  Stepping  up  and  examining 
the  animal,  he  accused  them  of  stealing  his  hog,  but  they  denied 
it.  He  began  talking  of  arrest  and  started  as  if  for  an  officer. 
The  men  admitted  that  they  stole  the  hog;  but  pleaded  in  exten- 
uation the  fact  that  they  were  out  of  meat.  After  talking  sharply 
to  them,  he  told  them  to  go  on,  and  when  they  had  finished  to  di- 
vide the  pork  in  four  parts, — one  they  were  to  take  to  Elder  Har- 
rison, one  to  his  house,  and  the  rest  they  might  keep.  The  point 
of  the  story  was  that  he  did  not  own  the  hog,  but  as  he  used  to 
tell  it,  he  was  out  of  meat  too. 


Prior  to  1835  several  families  had  settled  along  the  Territorial 
road  west  of  the  village,  to-wit:  Abel  Barrett,  John  Daniels  and 
sons,  Wm.   Shipman,   Osgood  Fifield,   John  Collar,  Westey  W. 


Laverty,  and  Jotham  Wood  and  sons;  and  along  the  river  north 
of  the'  village,  Edward  Morrill.  Nathaniel  Morrill,  Geo.  Fifleld, 
Enoch  Fifield,  Geo.  Woodworth,  Samuel  Woodworth,  Abner 
Pease,  Samuel  Wing,  Jerry  Marvin  and  John  McConnell;  on 
(iaiiMiii  street,  northeast  of  the  village,  Constant  McGuire  and 
sons,  and  Joseph  Darling  and  sons.  Merrills  Freeman  lived  on 
the  farm  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Henry  Daniels,  and  Jeffer- 
son Smith  lived  on  the  farm  which  he  sold  to  the  superintendents  of 
county  poor  for  Jackson  county  in  1S37,  ISO  acres  for  $3,500, 
Sl  !i.44  per  acre,  a  large  price  for  those  times.  Roads  took  the 
direction  that  was  most  convenient  to  the  farmer,  in  avoiding 
marshes  and  reaching  his  destination.  All  was  commons  except 
small  enclosures  about  the  dwellings.  Fire  had  kept  down  the 
undergrowth,  and  one  could  drive  as  he  pleased  through  forests  of 
stately  oaks,  blazing  a  tree  occasionally  to  ensure  a  safe  return. 

The  village  of  Barry  (Sandstone)  took  the  lead  of  Jacksonburgh 
in  business  and  enterprise.  But  the  building  of  the  old  water 
grist-mill  in  1836,  and  the  establishment  of  the  State's  prison  and 
building  of  the  court-house  in  1837  put  Jacksonburgh  ahead  and 
gave  Barry  a  set-back  from  which,  some  think,  it  will  never  re- 
cover. The  township  of  Jackson  was  six  by  twelve  miles  square, 
embracing  the  territory  now  constituting  the  townships  of  Summit 
and  Blackman  and  the  city  of  Jackson.  All  came  to  the  village  to 
vote,  and  an  election  was  quite  an  important  occasion;  where 
the  new  settler  could  meet  and  become  acquainted  with  the  older; 
where  neighbors  could  meet  and  talk  over  the  news  from  "  York 
State"  or  Vermont,  or  discuss  the  news  only  "seven  weeks  later  " 
from  Europe.  Neighbors!  The  word  seemed  to  imply  more  then 
than  now.  Then  it  meant  if  your  neighbor  was  sick,  or  behind- 
hand with  his  work  from  no  fault  of  his  own.  to  make  a  "bee  " 
and  husk  his  corn,  dig  his  potatoes,  get  up  his  winter's  wood,  or 
do  many  other  acts  of  kindness,  which  he  was  very  ready  to  re- 
ciprocate when  occasion  required.  It  was  considered  no  hardship 
to  go  four  or  five  miles  to  assist  at  a  neighbor's  raising,  or  to 
yoke  the  oxen  to  the  sled  and  take  wdfe  and  children  for  an  even- 
ing's visit.  Visit!  Yes,  that  is  the  word.  When  those  old 
motherly  ladies — " God  bless  them'' — got  together  for  a  visit  it 
meant  business  in  that  line.  No  gossiping  and  backbiting,  but 
generous,  heart  and  hand  friendliness,  while  the  click  of  knitting 
needles  kept  time  to  the  intellectual  feast.  It  may  not  be  amiss 
to  say  in  connection  with  this  subject,  that  the  ladies  of  that  period 
took  upon  themselves  their  full  share  of  the  burdens  of  pioneer 
life,  and  are  entitled  to  as  much  credit  as  their  husbands. 

The  pioneers  of  Jackson  were  intelligent,  honest  and  indus- 
trious— were  good  neighbors  and  good  citizens.  Very  few  are 
now  alive  to  meet  with  the  pioneers  of  Jackson  county;  but  many 
lived  to  see  remarkable  changes  and  to  be  proud  of  their  township 
and  the  city  which  now  bears  its  name. 

To  their  successors,  who  can  never  fully  realize  their  privations, 
but  who  now  enjoy  the  fruits  of  their  hardship  and  toil,   we  would 


say:  Endeavor  by  your  actions  to  show  the  survivors  that  you  ap- 
preciate their  character  and  worth ;  cheer  their  hearts  and  lighten 
the  burdens  of  their  declining  years,  and  you  will  have  nobly  per- 
formed your  part  in  life,  if  you  make  for  yourselves  as  good  a 
record  as  have  our  Jackson  pioneers. 


We  complete  the  history  of  the  early  settlement  of  Jackson 
enmity  by  quoting  further  from  Col.  Shoemaker,  as  follows: 


The  first  stock  Of  goods  offered  for  sale  was  brought  in  from  Ohio 
by  Mr.  Jesse  Baird  early  in  1830,  and  to  him  belongs  the  honor 
of  having  been  the  first  merchant  in  Jackson,   and  of  having  the 

sagacity  to  choose  for  his  enterprise  one  of  the  great  centers  ol 
trade  in  the  State.  Mr.  Baird  was  also  a  contractor  of  some  noto- 
riety, and  to  him  was  given  the  contract  for  building  the  race  on 
the  west  side  of  the  river,  for  the  saw-mill  which  was  being  built 
for  Messrs.  Bennett  and  Thompson. 

Mr.  George  B.  Cooper,  who  came  here  some  time  in  June,  was 
interested  with  Mr.  Baird,  and  while  engaged  about  the  pond  and 
race  received  more  than  he  had  contracted  for,  the  unusual  labor 
and  exposure  bringing  on  him  an  attack  of  lever  and  ague,  and  to 
him  belongs  the  unenviable  distinction  of  having  been  the  first  to 
acquire  that  disease  which  a  few  years  after  became  so  common  as 
to  be  in  the  care  and  keeping  of  almost  every  family  in  the  com- 
munity. Mr.  Cooper  had  also,  following  the  ague,  a  severe  attack 
of  bilious  fever,  which  came  near  closing  a  career  which  was  after- 
ward, for  so  many  years,  so  closely  ami  so  usefully  identified  with 
the  growth  and  prosperity  of  Jackson. 

Another  store,  with  a  miscellaneous  assortment  of  goods,  such 
as  are  usually  found  in  a  country  store,  and  supposed  to  contain 
any  and  every  article  a  customer  might  call  for,  was  opened  by 
Mr.  Hogan  in  the  house  of  William  ft.  DeLand,  on  the  corner  of 
Blackstone  and  Pearl  streets,  soon  after  that  of  Mr.  Baird.  The 
next  year,  in  1831,  Mr.  Hogan  built  and  occupied  as  a  store,  a 
frame  building  on  the  northeast  corner  of  the  public  square,  front- 
ing on  Jackson  street.  This  was  the  first  frame  building  erected 
in  Jacksonburgh. 

Mrs.  John  AVellman,  who  was  of  the  colony  of  1830,  was  the 
main  reliance  of  the  neighborhood  for  the  cutting  and  making  of 
the  clothes  of  men  and  boys,  where  that  could  not  be  done  in  their 
own  families.  Her  work  gave  such  satisfaction  that  there  was  no 
opposition  for  three  years,  and  she  successfully  plied  the  needle  in 
Jackson  for  over  35  years. 

The  first  carpenter  to  settle  in  Jacksonburgh  was  John  Wick- 
ham,  who  came  to  wTork  on  the  saw-mill  of  Bennett  and  Thompson, 
and  then  made  it  his  home.     A  tannerv  was  established  here  in 


1830  by  Major  D.  Mills  and  Christian  Prusia,  on  the  site  where 
Gavin's  brewery  was  afterward  built,  between  Pearl  and  Clinton 
streets,  near  the  old  gas  works  and  ashery.  This  enterprise  was 
in  advance  of  the  wants  of  the  settlement,  and  did  not  prove  a  suc- 
cess remuneratively.  It  was  abandoned  after  a  desperate  struggle 
of  two  years  or  more,  worthy  of  a  better  fate. 

Some  time  in  the  spring  or  summer  of  1830  Horace  Blackmail. 
Russell  Blackman,  William  R.  Thompson,  Isaiah  W.  Bennett  and 
Benjamin  H.  Packard  surveyed,  laid  out  and  platted  "A  plan  of 
the  village  of  Jacksonburgh,  by  Jonathan  F.  Stratton,  surveyor," 
and  caused  the  same  to  be  left  for  record  at  Ann  Arbor,  in  the  of- 
fice of  the  register  of  deeds  for  Washtenaw  county,  to  which  this 
county  was  attached  for  judicial  and  other  purposes — Jackson 
county  not  having  yet  been  organized. 

The  original  plat  was  lost,  and  no  record  made  of  it  in  that  of- 
fice. In  1842  a  copy,  verified  by  the  oath  of  Dr.  B.  II.  Packard, 
was  filed  for  record  in  the  office  of  the  register  of  deeds  for  Jack- 
son county.  This  document  can  be  found  on  page  COO  of  liber  10 
of  deeds. 

This  plat  includes  part  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  three, 
town  three  south  of  range  one  west,  and  part  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  thirty-four,  town  two  south  of  range  one  west. 
That  part  of  the  city  on  this  ground  is  built  on  lots  as  described  by 
this  plat,  except  that  the  public  square  at  the  junction  of  Main  and 
Jackson  streets  has  all  been  vacated  except  the  northwest  quarter, 
(in  front  of  the  Congregational  church),  and  is  now  occupied  by 
some  of  the  most  valuable  blocks  of  buildings  in -the  city.  Three 
blocks  of  stores  (the  best  in  the  city),  now  stand  on  the  front  of 
three-fourths  of  what  was  the  public  square  of  the  village  of  Jack- 


Oliver  Whitmore,  Bethuel  Farrand  and  Jonathan  F.  Stratton 
were  appointed  commissioners  ';to  designate  the  county-seat  ol 
the  county  of  Jackson."  In  their  report  made  March  30,  1830, 
they  say:  "A  territorial  road,  called  the  St.  Joseph's  road,  was  last 
winter  laid  directly  through  the  heart  of  the  Peninsula.  Where  this 
road  crosses  the  Grand  river,  about  70  miles  west  of  Detroit, 
a  flourishing  village  is  commenced,  and  the  proprietors  are  erect- 
ing mills.  The  road  was  opened  last  winter  as  far  west  as  Grand 
river  by  a  company  of  citizens  of  Ann  Arbor,  who,  together  with 
the  commissioners,  gave  the  village  the  name  of  Jacksonburgh. 
We  speak  confidently  when  we  say,  the  State  capital  will  be  at 
Jacksonburgh.  So  sanguine  were  we,  that  we  required  the  pro- 
prietors to  appropriate  10  acres  of  land  for  the  State-house  square. 
Upon  a  commanding  eminence  near  the  upper  part  of  this    village. 


at  a  point  sixty-two  degrees  six  chains  from  the  southwest  corner 
of  the  southeast  quarter  of  section  thirty-tour,  town  two  south  of 
range  one  west,  we  have  stuck  the  'stake  for  the  county-seat. 
The  proprietors  have  given  a  court-house  square,  a  public  square, 
four  meeting-house  squares  and  one  college  square." 

This  report  is  addressed  to  "Lewis  Cass,  Governor  ot  the  Terri- 
tory of  Michigan, "  and  signed  by  the  commissioners.  Gen.  Cass 
approved  their  finding,  and  issued  his  proclamation  declaring  the 
village  of  Jaeksonbmgh  to  be  the  county-seat  of  Jackson  county. 


<  hi  the  30th  of  July,  1830,  "An  act  to  incorporate  tin-  township 
of  Jacksonopolis,"  passed  by  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Terri- 
tory, was  approved  by  the  Governor.  By  a  subsequent  act,  ap- 
proved Feb.  is,  1831,  the  name  was  changed  to  Jacksonburgh. 
This  township,  in  the  language  of  the  act,  embraced  "all  thatpartof 
the  country  being  within  the  limits  of  the  county  <  >f  -I ackson."  The 
township  and  county  were  one  in  extent  until  1833,  when  the  county 
was  divided  into  four  townships — Jacksonburgh,  Spring  Arboi1, 
Napoleon  and  Grass  Lake. 

Section  2  of  the  act  of  July  30,  1830,  provides  "that  the  first 
township  meeting  to  be  held  in  said  township  shall  be  held  at  the 
dwelling-house  of  I.  W.  Bennett,  in  said  township,  on  the  third 
Tuesday  of  August,  1830." 

Section  '.',  provides  that  the  officers  elected  "  at  said  special  town- 
ship  meeting  shall  not  hold  their  offices  longer  than  the  first  Mon- 
day in  April,  1831." 

William  R.  De  Land  was  the  first  justice  of  the  peace,  he  having 
been  selected  for  that  office  at  a  public  meeting  held  in  October, 
1830,  his  commission  bearing  date  the  8th  of  February,  1831, 
signed  by  Lewis  (  ass  as  governor,  and  attested  by  John  S".  Mason 
as  secretary  of  the  Territory.  Horace  Blackmail  was  the  first  con- 
stable, he  having  been  specially  appointed  by  Justice  De  Land. 
They  were  officers  for  Washtenaw  county,  as  Jackson  county  was 
not  yet  organized. 


Isaiah  W.  Bennett  was  the  first  postmaster.  The  mails  came 
from  Detroit  once  a  week.  On  their  arrival  those  for  Jackson- 
opolis were  sorted  out  ami  placed  by  Mr.  Bennett  in  a  basket, 
there  to  remain  until  called  for.  When  a  letter  arrived  the  news 
was  at  once  spread  through  the  settlements  that  so-and-so  had  on 
such  a  day  a  letter  from  home,  and  its  contents  soon  became  public 
property.  It  was  so.  at  least,  to  all  who  came  from  the  same 

The  postoffiee  was  first  kept  in  the  log-house  of  Mr.  Bennett, 
which  stood  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street,  and  on  the  east  side 
of  the  public  square.     In  1834  Mr.  Daniel  Coleman  succeeded  Mr. 


Bennett  as  postmaster,  and  held  the  office  until  his  death  in  1836, 
when  George  B.  Cooper  was  appointed.     Mr.  Cooper  continued  to 

hold  the  office  until  his  resignation  in  lS4fi. 

FOURTH  OF  JULY,   1830. 

There  was  one  occurrence  of  the  year  1830  which  cannot  be  al- 
lowed to  sink  in  the  waters  of  oblivion,  and  that  is  the  celebration 
of  the  Fourth  of  July,  for  this  proves  at  how  early  a  day  the  fires  of 
patriotism  were  kindled  in  the  breasts  of  the  citizens  of  tins  place, 
which  have  always  glowed  so  fervently  since. 

In  this  first  effort  Ann  Arbor  kindly  came  to  our  assistance. 
Mr.  Isaiah  W.  Bennett  had  invited  several  of  his  friends  living  at 
Ann  Arbor  to  visit  him  at  his  new  location  on  Grand  river,  and 
judge  for  themselves  of  its  importance.  They  determined  to  do  so 
on  Hie  Fourth  of  July,  and  our  enterprising  settlers  determined 
to  make  their  visit  memorable  by  uniting  to  celebrate  their  visit 
and  our  nation's  birthday  at  the  same  time.  Having  timely  notice, 
a  committee  of  arrangements  was  appointed,  consisting  of  Mr. 
"William  R.  De  Land,  Hiram  Thompson  and  Anson  Brown.  About 
30  of  the  citizens  of  Ann  Arbor  arrived  on  the  evening  of  July 
3,  and  were  hospitably  received.  They  came  in  with  Hying  ban- 
ners, marshaled  by  Mr.  Anson  Brown  of  the  -'Committee  of  Ar- 
rangements." Among  those  in  Lis  train  were  Dr.  Benjamin  II. 
Packard,  George  Corselius,  Colonel  Jewett,  Messrs.  Ramsdell. 
Maynard,  Allen,  Clark,  Dix,  Wilcoxson,  Cyrus  Lovell,  Messrs. 
Dix  and  Track,  of  Dixboro,  and  two  young  ladies,  who  came  the 
entire  distance,  live  miles  east  of  Ann  Arbor,  on  horseback,  and 
others  whose  names  are  now  lost,  and  thereby  dropped  from  the 
roll  of  fame. 

A  national  salute  was  tired  at  sunrise.  The  ordnance  used  for 
that  purpose  was  the  anvil  of  Jbsephus  Case,  accompanied  by  all 
the  rifles  and  muskets  on  the  ground,  and  these  were  as  many  as 
there  were  men  and  boys  capable  of  handling  tire-arms;  for  at  'that 
day  all  had  arms  of  some  kind,  and  knew  how  to  use  them.  Cap- 
tain A.  Laverty  was  master  of  ordnance,  and  made  it  lively  for  the 
boys.  What  with  the  anvil,  shooting  at  a  mark,  and  miscellaneous 
firing,  there  was  kept  up  during  the  day  a  lively  fusillade. 

The  order  of  proceedings  was  regular.  The  president  of  the  day 
was  Isaiah  W.  Bennett,  Esq.,  assisted  by  Hiram  Thompson,  who 
discharged  their  duties  in  a  manner  satisfactory  to  all.  Mr.  George 
Mayo  read  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  and  all  agreed  that  it 
was  well  done.  An  able  and  interesting  oration,  appropriate  to 
the  time  and  place,  was  delivered  by  Gideon  Wilcoxson,  Esq.,  of 
Ann  Arbor.  Mr.  John  Durand  was  chaplain  of  the  day;  though 
not  a  minister  of  the  gospel.  Mr.  Durand  was  a  strict  and  conscien- 
tious member  of  the  Methodist  Church,  and  was  known  to  be  strong 
in  prayer,  lie  opened  the  services  on  the  hill,  before  the  delivery 
of  the  oration,  with  prayer,  and  his  fervent  manner  and  evident 
sincerity  caused  his  words,  which  were  fitly  spoken,  to  be  very 


Mr.  Horace  Blackman  was  marshal  of  the  day,  and  Lieutenant 
Edward  Clark,  of  Ann  Arbor,  was  assistant  marshal.  The  manner 
in  which  the  exercises  were  conducted,  under  their  masterly  order- 
ing, excited  the  admiration  of  every  Pottawatomie  who  was  so 
fortunate  as  to  witness  the  procession,  which,  forming  on  the 
public  square,  marched  to  the  brow  of  the  hill  near  the  south  end 
of  Jackson  street,  where  the  oration  was  delivered. 

The  festivities  of  the  day  closed  with  a  dinner  prepared  by  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Terry,  who  then  kept  the  Bennett  tavern,  and  was 
sen  I'd  in  a  bower  built  for  that  purpose  south  of  the  tavern.  Tradi- 
tion has  tailed  to  hand  down  to  us  the  "bill  of  fare"  of  the  good  things 
with  which  the  table  was  loaded  on  that  occasion;  neither  have  the 
toasts  given,  nor  the  responses  made  thereto,  been  handed  down 
to  us;  hut  we  are  assured  that  a  happier  set  of  people,  or  a  "jollier 
lot  of  fellows"  never  met  at  the  festive  board.  ( Iver  80  persons, 
all  that  could  at  one  time  be  accommodated,  sat  down  at  the  first 
table,  and  there  was  in  attendance  at  this  celebration  every  white 
person  at  that  time  within  the  limits  of  the  county,  and  a  large 
proportion  of  the  Indians.  Tin-  latter  joined  most  heartily  in  the 
celebration,  although  they  did  not  understand  exactly  why  they 
did  so,  or  what  it  was  for. 


From  20  to  30  buildings  were  erected  in  the  summer  and  fall  of 
1830,  and  settlements  were  made  in  the  vicinity  in  several  direc- 
tions. Farms  were  beginning  to  be  opened  up  and  cultivated. 
Some  corn  and  other  crops  wen-  raised,  so  that  in  the  winter  of 
1830'31  the  pioneers  had  not  to  depend  entirely  upon  having  the 
means  of  livelihood  brought  from  abroad. 

The  first  land  cultivated  in  the  county  was  by  the  Blackmails, 
on  their  purchase  on  the  old  Indian  corn-field  lying  between 
Blackman  creek  and  Ganson  street.  In  the  fall  there  were  several 
fields  sown  to  winter  wheat. 

Our  hardy  settlers  were  industriously  working  to  provide  for 
their  future  wants,  and  particularly  to  save  themselves  from  the 
long  and  fatiguing  trips  they  were  now  obliged  to  make  to  Wash- 
tenaw county  for  their  seed  and  bread.  The  little  colonies  in 
Jackson  county  could  get  no  seed  wheat  or  other  grain  at  a  less 
distance  than  Mill  creek,  and  no  wheat  or  other  grain  ground 
nearer  than    the  mills  on  the  same  stream,  at  what  is  now  Dexter. 

The  crops  raised  this  year,  and  the  wheat  harvested  from  this 
fall's  sowing — the  yield  from  which  was  very  gratifying — were  of 
great  benefit  to  the  little  settlement.  For  hay  they  found  a  ready, 
abundant  and  excellent  supply  in  the  grasses  on  the  marshes, 
which  were  on  the  borders  of  all  the  streams  and  lakes  in  the 
county.  This  was  a  most  favorable  circumstance  for  the  pioneer, 
as  it  enabled  him  to  feed  his  teams  and  winter  his  stock,  it  he  was 
so  fortunate  as  to  have  any,  at  an  expense  much  less  than  he 
could  otherwise  have  done.       Mr.   Blackman   and   his   associates 


cut  and  secured  over  80  tons  of  this  hay  the  first  summer  they 
spent,  in  their  new  homes. 

The  settlements  after  the  first  summer  became  in  a  great 
measure  self-supplying,  so  far  as  they  depended  upon  agricultural 
products,  but  for  long  years  were  under  the  necessity  of  taking 
those  tedious  and  unprofitable  trips  to  the  grist-mill' at  Dexter, 
which  took  up  so  much  of  their  valuable  time  and  was  so  exhaust- 
ing to  their  scant  stock  of  ready  money. 


The  most  of  the  teams  owned  by  the  pioneers  were  composed  of 
oxen,  as  they  were  much  the  most  serviceable  in  the  clearing  of 
the  land  necessary  for  improvements  of  any  kind,  and  particularly 
in  logging,  in  plowing  among  and  removing  stumps,  and  in  build- 
ing the  log  and  brush  heaps  preparatory  to  burning  after  the  tim- 
ber had  been  cut  down.  They  were  also  much  better  adapted 
than  any  other  teams  to  the  state  of  the  roads,  or  rather  to  the  en- 
tire want  of  any  other  road  than  the  tracks  made  by  those  who 
had  "  gone  before  "  on  the  same  route,  with  no  bridges  across  the 
streams,  and  no  causeways  across  the  marshes,  with  no  more  cer- 
tain guide  from  point  to  point  than  the  blazes  made  on  the  trees  to 
designate  the  route.  With  these  teams  our  patient,  frugal  and  in- 
dustrious pioneers  were  obliged  to  go  from  20  to  30  miles  for 
most  of  their  provisions  the  first  year,    and  for  six  years    t<  <  get 

rund  their  little  grists  of  wheat,  corn  or  buckwheat.     Mr.  John 
Durand  informs  me  that  it  always  took  him  three  days  with  his 
ox  team  to  make  the  trip  to  the  mills  at  Dexter. 

The  first  orchard  set  out  in  the  county  was  planted  by  Mi-.  A.  W. 
Daniels,  on  his  farm  adjoining  the  now  City  of  Jackson.  Mr. 
Daniels,  in  September,  1830.  came  in  and  built  a  log  house  on  his 
farm,  on  which  he  is  now  living.  He  brought  witli  him  a  yoke  of 
cattle  and  a  wagon  loaded  with  provisions  and  farming  implements. 
The  trees  for  this  orchard  were  sent  him  by  his  father.  Mr.  John 
Daniels,  who  had  been  here  in  1829. 

When  returning  with  his  ox  team  from  Detroit  with  his  load  of 
trees,  his  wagon  got  stuck  in  the  low  wet  ground  at  the  ford. at  the 
crossing  of  Grand  river  at  this  place,  and  he  was  obliged  to  leave 
it  until  the  next  day,  when  he  procured  sufficient  assistance  to  en- 
able him  to  get  it  out  of  the  quagmire. 


TheTirst  winter,  that  of  L830-31,  was  the  most  trying  of  any 
our  little  settlement  of  Jacksonburgh  had  to  endure.  Food  was 
scarce  and  prices  high.  There  was  but  little  money  to  spend 
among  our  settlers  after  they  had  paid  for  their  lands,  bought  their 
teams  and  stock,  built  their  log  houses,  and  made  such  improve- 
ments as  the  scant  time  left  after  this  was  accomplished  would 
allow.      It  was  here  that    srreat    benefit  was  derived    from  our  red 


brethren.  Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  white  man  was  dis- 
possessing them  of  their  houses,  their  inheritance  and  their  country, 
and  that  they  were  being  exterminated  by  their  Christian  brethren, 
they  in  the  innocence  of  their  hearts  acted  toward  the  suffering 
white  settlers,  the  part  of  the  good  Samaritan.  The  supplies  of 
venison,  game,  maple  sugar,  berries  and  fish  furnished  .by  "Poor 
Lo"  were  of  the  last  importance  to  our  pioneers  during  the  long 
winter  and  the  first  of  spring.  No  more  welcome  sight  was  looked 
for  than  to  see  a  string  of  Indians  approaching  single  tile  with  a 
lot  of  venison  or  wild  turkeys  hanging  across  their  ponies,  for  this 
not  only  insured  a  replenishment  ofthe  stock  of  provisions,  but 
also  that  it  was  to  be  done  on  very  favorable  terms,  for  of  all 
classes  of  men  the  Indian  has  the  least  and  poorest  ideas  of  values, 
and  our  sharp,  shrewd  first  settlers  from  New  York  and  New  Eng- 
land were  not  very  scrupulous  in  their  dealings  with  those  upon 
whose  goodwill  they  were  so  dependent.  All  kinds  of  provisions 
had  become  extremely  scarce,  and  prices  correspondingly  high. 
Potatoes  sold  for  twenty-five  cents  each. 

Some  hogs  brought'  into  the  neighborhood  had  got  into  the 
woods  and  ran  wild.  They  were  not  pleasant  objects  to  meet  if 
without  firearms,  and  were  really  more  dangerous  than  the  wolves, 
bears,  or  any  other  ofthe  wild  beasts  of  our  forests.  They,  how- 
ever, at  this  juncture,  served  a  good  turn,  as  in  the  vicinity  of 
.lacksonburgh.  always  since  skilled  for  her  sharpshooters,  they 
were  systematically  hunted,  and  salted  down  when  there  was 
enough  ofthe  pork  to  justify  that  process.  There  was  plenty  of  shack 
in  the  woods,  the  hogs  were  not  very  plenty,  so  that  they  were 
generally  in  very  good  condition  for  the  pot,  to  which  they  were 
as  welcome  as  flowers  in  May. 

No  pork  or  potatoes  could"  be  bought  nearer  than  Plymouth,  in 
Wayne  county,  where  those  who  were  obliged  to  buy  had  to  go, 
the  trip  taking  up  the  better  part  of.  if  not  an  entire  week. 

What  with  the  Indians,  wild  hogs,  and  such  other  Bcant  resour- 
ces as  they  could  command,  our  little  community  passed  safely,  if 
not  comfortably,  through  the  winter,  and  though  they  were  sub- 
jected to  many'  trials  and  suffered  many  hardships,  yet  they  did 
not  despond,  but  hailed  the  advent  of  spring  as  bringing  with  it 
not  only  a  release  from  the  cold  and  discomforts  of  winter,  but 
also  the  genial  warmth  ofthe  spring-time,  which  enabled  them  to 
prepare  the  ground  for  the  seed-time,  and  gave  them  the  hope  ofa 
harvest  which  would,  in  a  great  measure,  render  them  independ- 
ent of  other  sources  of  supply. 

During  the  winter  the  hardy  and  industrious  ax  men  had 
chopped,  logged,  piled  and  burnt  the  brush  on  such  fields  as  they 
intended  to  cultivate  for  spring  crops.  Frequently  the.  brush-heap 
was  the  work  ofthe  women"  and  children,  so  ready  were  all  to 
help  to  get  the  homestead  improved,  and  to  aid  in  preparing  for 
the  expected  crop.  v 


Indians,  fleas,  wolves  and  bears  were  all  so  numerous  as  to  be 
somewhat  troublesome.  The  Indians  and  sand-hills  were  equally 
covered,  if  not  filled,  with  fleas,  and  the  latter  added  not  a  little  t<  > 
the  annoyance  and  discomfort  of  our  first  settlers. 

The  bears  and  wolves  were  also  the  cause  of  much  annoyance. 
They  would  prowl  around  the  dwellings  in  the  night  time,  and 
most  of  the  housewives  of  those  days  insisted  that  they  had  seen 
them  at  their  windows  peering  in  with  ferocious  looks,  as  if  they 
were  desirous  of  gratifying  their  appetite  at  the  expense  of  some 
of  the  smaller  or  weaker  members  of  the  family.  We  have  no  rec- 
ord that  any  such  deplorable  event  occurred,  though  many  hair- 
breadth escapes  are  related  of  women  and  children  in  passing  after 
dark  from  house  to  house. 

We  have  now  passed  the  year  1830,  the  first  year  of  our  infant 
settlement,  and  shall  proceed  more  rapidly,  as  did  the  growth  of 
the  village.  The  first  year  is  essentially  the  year  of  the  pioneer, 
and  deserves  to  be  treated  more  particularly  and  more  at  length 
than  any  other.  No  incident  is  too  trivial  or  too  unimportant  to 
narrate,  if  it  in  any  manner  illustrates  the  ways,  manners  or 
mode  of  living  of  those  who  first  made  their  homes  in  the  wilder- 
ness, for  such  at  that  time  was  almost  the  entire  of  the  interior  of 

The  first  quarterly  meeting  held  in  Jacksonburgh  by  the  Epis- 
copal Methodist  Church  was  on  the  14th  and  15th  of  April,  1832, 
and  met  in  the  new  log  house  of  Bennett  and  Thompson,  the  sec- 
ond house  built  in  the  place.  At  this  pioneer  meeting  there  was 
made  a  pioneer  convert  who  made  a  confession  of  faith,  and  was 
received  into  the  bosom  of  the  Church. 

Soon  after  the  conference  adjourned,  the  Rev.  Joseph  H.  Smith, 
of  the  same  Church,  came  herefrom  Canada,  and  established  a 
Sabbath-school  and  Bible  class;  but  in  1832  both  were  discontinued, 
owing,  as  some  said,  to  the  Black  Hawk  war.  and  others  to  the 
sickness  in  the  settlement. 


Ill  the  spring  of  1831,  Dr.  Oliver  Russ  built  a  log  house  on  the 
east  side  of  the  river  and  on  the  north  side  of  Ganson  street,  for 
his  brother,  Mr.  Nathan  Russ,  who  came  here  with  his  family  that 

As  illustrating  the  state  of  the  streets,  or  rather  the  want  ot 
them,  and  also  the  energy  and  determination  of  Dr.  Russ,  the  fact 
may  be  stated  that  the  boards  for  the  doors  and  casings  of  this 
house  were  carried  by  the  Doctor  on  his  back  from  Bennett's  saw- 
mill, over  a  mile  in  distance,  crossing  the  river  on  the  log  bridge 
at  Main  street.  The  memory  of  Dr.  Oliver  Russ  is  highly  treas- 
ured by  all  the  old  citizens  of  Jackson.  Xo  man  has  left  behind 
him  more    pleasing    recollections,  for  he  was  one    of  that  original 

HISTORY    OF    .1  Ac  Km  >N    COUNTY.  225 

type  of  men  who  invested  the  veriest  trifles  with  interest  by  his 
manner  of  treating  them.  He  was  brusque  but  very  kind-hearted 
and  but  few  men  lived  in  Jacksi  >n  who  would  put  themselves 
to  as  much  trouble  and  inconvenience  to  perform  an  act  of  real 
charity.  Of  this  he  gave  a  remarkable  proof  by  going  to,  and  re- 
turning from  Marshall  on  foot  in  1832.  where  there  were  several 
cases  of  cholera.  His  professional  services  being  necessary,  he, 
without  hesitation,  set  out  on  foot  to  traverse  the  then  thinly  set- 
tled country,  alive  only  to  the  sense  of  duty,  and  without  thought 
of  anything  but  to  do  it.  The  question  of  compensation  was  never 
allowed  to  interfere  with  his  actions  in  the  practice  of  his  profes- 

The  county  ol  Jackson  and  township  of  Jacksonburgh  were  at- 
tached to  "Washtenaw  county  for  judicial  purposes.  The  first  town- 
ship meeting  for  the  election  of  officers  was  appointed  to  be  held 
at  the  house  of  Wm.  R.  Thompson,  on  the  4th  of  April,  1831. 
Each  officer  was  to  be  voted  for  by  ballot  until  a  choice  was  made, 
and  then  the  next  in  rotation,  until  all  were  in  this  manner  elected. 
LTnder  the  territorial  laws,  the  meeting  was  called  to  order  on  the 
morning  of  the  4th  day  of  April,  by  Win.  R.  DeLand,  Esq.,  acting 
in  his  capacity  as  justice  of  the  peace,  and  then  proceeded  to  elect 
Alexander  Laverty  moderator,  and  Hiram  Thompson  clerk,  who, 
having  taken  and  subscribed  the  necessary  oath  of  office,  constituted 
the  necessary  board  of  election.  Proclamation  was  then  made  that 
notice  of  said  election  had  been  duly  given,  and  that  the  polls  of 
the  election  were  then  open  for  the  reception  of  ballots.  The  office 
of  supervisor  was  the  first  in  order,  and  there  were  31  votes  cast. 
Here  we  have  in  township  and  county,  which  in  extent  are  one,  31 
votes  cast  at  an  election  which  was  likely  to  call  out  every  voter. 

After  the  election  there  were  adopted  by  the  meeting  some  munic- 
ipal by-laws,  which  had  been  prepared,  for  paying  bounty  on  wolf 
scalps,  and  for  the  regulation  of  cattle  running  at  large,  after  which 
the  meeting  adjourned,  well  satisfied  with  now  having  a  local  gov- 
ernment of  their  own. 

The  common  council  of  the  city  of  Jackson  are  not  in  such  fear 
of  wolves  as  to  cause  them  to  offer  rewards  for  their  scalps,  but 
with  them  there  is  no  more  troublesome  question  than  that  of  re- 
straining cattle  from  running  at  large  in  the  streets,  and  when  the 
average  alderman  votes  on  the  question,  he  is  inclined  to  vote  for 
the  largest  liberty,  having  in  his  mind  the  otherwise  indignant 
voter  who  at  the  next  election  would  most  likely  go  for  his  political 
scalp,  if  he  did  not  even  value  it  sufficiently  to  offer  a  reward  for  it, 
as  did  our  worthy  pioneers  for  that  of  the  wolf. 

Of  the  township  officers  the  most  onerous  duties  fell  tipon  the 
road  commissioners,  as  the  territorial  road  was  the  only  laid  out 
and  surveyed  road  in  the  township.      All  the  work  heretofore  done 

226  HISTORY    OF    JACKS" 'X    COUNTY. 

had  been  voluntary,  and  generally  only  such  as  to  prevent  the  worst 
places  from  becoming  impassable. 

Mr.  John  T.  Durand  surveyed  a  road  which  was  laid  out  leading 
from  Jackson  to  Spring  Arbor,  and  this  was  the  first  road  estab- 
lished by  the  townshi] >  authorities.  The  services  of  Mr.  Durand, 
who  was  a  practical  surveyor,  were  now  in  frequent  requisition,  and 
under  his  supervision  the  following  roads  were  laid  out  and  estab- 
lished: Blackmail's,  Buss,  Durand,  Austin,  Woodworth,  Vallen- 
tine's,  Washtenaw,  and  10  miles,  52.40  chains  of  the  Jacksonburgh 
and  Clinton  road. 

In  1831  W.  R.  Thompson  and  I.  W.  Bennett  divided  their  real 
estate,  Bennett  taking  the  east  and  Thompson  part  of  the  village 
property.  This  gave  Bennett  the  saw-mill  and  water-power,  one- 
half  of  which  he  sold  to  Jeremiah  Marvin  in  February,  1832,  and 
soon  after  the  other  half  was  sold  to  Rodney  House. 

Mr.  Marvin  came  to  Jacksonburgh  in  the  fall  of  1831  with  two 
yoke  of  cattle,  wagon,  bed  and  cross-cut  saw.  lie  came  from  Mon- 
roe, and  had  to  cut  a  road  for  his  wagon  through  the  Saline  woods. 
His  trip  from  the  "mouth  of  the  Raisin"  to  Jacksonburgh  was  a 
most  tedious  and  laborious  one.  Mr.  Marvin  commenced  running 
the  saw-mill  soon  after  his  arrival  here,  and  "  Jerry  Marvin's  mill," 
being  the  only  one  west  of  Mill  creek  in  Washtenaw  county,  became 
widely  and  favorably  known  in  all  the  adjacent  settlements. 

In  the  summer  ot  1832  Mr.  Marvin  bought  of  Mr.  House  his 
interest  in  the  property,  and  continued  sole  owner  and  manager 
until  1835,  when  he  sold  his  mill  and  water-power  to  William  and 
Jerry  Ford.  Since  this  time  Mr.  Marvin  has  been  engaged  in 
farming.  A  portion  of  his  farm  is  within  the  city  limits,  and  he  is 
now  living  on  it,  working  with  the  same  energy  and  untiring  in- 
dustry as  47  years  ago  when  turning  out  lumber  for  the 
first  settlers  in  the  county  to  make  themselves  homes.  There  was 
also  a  saw-mill  built  by  Mr.  Ketchum  in  1832,  on  the  east  side  of 
the  river,  nearly  opposite  Marvin's  mill. 

schools,  ETC. 

The  first  school  taught  in  Jackson  was  a  private  one,  kept  in  the 
house  of  Lemuel  Blackmail,  taught  in  the  summer  of  1831  by  his 
daughter,  Miss  Silence  D.  Blackman,  principally  for  the  instruction 
of  her  brothers,  but  open,  as  a  matter  of  course,  after  the  generous 
fashion  of  those  days,  to  all  the  children  in  the  settlement.  Be- 
sides her  brothers  Levi,  Francis  and  George  Blackman,  there  were 
Harvey  and  Emma  Thompson,  children  of  William  R.  Thompson, 
Sarah  Thompson,  daughter  of  Hiram  Thompson,  Mary  Ann 
Semantha  De  Land,  daughter  of  Win.  R.  De  Land,  and  a  son  of 
Josephus  Case. 

The  teaching  of  Miss  Blackman  gave  universal  satisfaction,  and 
it  was  a  source  of  much  congratulation  that  the  infant  settlement 
should  so  soon  have  a  good  school.  Miss  Blackman  was  persuaded 
to  continue  her  school  the  next  year,  when  she  had  an  additional 


number  of  scholars,  the  school  being  kept  in  the  house  of  Mr.  E. 
B.  Chapman,  and  afterward  in  a  building  that  had  been  occupied 
as  a  store.  There  were  about  30  scholars  in  attendance  at  the  close 
of  the  third  term  of  her  school.  This  was  the  pioneer  school  for 
•Jackson  city  and  county. 

Lemuel  Wbolsey,  a  chair-maker  and  turner,  settled  here  in  1831, 
established  himself  in  that  business,  and  about  the  same  time 
Samuel  Kline  made  a  welcome  addition  to  the  business  of  the  settle- 
ment by  opening  a  cabinet  shop.  This  business  was  afterward 
conducted  by  John  Penson,  who  had  become  a  resident,  but 
was  more  permanently  established  by  Myron  Collamer  in  1834, 
who  extended  the  business  quite  largely,  and  continued  in  it  for 
over  35  years.  A  wagon  and  general  repairing  shop  was  opened 
by  Mr.  Hiram  Godfrey  in  1831.  The  first  public  school  was  estab- 
lished in  the  fall  of  1832,  on  lot  11,  block  1  south,  range  1  east,  on 
Main  street.  A  boot  and  shoe  store  was  established  here  in  1831 
by  William  D.  Thompson. 

In  the  springof  1831,  William  D.  Thompson,  a  lad  of  12  years 
of  age,  son  of  William  R.  Thompson,  was  killed  by  being  struck 
with  a  limb  of  a  tree  which  was  chopped  down  on  the  grounds  near 
the  Blackmail  House.  This  was  the  iirst  death,  and  that  fact, 
coupled  with  the  manner  of  it,  and  the  narrow  escape  of  several 
others  who  were  standing  near  him,  caused  it  to  cast  a  more  than 
ordinary  gloom  over  the  little  settlement. 

There  being  then  no  minister  of  the  gospel  in  the  county, 
the  funeral  services  were  conducted  by  Mr.  Samuel  Roberts,  an 
exhorter  and  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Church,  living  in  Sand- 
stone, some  four  miles  west  of  Jackson. 

James  Valentine  was  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  in  Jacksonburgh. 
He  was  chosen  a  school  inspector  at  an  election  held  April  4,  1831, 
and  was  the  first  judge  of  probate  elected  in  the  county,  serving 
from  1833  to  1836. 

William  D.  Thompson  came  to  Jackson  in  1831.  In  the  fall  of 
1831  he  opened  a  boot  and  shoe  store,  the  first  of  the  kind  in 
Jacksonburgh.  In  1834  he  built  and  occupied  a  store  on  the  south 
side  of  Main  street,  just  east  of  the  public  square.  In  1838  he 
sold  his  stock  in  trade  to  Walter  Fish,  and  entered  into  partner- 
ship with  George  B.  Cooper,  who  was  doing  a  general  mercantile 
business.  He  was  elected  county  clerk,  and  served  for  the  years 
1836-'7.     He  was  one  of  the  School  Board  in  1837. 

In  1841,  upon  the  completion  of  the  Michigan  Central  railroad 
to  Jackson,  Mr.  Thompson  was  appointed  freight  agent,  and  con- 
tinued on  the  road  for  a  period  of  ten  years. 

In  1851  he  became  a  partner  of  George  B.  Cooper  in  the  bank- 
ing business,  and  as  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Cooper  &  Thompson, 
and  Cooper,  Thompson  &  Co.,  and  as  president  of  the  Jackson 
City  Bank;  he  has,  up  to  the  present  time,  been  the  leading  banker 


in  Jackson.     Mr.  Thompson  is  now  understood  to  be  the  sole  pro- 

Jrietor  of  the  Jackson  City  Bank.     He  is  also  treasurer  of  the 
ackson,  Lansing  &  Saginaw   railroad,  and  has  acted  in  that  ca- 
pacity since  the  organization  of  the  company. 

In  1831  Amasa  B.  Gibson,  Esq..  settled  in  that  part  <>f  the  town- 
ship of  Jacksonburgh  now  in  Spring  Arbor.  In  1834  Mr.  Gibson 
removed  with  his  family  to  the  village  of  Jacksonburgh,  and  asso- 
ciated himself  with  Daniel  Coleman  and  George  B.  Cooper  in  the 
mercantile  business,  which  at  that  time  meant  a  general  stock 
of  goods,  comprising  groceries,  dry -goods,  hardware,  crockery. 
all  kinds  of  country  produce,  and  every  other  conceivable  article 
which  an  Indian  or  inhabitant  of  either  village  or  county  would  be 
expected  to  call  for.  There  was  at  this  time  but  one  other  store  in 
the  village,  that  of  Messrs.  Dwight,  which  was  of  the  same  gen- 
eral character. 

From  this  time  to  the  day  of  his  death  Mr.  Gibson  was  one  of 
the  most  active  and  most  highly  esteemed  citizens  of  Jackson,  till- 
ing many  offices  of  public  trust,  and  always  with  credit  to  himself 
and  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  his  constituents.  He  was  sheriff 
of  the  county  from  1835  to  1838,  and  in  ls:'>7  was  also  superintend- 
ent, having  charge  of  the  building  of  the  court-house  and  clerk's 
office,  the  construction  of  which  was  commenced  this  year.  In 
1838,  Mr.  Gibson  was  cashier  of  the  Detroit  &  St.  Joseph  Eailroad 
Bank,  which  was  located  on  the  east  Bide  of  the  river.  After  Jack- 
son had  attained  sufficient  importance  to  have  a  city  organization. 
Mr.  Gibson  was  three  times  elected  mayor,  and  is  the  only  person 
who  has  been  so  honored  in  our  twenty  years'  existence  as  a  city. 

In  1831,  a  Government  contract  was  let  for  carrying  the  mails  for 
three  years  west  from  Jackson  to  Marshall,  Gull  Prairie,  Prairie 
Ronde  and  White  Pigeon,  there  to  connect  with  the  Western  mail 
on  what  was  then  known  as  the  Chicago  road.  This  mail  was  to 
be  carried  once  a  week,  on  foot  or  on  horseback,  as  the  state  of  the 
streams  and  want  of  roads  made  it  most  convenient  for  the  con- 
tractor. The  size  of  the  mail  at  first  was  not  such  as  to 
prevent  him  from  carrying  it  in  his  hat  or  pockets,  and  it  was 
usual  for  the  mail-carrier  to  deliver  letters  to  settlers  on  the  route 
when  they  were  at  a  distance  from  the  postoffice,  without  subject- 
ing them  to  the  delay  and  loss  of  time  which  would  have  followed 
had  they  been  passed  through  that  intermediary. 

( )ur  hardy  pioneers  were  more  wedded  to  the  substance  than 
the  form,  and  made  even  the  laws,  rules  and  regulations  of  the 
postoffice  department  (ordinarly  so  inexorable),  lose  somewhat  of 
their  inflexibility  for  their  necessities. 

This  mail  was  carried  by  Mr.  Darling,  who  lived  on  Neal's 
prairie,  in  Calhoun  county. 

In  1832  this  route  had'  attained  sufficient  importance  to  require 
that  the  mail  should  be  carried  in  a  covered  wagon.     Mr.  Darling 


was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Lewis  Barnes,  of  Gull  Prairie,  and  the  route 
was  made  to  include  Kalamazoo,  where  a  postoffice  was  established 
on  the  14th  of  July,  1832.  This  was  the  first  conveyance  for  pas- 
sengers from  Jackson  west,  and  was  a  very  primitive  affair. 
Strength  being  an  element  of  much  greater  importance  than 
beauty,  to  the  passenger  as  well  as  to  the  contractor,  the  state  of 
the  roads,  or  rather  the  want  of  mads,  and  particularly  of  bridges, 
and  the  spareness  of  settlements  being  such  as  to  make  it  of  the 
last  importance  that  there  should  be  no  hrmh-down — for  such  was 
the  distance  in  many  places  from  house  to  house,  that  had  any  such 
unlucky  accident  have  happened,  the  chances  were  that  the  unhappy 
traveler  wonld  have  to  walk  sonic  miles  before  he  could  find  a 
house  to  shelter  him,  if  he  did  not  have  to  pass  a  night  under  a 
free,  or  the  more  comfortable  shelter  of  his  wagon-bed. 


In  1836  the  Legislature  of  the  now  State  of  Michigan  passed  an 
act  authorizing  the  county  to  borrow  $10,000  for  the  purpose  of 
erecting  a  court-house  and  county  clerk's  office.  The  court-house 
was  on  the  public  square,  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street  and  on 
the  west  side  of  Jackson  street;  the  clerk's  office  was  on  the  north 
side  of  Main  street,  and  opposite  the  court-house.  Both  buildings 
were  of  stone,  and  were  supposed  to  be  erected  for  all  time.  Mr. 
A.  B.  Gibson,  the  then  sheriff,  was  superintendent,  having  charge 
of  the  work.  David  Porter  had  the  contract  for  doing  the  mason 
work,  and  Lemuel  House  for  the  carpenter  work.  Both  were  built 
in  the  year  1837. 


In  1836  Messrs.  Ganson,  Clark  and  Monroe  built  the  furnace 
and  machine  shop  between  the  race  and  the  river,  and  commenced 
the  manufacture  of  plows,  and  the  making  of  such  other  castings 
as  the  business  of  the  country  required.  This  building  is  still 
standing  and  occupied  for  like  purposes. 

The  first  frame  building  erected  on  the  east  side  of  the  river 
was  the  store  built  by  Mr.  William  Ford,  in  which  a  stock  of 
goods  was  placed  by  Ford  &  Budington.  Two  other  frame  build- 
ings, both  of  which  are  still  standing,  were  built  on  Main  street,  on 
the  east  side,  in  1836.  The  Grand  River  House,  on  the  corner  of 
Main  and  Milwaukee  streets,  was  also  built  this  year  by  Mr.  An- 
drew Shaver,  who  had  just  decided  to  make  this  place  his  home, 
and  who  joined  Mr.  Fifield  in  building  this  house  for  the  accom- 
modation of  boarders,  they  being  principally  those  employed  by 
the  Messrs.  Ford  in  building  the  flouring  mill,  the  store  and  mak- 
ing other  improvements.  This  house  was  opened  as  a  hotel  in 
1838,  is  still  standing,  and  though  not  as  prominent  as  of  yore, 
has  up  to  this  time  always  been  kept  as  a  public  house. 

The  east  side  was  making  such  rapid  and  satisfactory  progress 
in  1836  that  the  denizens  of  that  locality  determined  to  celebrate 

HISTORY    (IF    ,IA(  KSoN    (dlNTY. 

the  4th  of  July  in  that  part  of  the  village  and  proceeded  to  erect  a 
"liberty  pole,"  in  front  of  the  Grand  Kiver  House.  They  care- 
lessly placed  the  butt  of  their  pole  in  a  hollow  stump.  After  the 
pole  was  raised  the  halyards  became  fast  at  the  top;  Daniel  Cha- 
pin  climbed  the  pole  to  adjust  the  halyards,  when  the  stump. 
which  proved  to  be  rotton,  gave  way.  unci  precipitated  the  pole  to 
the  ground.  Mr.  Chapin  was  in  the  act  of  adjusting  the  rope 
when  the  pole  fell,  and  was  so  seriously  injured  that  he  soon  after 
died.  This  sad  accident  turned  into  a  day  of  grief  and  mourning 
what  had  promised  to  be  one  of  enjoyment,  and  cast  a  deep  gloom 
over  the  village,  but  particularly  over  the  energetic  little  settle- 
ment on  the  east  side  of  the  river. 

MoJfK    I'H.MJ.i;- 

ThomasMcGee  came  into  Michigan  in  1832;  settled  in  Concord, 
was  always  a  prominent  citizen  of  the  county  and  was  elected 
judge  of  probate,  serving  from  1856  to  1860.  With  him  came  his 
son  Melville,  who  became  a  resident  of  Jackson  as  a  student  at  law 
in  1851.  He  has  since  continued  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
and  has  been  elected  judge  of  probate  for  three  successive  terms. 
serving  from  1864  to  1876. 

Cornelius  Sammons  settled  in  the  township  of  Jaeksonburgh. 
now  Blackmail,  in  1S32.  His  son,  Jacob  F.  Sammons,  who  came 
with  him,  is  now  a  resident  of  the  city,  actively  engaged  in  busi- 
ness.    Helms  served  four  years  as  justice  of  the  peace. 

James  McKee  came  to  Michigan  in  1832;  settled  in  Jackson- 
burgh, and  is  now  a  resident  of  the  city. 

John  McConnell  became  a  resident  of  the  township  of  Jackson- 
burgh in  1833.  His  son,  Oscar  H.  McConnell,  came  with  him. 
He  has  for  many  years  been  engaged  in  the  hardware  business  in 
the  city,  and  is  highly  respected  as  an  active,  industrious  and 
honest  man. 

John  N.  Dwight  came  to  Jackson  in  1833.  His  brother,  Daniel 
Dwight,  had  bought  of  Mr.  Hogan  his  small  stock  of  goods  and 
kept  store  on  the  north  side  of  the  public  square.  Mr."  John  N. 
Dwight  bought  out  his  brother,  and  soon  after  associated  himself 
with  his  cousin.  David  F.  Dwight.  Mr.  Dwight  was  in  the  mer- 
cantile business  in  company  with  his  cousin,  without  a  partner, 
and  as  one  of  the  firm  of  Loomis  &  Dwight,  for  a  period  covering 
nearly  twenty  years.  While  in  company  with  Mr.  Loomis  they 
purchased  the  Kennedy  Steam  Flouring  Mills.  Mr.  Dwight  subse- 
quently sold  his  interest  to  Mr.  Loomis.  Mr.  Dwight  was  elected 
justice  of  the  peace  in  April,  1836.  He  was  candidate  for  register 
of  deeds  in  November.  \s;J,C>.  and  was  elected  county  treasurer  in 
1839,  and  re-elected  in  1840.  He  continued  to  reside  in  Jackson 
to  the  time  of  his  death.  There  was  among  the  pioneers  of  Jack- 
son no  more  pleasant,  genial  gentleman  than  John  N\  Dwight. 

Daniel  B.  Hibbard  came  to  Jackson  in  1835.  He  became 
interested  almost  immediately  in  the  stage  lines  and  mail  routes 

tilSTOm     OF    .IAI  KM.N     c  (.1  VI  ^ . 

diverging  from  Jackson,  and  was  for  many  years  the  principal 
mail  contractor  and  stage  proprietor  for  the  Grand  River  valley. 
In  1S3S  Mr.  Hibbard  and  Paul  B.  Ring  were  proprietors  ot  a 
line  of  stages  running  from  Jackson  to  Adrian.  After  the  capital 
was  located  at  Lansing,  "Hibbard's  stage  line"  was  the  main 
reliance  for  getting  to  that  point  from  all  places  in  the  two 
southern  tiers  of  counties,  including  Detroit,  until  the  completion 
of  the  Jackson,  Lansing  &  Saginaw  railroad  in  1866.  Mr. 
Hibbard  lias  always  been,  as  In-  still  is.  one  of  the  most  active 
business  men  of  Jackson.  There  are  but  few  enterprises  of  im- 
portance in  or  to  the  city  that  have  been  carried  to  success  in 
which  he  has  not  been  interested.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to 
engage  in  the  building  of  the  Jackson.  Lansing  &  Saginaw 
railroad,  and. was  for  several  years  one  of  its  directors.  He  was 
one  of  the  projectors  of  the  Jackson  Foundry  ami  Machine  Shops  on 
Mechanic  street,  and  has  always  been  largely  interested  in  them, 
and  is  now  one  of  the  principal  proprietors,  lie  was  also  largely 
interested  in  the  Jackson  Rolling  Mills,  which  is  one  of  the  very 
few  enterprises  in  which  he  has  engaged  which  did  not  prove 

The  "Hibbard  House,"  which  was  for  mam  years  the  leading 
hotel  in  the  city,  and  still  ranks  among  the  first  in  the  State. 
was  built  by  Mr.  Hibbard  and  owned  by  him  until  sold  to  II.  A. 
llayden  in  lsTT.  It  stands  an  enduring  monument  of  his  enter- 
prise and  public  spirit.  Mr.  Hibbard  has  always  manifested  great 
interest  in  the  improvement  of  the  stock  of  horses  in  Central 
Michigan,  and  has  been  the  owner  of  some  of  the  best  stock 
and  carriage  horses  in  the  State.  He  has  always  dealt  largely 
in  horses,  and  during  the  war  was  perhaps  the  largest  contractor 
in  the  State  for  supplying  horses  to  the  Government.  Mr.  Hibbard 
is  a  member  of  the  Horse-breeders'  Association,  one  of  the  most 
successful,  if  not  the  only  successful,  association  for  trotting 
horses  in  the  State.  He  was  elected  mayor  of  the  city  in  1865. 
He  was  one  of  the  principal  stock-holders  in  the  organization 
of  the  People's  National  Bank,  was  vice-president,  and  still  retains 
his  interest.  Mr.  Hibbard  has  been  very  successful  in  the  accum- 
ulation of  property,  and  is  one  of  the  largest  holders  of  real  estate 
in  the  city. 

Joshua  Palmer  came  to  Jacksonburgh  in  1S35,  and  engaged  in 
business  as  a  blacksmith.  He  was  a  very  skillful  workman.  He 
worked  many  years  at  his  trade,  and  acquired  a  competence  by  his 
industry  and  frugality.  Mr.  Palmer  has  always  stood  high  in  the 
estimation  of  his  fellow-citizens  as  an  honest  and  upright  man. 
In  1837  his  brother,  Dan  R.  Palmer,  became  his  partner.  His 
son,  William  H.  Palmer,  is  now  a  practicing  physician  in  the  city. 

Henry  H.  Vandercook  came  in  the  same  year,  and  was  for 
many  years  proprietor  and  manager  of  the  "Jackson  Furnace,'' 
near  Ford's  mill.  He  also  built  the  flouring  mill  south  of  Jack- 
son, still  known  as  Vandercook's  mill. 

232  HISTORY    OF    JACKS<  >N    COUNTY. 

Erastus  Chaplain,  John  Rodger  and  Wesley  Jenkins  became 
residents  of  Jacksoiiburgh  in  1836,  and  worked  in  and  on  Ford's 

Hiram  II.  Smith  settled  in  Jackson  county  in  L835,  but  removed 
to  Ingham  county,  and  resided  at  Mason  and  Lansing  until  1864, 
when  he  removed  to  the  city  of  Jackson,  where  he  has  since 
resided.  While  in  Ingham  county  he  was  elected  treasurer, 
county  clerk,  member  of  the  Legislature,  and  mayor  of  Lansing. 
Mr.  Smith  was  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business,  both  in  Mason 
and  Lansing.  At  Lansing  he  built  the  first  flouring  mill,  and 
carried  on  successfully  both  the  milling  and  mercantile  business. 
He  built,  in  1851  and  1852,  the  plank  road  from  Lansing  to 
Howell.  In  1863  Mr.  Smith  engaged  in  railroad  enterprises,  and 
was  successfully  connected  with  the  Jackson,  Lansing  &  Saginaw, 
the  Fort  Wayne,  Jackson  ec  Saginaw,  the  Detroit,  Lansing  & 
Lake  Michigan,  and  the  Detroit  &  Bay  City  railroads.  In  the 
construction  of  all  these  roads  he  rendered  the  most  efficient  and 
valuable  aid.  Mr.  Smith  was  vice-president  and  managing  director 
of  the  first,  and  president  of  the  second  and  third  named  mads. 
The  last  named  he  built  in  1872.  Mr.  Smith  is  a  man  of  great 
energy  of  character,  and  highly  respected  by  all  witli  whom  he 
associates,  either  in  business  or  socially. 

Paul  B.  King  came  to  Jackson  in  1835,  kept  hotel  in  1836,  was 
president  of  the  Jackson  County  Bank  in  1837,  and  for  many 
years  a  prominent  stage  proprietor  and  mail  contractor.  Joseph 
C.  Bailey  became  a  resident  of  Jackson  in  1835.  In  1836  he  was 
elected  register  of  deeds  for  Jackson  county.  He  was  also  elected 
justice  of  the  peace  and  continued  for  several  years  an  active  and 
useful  member  of  community.  Lewis  Bascomb  came  here  in  1835, 
built  and  kept  for  many  years  "Bascomb's  Hotel."  Mr.  Bascomb 
always  occupied  a  high  place  in  the  estimation  of  his  fellow 
citizens.  He  served  for  three  years  as  one  of  the  inspectors  of  the 
State's  prison,  and  died  in  1869'!  In  1831  Lewis  D.  Welling  and  S. 
S.  Welling  settled  in  Tecumseh.  In  1837  they  removed  to  and  are 
still  living  in  Jackson.  L.  D.  Welling  was  elected  sheriff  in  1846 
and  1848,  and  has  served  for  many  years  as  justice  of  the 
peace.  Marvin  Dorrill,  David  Markham  and  Frank  Standish 
came  to  Michigan  in  1835,  and  are  still  among  our  most  active 
and  useful  citizens. 

Dr.  Backus  came  to  Jackson  in  September,  1836.  He  at  once 
decided  to  make  it  his  home,  brought  his  family  and  commenced 
the  practice  of  his  profession.  Dr.  Backus  brought  with  him  a 
high  reputation  as  an  allopathic  physician;  he  continued  in  prac- 
tice up  to  his  final  sickness,  and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  he 
stood  in  the  front  rank  of  his  profession,  not  only  in  Jackson,  but 
also  in  the  State.  The  standing  of  Dr.  Backus  as  a  citizen  was 
equal  to  his  reputation  as  a  physician,  and  of  this  he  received 
many  proofs.  He  was  a  member  and  officer  of  St.  Paul's  (Episco- 
pal) Church  from  the  date  of  its  organization  to  the  day  of  his 
death.      He  served  for  three  years  as  an  inspector  of  the  State's 


prison,  and  one  term  (1859)  in  the  Senate  of  the  State.  Dr. 
backus  died  in   1865. 

B.  F.  Eggleston  came  to  Jacksonburg  July  7,  1836,  and  at  once 
commenced  working  at  his  trade  as  a  tailor.  In  18-19  he  formed 
a  copartnership  with  Wm.  Aldrich  and  opened  a  merchant 
tailoring  establishment.  He  has  continued  in  that  business  to  the 
present' time.  In  1854- he  purchased  the  -tore  in  which  lie  then 
was  and  now  occupies.  Mr.  Eggleston  ha-  always  maintained  an 
honorable  position  as  a  business  man.  and  has  uniformly  been  one 
of  the  most  active  of  our  citizens  in  all  works  of  charity  or  benevo- 
lence, as  well  as  in  all  measures  tending  to  forward  the  growth  ot 
the  town. 

Silas  W.  Stowell  was  another  acquisition  to  the  business  men  of 
Jackson  in  1836,  he  at  that  time  moving  here  with  his  family,  and 
opening  a  grocery  store  on  the  south  side  of  the  public  square.  In 
1837  he  was  one  of  the  firm  of  Stowell  A:  Collier,  in  the  same 
branch  of  business.  In  1838  he  took  the  contract  to  build  the 
west  wing  of  the  State's  prison  and  the  keeper's  house.  In  order  to 
be  nearer  his  work  Mr.  Stowell  built  a  store  in  the  then  entirely 
new  part  of  the  town,  near  the  prison,  into  which  he  moved  his 
stock  of  groceries.  For  the  first  two  years  after  convicts  were  re- 
ceived their  rations  were  furnished  under  contracts  by  Mr. 

In  company  with  Stephen  Monroe,  in  1840,  Mr.  Stowell  built  a 
furnace  and  machine  shop  on  the  south  side  of  Main  street,  on  the 
lot  next  east  from  the  Methodist  Church,  where  they  continued  in 
business  for  two  years,  when  they  sold  the  property  to  Alonzo 
Bennett  and  Geo.  B.  Cooper.  From  this  time  for  several  years 
he  was  actively  employed  in  the  interests  of  the  Jackson  County 
Mutual  Insurance  Company,  then  doing  a  large  and  successful 
business  in  Illinois  and  Michigan.  Mr.  Stowell  was  engaged  iu 
the  mercantile  business  from  1854  to  1803.  He  has  always  been 
an  active,  energetic  business  man,  and  has  done  all  in  his  power  to 
promote  the  prosperity  of  Jackson.  He  has  built  quite  exten- 
sively in  all  parts  of  the  town,  both  stores  and  houses.  Mr. 
Stowell,  though  some  years  past  the  three  score  years  and  ten  al- 
loted  to  man,  is  still  as  hale  and  hearty  and  active  as  most  men 
when  they  have  attained  to  half  a  century.  His  genial  and  pleas- 
ant countenance  is  seen  daily  upon  our  streets. 

Chester  Yale  came  to  Jackson  in  1836  and  commenced  business 
by  opening  a  tin-shop,  the  first  in  the  place.  Mr.  Yale  continued 
the  business  for  several  years,  and  was  a  man  highly  respected 
for  his  upright  character  and  habits  of  industry. 

Mr.  Alonzo  Bennett  came  to  Jackson  in  1836.  In  L837  he 
formed  a  copartnership  with  his  brother,  .Mien  Bennett,  who 
came  here  that  year,  and  they  commenced  business  as  merchants, 
having  bought  out  Ceo.  B.'  (Viper  &  Co.  They  continued  iu 
business  for  two  years. 

In  1S40  Mr.  Bennett  and  Mr.  Geo.  B.  Cooper  entered  into  co- 
partnership and  built  an  iron  foundry.      On   the   completion  of  the 


Central  railroad  in  1842  Mr.  Bennett,  in  company  with  Mr. 
Sacket,  commenced  the  storage  and  warehouse  business  in  a 
building  which  Mr.  Bennett  had  erected  on  the  side-track  near  the 
depot.  He  bought  the  furnace  of  Monroe  &  Stowell,  and  was  very 
successful  m  business  in  company  with  Mr.  Oliver  C.  Mosher,  un- 
til the  latter  was  killed  by  being  caught  in  the  machinery,  after 
which  the  business  was  conducted  by  Mr.  Bennett  until  disposed 
of  by  him  to  his  son.  Mr.  Bennett  has  always  been  one  of  the 
active  business  men  of  Jackson,  and  has  at  various  times  built 
both  stores  and  houses  in  different  parts  of  the  city.  He  is  quite  a 
large  holder  of  real  estate,  and  is  now  president  of  the  First 
National  Bank. 

Allen  Bennett,  Sr.,  came  to  Jackson  in  1837,  and  engaged  in 
the  mercantile  business]  but  soon  sold  out  to  his  sons,  Alonzo  and 
Allen.  Mr.  Bennett  continued  to  reside  in  Jackson  until  his 

Mr.  Allen  Bennett  came  to  Jackson  in  May,  L837,  and  en- 
gaged with  his  brother  in  the  mercantile  business  until  1839, 
when  they  dissolved,  Allen  taking  the  stock  and  moving  to  a 
store  on  the  north  side  of  Main  street,  afterward  so  long  occupied 
by  Patton  Morrison's  grocery,  and  yet  known  as  his  place.  In 
1842  John  Sumner  bought  an  interest  in  his  business,  and  they  re- 
moved to  the  stone  block  built  by  Joseph  G.  R.  Blaekwell  in  1839 
on  the  north  side  of  the  public  square,  where  they  continued  until 
1851,  when  Mr.  Sumner  died.  Mr.  Bennett  then  moved  into 
what  is  now  known  as  the  Bennett  block,  which  he  had  purchased 
that  year  of  M.  B.  and  .1.  W.  Medbury,  by  whom  it  was  built,  and 
here  Mr.  Bennett  continued  the  mercantile  business  until  1859.  In 
1857  Mr.  Bennett  engaged  with  Mr.  Hubbell  in  the  cabinet  busi- 
ness in  a  shop  built  by  him  on  Luther  street.  In  1860  he  took  the 
business  into  his  own  hands,  but  soon  after  sold  out  to  Mr.  Henry 
Gilbert,  of  Kalamazoo,  who  had  taken  a  contract  at  the  State's 
prison  for  the  manufacture  of  furniture.  Mr.  Bennett  now  com- 
menced the  manufacture  of  doors,  blinds  and  Bash,  in  connection 
with  a  lumber  yard,  and  built  a  large  factory  on  the  northeast 
corner  of  Jackson  and  Van  Buren  streets.  The  sash  factory  was 
operated  by  Mr.  Silas  Eyser  until  1857,  and  since  'then  has  been 
in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Bennett's  son  Charles.  The  lumber  yard  has 
been  conducted  b\  Mr.  DeWitt  Woods,  a  partner  of  Mr.  Bennett, 
and  the  business  is  still  continued.  Mr.  Bennett  is  one  of  the 
firm  of  Bennett,  Knickerbocker  &  Co.,  the  proprietors  of  the 
••  City  Steam  Flouring  mills,"  one  of  the  best  arranged  and  most  ex- 
tensive mills  in  the  State,  built  in  1866.  He,  with  the  same 
company,  own  and  operate  the  stone  mills  at  Albion.  lie  is  also 
engaged  in  manufacturing  extensively  the  "  Robbin's  cultivator," 
in  which  husine-s  he  has  associated  with  him  his  son  George. 
Mr.  Bennett  has  been  one  of  the  most  active  and  successful  busi- 
ness men  in  Jackson.  He  has  been  for  several  years  engaged  in 
banking,  and  is  now  vice-president  of  the  First  National  Bank, 
and  owns  some  of  the  most  valuable  real  estate  in  the  city. 


Albert  Foster  came  to  Jackson  in  1837,  and  went  to  work  as  a 
blacksmith  and  machinist,  at  which  he  has  continued  to  labor  in- 
dustriously to  the  (.resent  time,  except  that  the  last  few  years  he 
has  given  the  most  of  his  attention  to  the  sale  of  agricultural  im- 
plements, particularly  mowing  machines  and  buggy  rakes. 

Myriek  0.  Hough  commenced  the  practice  of  the  law  in  Jackson 
in  1837.  Jesse  Williams  was  then  working  at  his  trade — a  car- 

William  II.  Munroe  came  to  .Jackson  in  January,  1837.  His 
nephew.  Nelson  Munroe,  came  with  him.  They  soon  after  bought 
the  stock  in  trade  of  Geo.  B.  Cooper  &  Co.,  and  subsequently  sold 
out  to  Mr.  Gilbert.  W.  II.  Munroe  was  one  of  the  proprietors  oi 
the  Jackson  Furnace.  In  1838  he  bought  the  "Jackson  Exchange" 
hotel  of  Paul  B.  Ring,  and  kept  it  as  a  public  house  for  many  years. 

Dr.  John  McLean  was  a  practicing  physician  in  Jackson  in  1837, 
and  his  familiar  form  is  still  seen  upon  our  streets. 

At  the  April  term  of  the  Circuit  Court  in  1838,  David  Johnson 
was  admitted  to  the  practice  of  the  law,  the  committee  to  examine 
him  being  George  Miles.  Peter  Morey  and  Phineas  Farrand. 
Judge  Johnson  had  now  made  Jackson  his  place  of  residence,  and 
entered  at  once  upon  the  practice  of  his  profession,  and  soon  at- 
tained a  reputation  that  placed  him  on  a  level  with  the  ablest  law- 
yers of  the  State.  He  was  elected  school  inspector  in  1839;  was 
candidate  for  senator  in  1839;  was  prosecuting  attorney  from  L843 
to  1845;  was  member  of  the  House  i„  the  Legislature  of  Michigan 
in  1845,  and  again  in  1*47;  was  elected  circuit  judge  under  "the 
old  constitution  in  1851,  and  served  six  years,  being  also  one  of 
the  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court,  which  was  composed  of  the  cir- 
cuit judges.  He  was  the  Democratic  candidate  for  judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  in  1857.  Judge  Johnson,  on  retiring  from  the  Bench, 
entered  again  upon  the  practice  of  the  law,  in  which  he  is  still  ac- 
tively engaged,  being  now  the  senior  member  of  the  Bar  in  Jackson. 

Edward  Higby  was  admitted  to  practice  law  at  the  October  term 
of  the  Circuit  Court  in  1838,  the  examining  committee  being  David 
Johnson,  A.  Wright  Gordon  and  A.  L.  Millard. 

Mr.  Buck  made  Jackson  his  home  in  1839.  He  was  for  many 
years  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river,  first  with  Wm.  Ford,  Jr.,  and  subsequently  with  Henry 
Vandercook.  Mr.  Buck  was  elected  mayor  in  1867,  and  again  in 
1868.  He  is  now  an  acting  justice  of  the  peace,  having  been  four 
times  elected.  He  has  also  been  for  many  years  supervisor  or 
town  clerk,  and  has  for  most  of  the  time  for  31  years  been  a 
member  of  the  School  Board  in  the  district  in  which  he  lives.  Mr. 
Buck  has,  in  all  the  relations  of  life,  maintained  a  character  above 

Walter  Budington  came  to  Michigan  and  settled  in  Jackson  in 
1836.  He  engaged  in  1838  in  the  mercantile  business  with  B.  W. 
Rockwell.  He  was  cashier  of  the  Detroit  &  St.  Joseph  Railroad 
Bank.  Mr.  Budington  was  one  of  the  most  public  spirited  ot 
the  pioneers  of  Jackson,  and  was  for  many  years  of  his  life  con- 


nected  with  its  interests  by  holding  offices  of  more  usefulness  than 
profit.  He  was  for  many  years  a  member  of  the  School  Board  in 
district  No.  17.  He  was  also  several  times  elected  supervisor,  also 
town  clerk;  was  county  clerk  from  1848  to  1852,  and  city  treasurer 
in  1863-'5. 

Henry  A.  Hayden  come  to  Michigan  in  ls?,T  and  made  Jackson 
his  home  in  1838.  He  was  in  the  employ  of  the  Michigan  Central 
railroad  as  civil  engineer,  superintendent  of  repairs  and  paymaster 
until  1842.  He  bought  the  Vandercook  mills  soon  after  Leaving 
the  road,  and  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  flour.  In  1851  he 
and  Wiley  R.  Reynolds  bought  the  old  Ford  mills  and  water-power. 
In  185;>  they  also  bought  of  P.  B.  Loomis  the  steam  flouring  mill 
east  of  Mechanic  street.  Messrs.  Hayden  it  Reynolds  are 
still  operating  these  mills,  which  can  make  100,000  barrels 
of  flour  per  year.  Mr.  Hayden  has  been  a  member  of  the 
vestry  of  St.  Paul's  Church  since  its  organization,  and  is  now  one 
of  the  wardens.  He  was  chief  engineer  of  the  fire  department  in 
1861-  '2.  He  was  elected  member  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 
Michigan  Legislature,  in  1 862,  and  was  mayor  of  the  city  in  1874-'5. 

Samuel  lligby  became  a  resident  of  Jackson  in  1839,  and  the 
same  year  was  admitted  to  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  the 
courts  of  this  State.  Mr.  Higby  at  once  took  a  high  stand  among 
the  citizens  of  Jackson,  not  only  as  a  lawyer,  but  in  all  the  rela- 
tions of  life.  A  consistent  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  he 
stood  forth  to  the  day  of  his  death  a  bright  example,  to  the  Church 
and  to  the  world,  of  the  life  of  a  Christian  gentleman.  The  prac- 
tice of  Mr.  Higby  was  not  that  of  an  advocate,  hut  as  counsel  and 
in  chancery  practice  it  is  no  disparagement  to  the  Bar  of  .lackson 
to  say  that  he  stood  at  its  head.  As  a  counselor  he  was  sought, 
not  only  in  intricate  legal  cases,  but  in  many  others  of  great  im- 
portance, and  all  parties  interested  were  perfectly  certain  that  his 
decision  would  lie  the  impartial  conclusion  of  his  judgment.  Iu 
1843  Mr.  Higby  was  elected  recorder  of  the  village,  and  in  1856 
he  was  elected  its  president,  being  the  last  to  hold  that  office.  Mr. 
Higby  in  1869  was  elected  judge  of  the  fourth  judicial  circuit,  but 
resigned  after  serving  three  years  and  resumed  the  practice  of  his 
profession,  in  which  he  was  actively  engaged  when  he  was  struck 
with  the  hand  of  death  on  the  12th  of  May.  1876,  while  in  the 
office  of  the  county  clerk  in  the  performance  of  his  duty.  Mr. 
Higby  was  a  member  of  the  vestry  of  St.  Paul's  Church  from  the 
time  of  its  organization  to  the  close  of  his  life,  and  for  many  years 
was  one  of  its  wardens.  Of  Judge  Higby  it  could  most  truly  be 
said  that  he  was  an  honest  man.  the  noblest  work  of  God. 

Benjamin  M.  Rockwell  and  William  Hudson  came  here  in  L837, 
and  after  41  years  of  industry  are  both  living  in  the  enjoy- 
ment of  that  respect  and  esteem  to  which  they  are  entitled  by  lives 
of  usefulness. 

Fidus  Livermore  came  to  Jackson  in  May.  1839,  and  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  practice  of  the  law  the  same  year.  He  at  once  took 
a  stand   among  the   leading   members  of  the  Bar,  and    has  to  the 


present  time  continued  in  the  practice  of  his  profession.  In  that, 
as  in  all  other  relations  of  lite,  Mr.  Livermore  has  always  been 
regarded  as  one  of  the  leading  citizens  of  Jackson.  Mr.  Liver- 
more  was  elected  township  treasurer  in  1840,  to  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentative of  the  Legislature  of  Michigan  in  1S42,  and  again  in 
1843;  was  appointed  prosecuting  attorney  in  1846  by  Gov.  Felch, 
and  in  lsl.^  by  Gov.  Ransom.  He  was  elected  prosecuting  attor- 
ney in  lsf)4,  and  was  Democratic  candidate  forjudge  of  probate  in 
1858.     Mr.  Livermore  was  nominated  for  representative  in  Con- 

S-ess  in  1874,  and  again  in  1876,  and  though  unsuccessful,  as  the 
emocratic  party  was  largely  in  the  minority,  yet  lie  always  ran 
ahead  of  his  ticket  in  Jackson  county,  thus  proving  the  high 
esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by  those  who  had  Longest  and  best 
known  him. 

Phineas  Farrand  became  a  citizen  of  Jackson  in  1836.  He  was 
a  lawyer  and  continued  a  resident  of  Jackson  in  the  active  practice 
oi  his  profession  until  his  death.  '  In  1836  he  was  candidate  for 
representative  in  the  Legislature  at  both  the  special  and  general 
elections,  and  was  prosecuting  attorney  for  the  county  from  1843 
to  1845.  In  1838  lie  became  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Farrand. 
Johnson  A:  Higby. 

Fairchild  Farrand  practiced  law  in  Jackson  from  Ins  admission 
to  the  Bar  of  the  county  to  his  death  in  1877.  He  came  to  Jackson 
in  1837.  Mr.  Farrand  was  county  clerk  from  1840  to  1842,  and 
president  of  the  village  in  1855. 

Levi  P.  Gregg  settled  in  Jackson  in  1838,  and  immediately  com- 
menced work  at  his  trade  as  a  tailor.  He  soon  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  B.  F.  Eggleston  and  opened  a  tailoring  establishment. 
He  followed  his  trade  until  1851,  when  he  was  elected  register  of 
deeds  and  was  re-elected  in  1853.  Mr.  Gregg  invested  largely  in 
boring  for  salt  in  the  first  and  deepest  artesian  well  ever  sunk  in 
Jackson.  He  was  also  much  more  largely  interested  in  boring  for 
petroleum  oil  at  Petrolia,  Canada.  Both  of  these  investments 
were  unremunerative,  and  by  the  latter  Mr.  Gregg  was  a  heavy 
loser.  He  has  for  many  years  been  engaged  in  the  baking  busi- 
ness, and  has  had  an  eating-house  as  well  as  bakery.  Mr.  <  i  regg 
is  still  as  active  as  when  he  came  to  Jackson,  more  than  forty 
years  ago. 

Benjamin  Porter  came  to  Jackson,  and  was  one  of  the  commis- 
sioners to  superintend  the  building  of  the  State's  prison  in  1838. 
The  work  on  the  west  wing  and  keeper's  house  was  under  the  im- 
mediate supervision  of  Mr.  Porter.  In  1847  he  built  the  State 
capital  at  Lansing,  in  which  the  "State  Pioneer  Society"  is  now  as- 
sembled. Mr.  Porter  was  actively  engaged  in  contracting  and 
other  business  to  the  time  of  his  death. 

His  son,  Benjamin  Porter,  is  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Por- 
ter Coal  Company,  and  owns  the  land  on  which  their  works  are  sit- 

Benjamin  G.  Mosher  came  to  Jackson  in  an  early  day.  He  was 
by  trade  a  mason  and  plasterer  and  was   always  largely  engaged  in 


that  business  as  a  contractor  until  his  death.  Mr.  Mosher  was 
elected  mayor  in  1872,  and  re-elected  in  1873.  There  was  no  man 
in  the  community  stood  higher  than  "  Uncle  Ben,"  as  he  was  of 
late  years  familiarly  called. 

We  have  it  on  the  authority  of  William  II.  Monroe  that  when  be 
came  to  Jacksonburgh  in  January,  1837,  there  were  but  2H  build- 
ings, all  told,  in  it.  including  four  stores.  During  the  year  W. 
Budington,  D.  M.  Owen,  Geo.  B.  Cooper  &  Co.,  W.  H.  &  N. 
Monroe,  Wolfley  &  Rockwell,  ami  Shears  &  Collier,  were  mer- 
chants; Wm.  Ford  &  Son  were  running  the  "Jackson  Mills:" 
the  Jackson  Exchange  was  kept  by  Paul  B.  Ring;  Lewis  Bascomb 
was  keeping  the  Bascomb's  Hotel;  Leander  Chapman,  Phineas 
Farrand  and  W.  J.  Moody  were  practicing  attorneys;  Ira  C. 
Backus,  John  McLean  and  Oliver  Russ  were  practicing  physicians; 
Wm.  R.  Thompson  ran  a  stage  to  Ann  Arbor,  and  Mr.  Mont- 
gomery had  a  tri-weeklv  lumber  wagon  line  to  Marshall. 

March  i),  1838,  the  Legislature  changed  the  name  of  Jackson- 
burgh  to  Jackson. 

In  183s  Moody  and  Johnson  were  partners  as  attorneys;  D. 
Parkhurst.  Myrick  ('.  Hough,  Leander  Chapman,  Phineas  Far 
rand  and  K.  Ilighy  were  also  practicing  attorneys;  M.  B.  &  J.  W. 
Medbury.  W.  Baker  &Co.,  Green  &  Jessup,  L.  Blackwell  &  Co., 
Ford  &  Buck,  and  Wm.  II.  &  N.  Monroe  were  merchants;  Amos 
Bigelow,  hardware  merchant;  J.  M.  Gilbert,  saddlery;  L.  Graves, 
tailor;  W.  Chittock,  tailoring  establishment;  J.  B.  Cobb  and  Smith 
M.  Brown,  carriage  painters;  Russell  Blackman  was  keeping  pub- 
lic house,  and  the  "Grand  River  House"  was  kept  by  11.  P.  Hay- 
bee;  George  W.  Gorbam  was  a  practicing  physician;  L.  S.  House, 
hat  store;  J.  W.  Gledden,  watch  and  clock  repairing:  Jackson 
Academy,  by  Mr.  Dudley;.!).  B.  Hibbard,  livery  stable;  Charles 
Derby,  auctioneer;  Joseph  Ganson  and  Stephen  Monroe,  proprie- 
tors of  the  Jackson  Iron  Foundry;  Samuel  Higbv,  Alonzo  Bennett 
and  Jason  W.  Packard,  school  inspectors;  Lewis  I).  Welling,  John 
Gillespie  and  John  Kane,  constables;  Fidus  Livermore,  township 
treasurer;  Oliver  Russ  and  Wm.  P.  Worden.  directors  of  the  poor; 
Norman  Allen,  agent  for  sale  of  Rowland's  tonic  mixtures;  David 
F.  Dwight  and  David  Porter,  in  lime  business,  and  Bunnell  & 
Fish,  shingles;  Ring  &  Hibbard  ran  a  daily  line  of  stages  to 
Adrian.  In  1830  D.  G.  McClure  and  J.  M.  Terry  were  practicing 
physicians;  E.  D.  Merriman  became  a  resident;  Childs,  Houssel 
and  Brown  were  carriage  painters,  paper  hangers  and  dealers  in 
cabinet  ware,  and  Benjamin  llazleton  was  running  an  ashery. 

There  were  in  Jackson  in  1830  two  banks,  two  printing  offices 
(the  Jackson  Senbmel  and  Michigan  Democrat),  two  semi-monthly 
publications  (the  American  Freemam  and  Michigan  Temperance 
Herald),  two  drug  stores,  10  dry-goods  stores.  Five  religious  de- 
nominations held  services  weekly  (the  Episcopal,  Presbyterian, 
Methodist,  Close-Communion  Baptist  and  Free-will  Baptist).  The 
population  of  the   village  was,   by  the  newspapers   at   that  time, 


claimed  to  be  1,000,  and  the  number  of  dwellings  200,  with  80  ad- 
ditional in  the  course  of  completion. 

Hon.  Austin  Blair  came  to  Jackson  in  1840,  and  was  a  member 
of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  the  Legislature  of  Michigan  in 
1846,  and  of  the  Senate  in  1855.  He  was  elected  prosecuting  at- 
torney for  the  county  in  1853  ;  was  the  war  governor  of  the  State, 
serving  1861-'4,and  was  elected  to  Congress  from  the  third  district 
of  Michigan  in  1867,  being  re-elected  in  1869  and '71.  Governor 
Blair,  in  the  full  maturity  of  his  powers,  is  now  in  the  practice  of 
law  in  Jackson.  He  was  Whig,  with  abolitionist  tendencies,  until 
the  formation  of  the  Republican  party,  with  whom  he  acted  until 
L872,  when  he  supported  Horace  Greeley,  and  has  since  been 
liberal  in  politics. 

Amos  Root  came  to  Jackson  in  1841,  and  has  since  been  one  of 
the  active  business  men  of  the  city.  Mr.  Root  has  been  member 
of  the  village  council,  and  was  alderman  under  the  city  organiza- 
tion. He  was  elected  mayor  in  L860,  and  appointed  postmaster  in 
L861,  serving  for  four  years.  Mr.  Root  was  inspector  of  the  State's 
prison  nine  years,  and  six  years  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Public 
Works  of  Jackson,  of  which  be  acted  two  years  as  president.  Mr. 
Root  has  a  large  farm  in  Portage,  and  gives  it  a  considerable 
share  of  his  attention.  Mr.  Root  was  a  Whig,  but  in  1872  joined 
the  ■■  Liberal  movement"'  and  supported  Horace  Greeley. 

Peter  B.  Loomis  entered  into  partnership  with  JohnN.  Dwight 
in  1843,  and  established  himself  in  Jackson  as  a  merchant,  "in 
L850  he  bought  the  Kennedy  Steam  Mills,  and  was  for  four  years 
engaged  in  the  milling  business.  In  1856  he  became  a  member  of 
the  banking  firm  of  Loomis  A:  Whitwell,  which,  as  P.  B.  Loomis 
and  P.  B.  Loomis  &  Co,  has  continued  to  be  one  of  the  principal 
banking  houses  of  the  present  time,  and  of  which  Mr.  Loomis  is 
now  president,  fn  1857  he  became  president  of  the  Jackson  City 
Gas  Company,  and  now  holds  that  office.  Mr.  Loomis  was  very 
active  in  procuring  the  construction  of  the  Port  Wayne,  Jackson 
&  Saginaw  Railroad,  of  which  he  has  been  president  since  its 
completion.  Mr.  Loomis  is  a  Republican,  lie  was  mayor  of  the 
city  in  1858,  and  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  Legislature  of 
Michigan.  1859. 

John  D.  Conely  settled  in  Jackson  in  1S54.  He  was  admitted 
to  the  Bar  in  1858,  and  at  once  commenced  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession, which  he  has  since  followed  wry  zealously  and  indus- 
triously, and  with  a  marked  degree  of  success.  His  first  practice 
was  in  company  with  G.  T.  Gridley.  In  1861  he  entered  into 
partnership  with  Co  v.  Blair  and  William  K.  Gibson,  and  was  in 
company  with  them  for  two  years.  He  is  now  alone  in  practice 
and  has  a  large  and  lucrative  business.  Mr.  Conely  has  been  for 
several  years  a  member  of  the  School  Board  in  the  district  iti 
winch  he  lives.  He  is  a  Democrat,  but  has  taken  very  little  inter- 
est in  politics  since  the  election  in  1860,  when  he  was  a  candidate 
for  Congress  on  the  Breckenbridge  ticket. 


Wiley  R.  Reynolds  came  to  Jackson  in  1840.  He  engaged  in 
the  grocery  business  six  months  after  his  arrival,  in  company  with 
George  T.  Gardner.  In  1842  Reynolds  and  Gardner  sold  their 
stock  to  Henry  H.  Gilbert.  Mr.  Reynolds  soon  after  started 
again  in  the  same  business.  In  1844  he  added  dry  goods  to  his 
stock  in  trade.  In  1851  lie  formed  a  copartnership  with  Ins  brother, 
¥m.  B.  Reynolds.  In  1856  he  sold  his  interest  to  another  brother, 
Sheldon  ('.  Reynolds.  In  1857  Mr.  Reynolds  bought  the  interest, 
of  William  R.  Reynolds,  and  the  firm.  W.  R.  &  S.  C.  Reynolds, 
confined  their  business  exclusively  to  dry  goods,  in  which  they 
transacted  a  very  large  business.  They  finally  sold  their  stock  to 
L.  W.  Field. 

In  1851  Mr.  Reynolds  became  interested  with  Mr.  II.  A  Hay- 
den  in  the  purchase  of  the  "jEtna  Flouring  Mills.*'  as  the  mill 
built  by  the  Fords  was  called,  and  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of 
flour.  Messrs.  llavden  and  Reynolds  also  purchased  the  Kennedy 
Steam  Mills  in  1854,  and  have  been  large  buyers  of  wheat  to  the 
present  time.  Their  mills  have  a  capacity  to  make  500  barrels  of 
flour  daily.  Mr.  Reynolds  is  a  Democrat,  but  has  taken  but  little 
interest  in  polities. 

Leander  Chapman  came  to  Jackson  in  1*35.  and  commenced 
the  practice  of  law.  He  was  judge  of  probate  from  183G  to  lv4n, 
and  prosecuting  attorney  for  a  portion  of  the  same  period.  He 
was  candidate  as  Representative  to  the  Legislature  in  1840.  Mr. 
Chapman  was  county  treasurer  from  1842  to  1846,  and. member 
and  speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  Michigan  Legisla- 
ture, in  1848.  Judge  Chapman  resided  in  Jackson  over  a  quar- 
ter of  a  century,  and  always  maintained  a  high  standing  amongthe 
best  men  in  the  county  as  a  lawyer  and  as  a  citizen,  lie  was  in 
politics  a  Democrat. 

James  C.  Wood  settled  in  Jackson,  and  commenced  the  practice 
of  law  in  1844.  In  1847  he  became  a  member  of  the  law  firm  of 
Livermore  it  Wood,  which  existed  for  over  _'<»  years.  Mr.  Wood 
was  elected  county  treasurer  in  1847,  and  re-elected  in  1S49.  He 
was  elected  first  mayor  of  the  city  in  L85-,  and  served  as  member 
of  the  Lower  House  in  ls75-'7.  Mr.  Wood  is  now  practicing  law  in 
company  with  his  son.  Charles  W.  Wood.  Mr.  Wood  inhis  prin- 
ciple is  a  Democrat,  and  has  always  been  active  in  advocating  the 
principles  of  his  party. 

Samuel  O.  Knap] >  came  to  Jackson  in  1844,  and  took  charge  of 
the  manufacturing  of  woolen  goods  in  the  State's  prison.  In  1848 
he  went  to  Lake  Superior  and  took  charge  of  the  valuable  "Minne- 
sota mine,"  in  which  he  was  largely  interested,  and  from  which 
he  derived  a  competence.  Mr.  Knapp  was  for  four  years  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Board  of  Public  Works,  and  president  of  the  school 
Board  of  district  No.  1  for  several  years,  lie  has  given  much  at- 
tention to  horticulture,  and  is  an  active  and  valuable  member  of 
the  State  Pomological  Society.  He  is  in  politics  a  Republican, 
and  is  one  of  the  pillars  of  the  Methodist  Church  in  Jackson,  of 
Which  denomination  lie  has  been  a  member  for  4<i   years. 

HISTORY    OF    JA0K8ON    COUNTY".  241 

Rev.  Daniel  T.  Grirmell,  D.  !>.,  came  to  Jackson  in  1847,  and 
took  charge  of  St.  Paul's  Episcopal  Church,  of  which  he  remained 
the  active,  faithful  and  successful  rector  for  21  years,  and 
until  he  was  removed  by  death  in  1868.  lie  found  the  society  and 
parish  poor  and  feeble  ;  he  left  it  zealous  and  prosperous.  When 
Dr.  Grinnell  took  charge  of  the  parish  the  Sunday-school  was  little 
other  than  such  in  name.  Under  his  care  it  soon  became  one  of 
the  most  interesting  and  instructive,  and  was  attended  largely  by 
children  not  belonging  to  the  parish,  as  well  as  bythose  belonging 
to  it.  When  its  real  founder  and  painstaking  teacher  was  taken 
away  from  it.  the  Sunday-school  of  St.  Paul's  Church  was  the  larg- 
est in  the  city.  The  charity  of  Dr.  Grinnell  was  so  broad  and  its 
exercise  so  unlimited,  that  he  was  as  much  loved  bythose  outside 
of  his  paiish  as  in  it. 

Joseph  Tunnicliff,  Jr.,  is  a  native  of  the  State  of  Michigan.  He 
was  educated  as  a  physician  and  surgeon,  and  lias  practiced  his 
profession  in  Jackson  for  over  35  years,  with  the  exception 
of  a  short  residence  at  Sacramento  in  California  in  1852,  and  while 
serving  as  surgeon  of  the  4th  and  1st  Michigan  Volunteer  Infantry 
during  two  years,  and  as  assistant  State  military  agent  until  the 
close  of  the  war.  He  was  surgeon  for  the  Michigan  Central  Rail- 
road Company  at  Jackson  from  1865  for  10  years.  In  1867  he 
was  appointed  United  States  examining  surgeon  for  pensions,  and 
served  until  1873.  Dr.  Tunnicliff  has  acquired  much  celebrity  as 
a  successful  operator  in  surgery,  and  stands  with  the  first  in  Jack- 
son in  his  profession.  He  is  an  allopathist.  Dr.  Tunnicliff  was  a 
Republican  until  1872,  when  he  supported  Horace  Greeley,  and  is 
now  a  "Liberal"  in  politics. 

James  O'Donnell  came  to  Jackson  in  1848,  was  clerk  for  William 
Jackson,  entered  the  Citizen  office  in  1854  to  learn  the  trade  of 
printer,  and  also  worked  in  the  Patriot  office.  In  1864  he  pur- 
chased the  Citizen  office,  then  a  weekly  paper.  The  publication  of 
the  Daily  Citizen  was  commenced  in  1865  by  D.  W.  Ray  and  Mr. 
O'Donnell.  Mr.  Ray  died  in  1866,  and  since  then  Mr.  O'Donnell 
has  been  sole  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  Citizen,  both  daily  and 
weekly.     The  Citizen,  has  been  and  is  the  organ  of  the  Republican 

partv.     Mr.  O'Donnell  was  elected  city  recorder  in ,  and  mayor 

in  1876-'7. 

Eugene  Pringle  became  a  member  of  the  law  firm  of  Kimball  & 
Pringle  in  1850,  immediately  after  making  his  home  in  Jackson. 
In  1852  he  was  circuit  court  commissioner,  and  was  recorder  of  the 
village  in  185-.  In  1856  lie  was  elected  prosecuting  attorney,  and 
was  re-elected  in  1858,  and  was  city  attorney  in  1858-'9.  In  1860 
he  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Representatives,  and  in  1866  to  the 
Senate  of  the  Michigan  Legislature.  In  1867  he  was  a  member  of 
the  State  Constitutional  Convention,  and  in  1871  he  was  appointed 
a  register  in  bankruptcy,  and  is  still  active  as  such.  Mr.  Pringle 
was  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Public  Works  from  1871  to  1875.  He 
has  been  active  in  all  the  raiboad  enterprises  in  which  Jackson  has 
been  interested,  and  is  now  secretary  of  the  Fort  Wayne,  Jackson 

242  HIsTokY    OF    JACKSOJS    COUNTY. 

A:  Saginaw  Railroad,  which  office  he  has  held  since  the  organi- 
zation of  the  company. 

John  L.  Mitchell  settled  in  Jackson  in  1S50  and  commenced  the 
practice  of  his  profession  as  a  physician  and  surgeon,  and  is  still 
active  in  the  discharge  of  his  duties.  Dr.  Mitchell  has  "held  the 
office  of  town  clerk,  supervisor  and  alderman.  He  was  for  12  years 
a  member  of  the  School  Hoard  for  district  No.  1.  and  for  1((  of  these 
years  he  was  the  director.  Dr.  Mitchell  has  always  been  a  Demo- 
crat. He  joined  the  Masonic  fraternity  in  1852,  and  has  always 
been  a  very  active  member  of  all  the  orders  of  the  fraternity.  He 
has  presided  in  all  the  subordinate  and  most  of  the  grand  bodies  of 
which  he  has  been  a  member. 

Frederick  M.  Foster  has  been  a  resident  ol  Jackson  for  over  Mil 
years.  He  has  filled  many  offices  of  trust  and  responsibility,  and 
always  with  credit  to  himself.  He  was  city  treasurer  in  1807- V 
Mr.  Foster  has,  since  he  first  came  to  Jackson,  been  prominently 
connected  with  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  and  has 
presided  in  the  Grand  Lodge  and  Grand  Encampment,  as  well  as 
in  the  subordinate  societies.  He  was  grand  treasurer  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Independent  ( )rder  of  Odd  Fellows  for  several  years,  and 
was  master  of  Michigan  Lodge  No.  50  in  L858. 

Charles  W.  Penny  came  to  Detroit  in  1831,  a  young  man  not 
yet  of  age.  Mr.  Penny  resided  in  Detroit  10  years.  He  was  one 
of  the  originators  and  first  members  of  the  "  Young  Men's  Associa- 
tion," ami  of  the  military  organization  known  as  the  "Brady 
Guards"  of  that  city.  In  1841  Mr.  Penny  removed  to  Jackson, 
which  has  since  been  his  home.  He  was  for  many  years  engaged 
in  the  mercantile  business,  and  was  one  of  the  principal  business 
men  of  this  place.  He  early  interested  himself  in  the  formation  ot 
the  "Young  Men's  Association."  has  been  its  president,  and  has 
always  taken  a  lively  interest  in  its  affiairs.  He  has  also  been  an 
active  Odd  Fellow,  and  has  presided  in  the  Lodge  and  Encampment. 
Mr.  Penny  has,  during  bis  entire  residence  in  Jackson,  been  a  prom- 
inent member  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  and  for  over 
30  years  a  member  of  the  vestry  of  the  parish  of  St.  Paul.  He 
is  now  one  of  the  wardens,  and  is  one  of  the  most  vigorous  and 
active  men  of  his  age  in  the  city. 

George  D.  Brown  is  a  native  of  Tompkins  county.  New  York. 
He  is  one  of  four  brothers  who.  at  an  early  day.  made  their  home 
in  Michigan.  Lewis,  Amos  and  William  were  among  the  first  set- 
tlers in  the  township  ot  Parma,  in  the  western  part  of  Jackson 
county,  where  they  engaged  in  farming.  They  have  always  been 
of  the"  most  intelligent  and  respected,  as  of  the  most  industrious 
and  successful  farmers  in  the  communities  in  which  they  lived. 
Hon.  William  G.  Brown  was  a  member  of  the  Michigan  House  of 
Representatives  in  1866.  Mr.  George  D.  Brown  in  1S48,  then  a 
youth  of  20  years,  commenced  business  in  Jackson  in  the  book 
and  stationery  trade,  which  he  has  successfully  continued  to  the 
present  time.  Mr.  Brown,  from  small  beginnings,  has  built  up  by 
his  perseverance  and  business  ability,  the  largest   trade,  perhaps. 


in  the  State  outside  of  Detroit.  lie  has  tor  the  most  of  the  time 
had  the  entire  monopoly  of  the  retail  business  in  Jackson,  and  his 
urbanity  and  tact  have  enabled  him  to  acquire  and  retain  the  custom 
of  all  who  have  once  come  within  the  influence  of  his  genial  ways. 
The  most  accommodating  spirit,  accompanied  with  the  determina- 
tion not  to  be  undersold,  has  made  it  possible  for  Mr.  Brown  to 
overcome  all  opposition.  For  many  years  Mr.  Brown  lias  had  a 
wholesale  department  connected  with  the  business,  and  while  the 
retail  book  and  stationery  trade  is  large,  if  is  but  a  small  item  oi 
the  business  of  the  present  firm  of  Brown  &  Pilcher  compared  with 
the  transactions  in  the  wholesale. 

John  B.  Carter  was  at  one  time,  and  for  several  years,  a  partner 
of  Mr.  Brown,  and  the  business  was  much  increased  by  the  former 
thn nigh  his  intimate  knowledge  of  the  wants  of  the  trade,  and  more 
still,  perhaps,  by  his  ability  as  a  salesman. 

Mr.  Henry  J.  Pilcher  has  for  a  number  of  years  last  past  been 
associated  with  Mr.  Brown,  and  the  firm  of  Brown  &  Pilcher  have 
now  a  well-established  reputation  which  insures  to  them  a  large 
and  increasing  business.  Mr.  Pilcher  is  the  son  of  Rev.  Elijah 
Pilcher,  who  was  the  first  Methodist  minister  in  Jackson.  He  or- 
ganized a  class  in  L830,  from  which  has  sprung  the  present  First 
Methodist  Church  of  this  city,  and  his  was  the  first  Church  organ- 
ization in  Jackson  county. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Pilcher  has  lived  many  years  in  Jackson,  officiat- 
ing both  as  local  preacher  and  as  presiding  elder.  He  is  still  liv- 
ing, with  his  usefulness  unimpaired.  Henry  J.  Pilcher  is  a  native 
of  Jackson.  He  has  for  many  years  been  the  superintendent  of 
the  Sabbath-school  of  the  First  Methodist  Church  of  Jackson,  and 
to  him  more  than  to  any  other  is  due  its  efficiency  and  great  suc- 
cess. Mr.  Pilcher  is  known  as  one  of  the  most  painstaking  and 
estimable  of  the  business  men  of  Jackson. 

William  M.  Bennett  came  to  Jackson  in  1847,  and  entered  the 
store  of  S.  W.  Whitwell  as  a  clerk,  and  from  that  time  to  the 
present  Mr.  Bennett  has  been,  with  little  intermission,  connected 
with  the  dry-goods  trade  in  Jackson.  In  1855  he  bought  out  Mr. 
Whitwell.  The  amount  of  goods  sold  by  Mr.  Bennett  since  the 
business  came  into  his  hands  has  been  as  large  as  that  of  any  house 
in  the  interior  of  Michigan.  Mr.  Bennett  was  elected  mayor  of 
the  city  in  1869  and  re-elected  in  1870.  He  was  for  four  years  a 
member  of  the  Board  of  Public  Works  at  Jackson. 

William  Knickerbocker  in  l.M('»  came  with  his  family  to  Jackson, 
where  he  is  still  living  in  the  enjoyment  of  a  competence  in  his 
ripe  old  age,  surrounded  by  his  children  and  his  children's  children. 
In  1858  he  formed  a  copartnership  with  Col.  J.  B.  Eaton  in  the 
wholesale  grocery  business,  and  for  eight  years  they  transacted 
business  as  large  as  any  in  that  line  in  the  State.  They  then  sold 
out  to  Hall  &  Dodge.  Mr.  Knickerbocker  joined  with  Allen  Ben- 
nett and  William  D.  Thompson  in  building  the  "City  Mill,"  one 
of  the  largest  steam  flouring  mills  in  the  State,  and  has  since  then 


>F    JArKSHX    rol'NTY. 

devoted  himself  to  the  flouring  business.  The  same  firm  bought 
the  "Stone  Mills"  at  Albion,  and  Mr.  Knickerbocker  has  been 
general  manager  of  the  business,  which  has  always  been  very 
large,  and  in  which  he  has  shown  business  ability  of  the  first  order. 
The  Arm  are  also  largely  interested  in  the  patents  for  "purifiers," 
by  which  the  flour  known  as  "patent  flour"'  is  manufactured. 
These  purifiers  are  made  at  Jackson,  and  have  become  a  necessity 
in  all  first-class  mills.  The  capital  of  the  "Purifier  Company  "  is 
$1,000,000.  and  their  business  corresponds  in  extent  to  the  amount 
of  their  capital. 

In  the  year  1837  N.  Munroe  was  dealing  in  dry  goods,  groceries, 
hardware,  boots  and  shoes,  drugs,  dye-stutts.  window  sash,  etc. 
In  the  spring  of  1837  J.  K  &  D.  F.' Dwight  sold  their  stock  of 
goods  to  N.  Munroe.  In  the  summer  Arza  Richardson  sold  his 
stock  to  Derrick  W.  Owens,  who  kept  a  general  assortment  of 
goods,  as  did  W.  Budington  and  Wolney  it  Rockwell.  Spears  & 
Collier  were  succeeded  by  Stowell  &  Collier.  They  sold  out  to  S. 
W.  Stowell,  who  entered  into  copartnership  with  A.  A.  Welling, 
forming  the  firm  of  Stowell  oj  Welling.  Welling  in  the  spring 
had  been  one  of  the  firm  of  Clark  &  Welling.  All  these  were 
dealers  in  groceries,  liquors,  paints,  oils,  etc.  Moses  Bean,  David 
Porter  and  S.  W.  Stowell  were  selling  lime.  The  Jackson  Furnace 
and  Iron  Foundry,  on  the  east  side  of  Grand  river,  near  the  Ford 
Mills,  was  owned  and  managed  by  Samuel  P.  Clark,  Stephen  Mun- 
roe and  Joseph  Canson.  Paul  B.  Ring  kept  the  Exchange  Hotel 
and  run  a  line  of  stages  to  Tecumseh.  M.  L.  Sutton  kept  a  select 
school.  Phineas  Farrand,  Leander  Chapman,  Merrick  C.  Hough, 
FairchildFarrand  and  William  J.  Moody  were  practicing  attorneys. 
John  N.  Dwight  was  justice  of  the  peace. 

In  1838  the  merchants  of  Jackson  were  W.  Budington  &  Co.,  S. 
Blackwell  &  Co.,  Wolflev  &  Rockwell,  succeeded  by  B.  W.  Rock- 
well, Dyer  &  Derby  and  H.  EL  &  J.  M.  Gilbert.  Grocery  and 
provision  stores  were  kept  by  Stowell  &  Welling,  succeeded  by  A. 
A.  Welling,  Myron  Collame'r,  P.  C.  Vreeland  &  Co.,  S.  W.  Stowell 
and  Norman  Allen.  C.  E.  Silsbee  kept  a  furniture  establishment. 
John  Phelps  had  an  ashery.  N".  M.  &  J.  M.  Gilbert  were  saddle 
and  harness  makers.  Wright  Chittock  and  L.  Graves,  tailors. 
Ring  &  Hibbard  kept  livery  stable  and  run  a  line  of  stages  to 
Adrian.  In  the  fall  D.  B.  Hibbard  kept  a  livery  stable.  Ganson 
&  Munroe  were  running  the  furnace  and  iron  foundry  and  selling 
blocks.  A.  P.  Maybee  kept  the  Grand  River  House,  and  Munroe 
&  ( Jarpenter  the  Exchange.  Johnson  &  Higby,  Moody  &  Johnson, 
L.  Chapman,  D.  Parkhurst,  M.  C.  Hough,  Edward  Higby,  Phineas 
Farrand  and  Fairchild  Farrand  were  practicing  attorneys.  Dr. 
John  McLean  kept  a  drug  store  and- practiced  his  profession.  Dr. 
Ira  C.  Backus  and  Dr.  Oliver  Russ  were  also  practicing  physicians. 
J.  W.  Glidden  repaired  clocks  and  watches.  Cobb  &  Smith  were 
painters  and  glaziers.  G.  W.  Logan  &  Co.  made  and  sold  boots 
and  shoes. 





Iii  1839  S.  Blackwell  &  Co.  kept  the  New  York  store,  and  W. 
Baker  tin'  Boston  store.  Burnell  &  Fish,  A.  Bennett,  Dibble  & 
Turnbull,  and  Green  &  Jessup  were  merchants,  keeping  a  genera! 
assortment  of  goods.  Grocery  stores  were  kept  by  Anderson  & 
Rogers  and  Munson  &  (ides.  Horace  Duryea,  J.  II.  Rogers  and 
Thomas  Miller  wen'  makers  and  dealers  in  boots  and  shoes.  Lo- 
renzo Griswold,  Wright  Chittock,  L.  Graves,  C.  L.  Mitchell  and 
Gregg  it  Kggleston  were  tailors.  J.  D.  Cowden  made  and  sold 
furniture.  He  sold  to  0.  E.  Silsbee.  and  he  to  W.  Collamer.  H. 
A.  Rider  sold  plastering  hair.  The  Jackson  Academy  was  kept 
by  Mr.  Dudley.  Joel  II.  Rice  kept  livery  stable.  Terry  it  Mc- 
Lean kept  a  drug  store.  Dr.  E.  D.  Merriman  was  a  practicing 
physician.  The  Exchange  Hotel  was  kept  by  William  A.  Munroe. 
The  firm  of  Farrand,  Johnson  &  Higby  was  practicing  law. 

Norman  Allen  came  to  Michigan  in  L833.  He  owned  and  kept 
the  tavern  three  miles  east  of  the  city,  afterward  known  as  the 
McArthur  tavern  stand.  In  1835  lie  bought  the  stock  in  trade  of 
Amos  Temple,  consisting  of  books  and  clothing.  For  many  years 
Mr.  Allen  was  actively  engaged  in  business.  lie  is  now,  and  for 
some  time  has  been,  acting  as  agent  for  lire  insurance  companies. 

George  Byrne  settled  in  Jackson  in  1838.  He  was  elected  reg- 
ister of  deeds  in  1840,  and  served  two  years.  He  also  served 
very  acceptably  as  justice  ot  the  peace  tor  several  years.  His  son, 
Gilbert  P.  Byrne,  has  been  in  the  banking-house  ot  Cooper, 
Thompson  &  Co.,  and  with  the  Jackson  City  Bank  for  many  years. 
He  is  now  assistant  cashier  of  the  last-named  institution. 

Wright  Chittock  came  to  Jackson  in  1836.  He  immediately 
commenced  work  at  his  trade  as  a  tailor.  He  followed  that  occu- 
pation until  he  went  to  California  in  1852.  Mr.  Chittock  died  in 
1853,  while  returning  from  the  Pacific  coast.  Dr.  Gordon  Chittock, 
son  of  Wright  Chittock,  came  with  his  father  to  Jackson.  He 
studied  medicine,  and  at  an  early  age  commenced  to  practice  as  a 
physician.  Dr.  Chittock  was  soon  recognized  as  one  of  the  most 
successful  of  the  practitioners  of  the  city,  and  took  his  stand 
among  the  leading  members  of  his  profession.  Dr.  Chittock  is 
now  active  in  his  profession,  in  which  he  has  a  large  practice. 

Latham  Kassick  came  to  Jackson  in  the  spring  of  1838.  In 
1839  William  P.  Kassick  made  Jackson  his  home,  and  under  the 
name  of  W.  P.  it  L.  Kassick  they  for  many  years  transacted  a 
general  mercantile  business.  After  the  dissolution  of  the  firm  the 
business  was  continued  by  L.  Kassick  until  1867,  when  he  retired 
from  the  trade.  Mr.  Kassick  is  a  member  of  the  First  Congrega- 
tional Church,  of  which  he  has  for  a  long  time  been  one  of  the 

Albert  Howe  settled  in  Tecumseh,  Lenawee  Co.,  Mich.,  in  1837. 
He  removed  to  Adrian  in  1840,  and  to  Jackson  in  1842.  Mr. 
Howe  kept  a  saddle  and  harness  establishment  during  his  business 
life  in  Jackson,  and  until  within  a  few  years.     He  has  now  retired 


from  active  business,  but  his  familiar  face  may  be  seen  almost 
daily  on  our  streets.  Although  not  one  of  the  earliest  pioneers, 
yet  Mr.  Howe  is  more  fortunate  than  most  of  them,  as  he  is 
represented  in  Jackson  by  the  fourth  generation. 

Douglass  Gibson  came  to  Jackson  in  his  early  boyhood  with  his 
father,  A.  B.  Gibson,  Esq.,  and  has  been  for  many  years  one  ot 
the  prominent  business  men  of  the  city.  Mr.  Gibson  was  for  sev- 
eral years  one  of  the  largest  dealers  in  iron,  nails,  stoves,  tin-ware 
and  hardware  in  general  in  the  interior  of  the  State,  as  a  member 
of  the  firms  of  Rice.  Pratt  &  Co.  and  Pratt  A:  Gibson.  In  186!) 
Mr.  Gibson  and  Mr.  Thomas  Westren  established  the  Interest  and 
Deposit  Bank,  of  winch  Mr.  Gibson  was  president,  which  office, 
with  an  active  participation  in  the  management  of  the  affairs  of 
the  bank,  he  has  continued  to  hold  to  the  present  time. 

Mr.  Albert  Howe  Gibson,  son  of  Douglass  Gibson,  succeeded 
the  firm  of  Pratt  &  Gibson  in  the  hardware  business,  in  which  he 
is  still  engaged,  and  is  one  of  the  most  active  and  enterprising  of 
the  business  men  of  Jackson  of  the  third  generation. 

Dr.  Reuben  ('.  Gibson  came  to  Jackson  county  in  1835,  and 
commenced  the  practice  of  medicine  at  the  then  nourishing  village 
of  Sandstone,  afterward  removing  to  Gidley's  Station,  near  the 
present  village  of  Parma.  Dr.  Gibson  was  very  successful  as  a 
physician,  and  was  held  in  high  esteem  as  a  citizen.  He  closed  a 
life  of  usefulness  among  those  with  whom  he  had  for  many  years 
been  active  in  the  discharge  of  every  duty. 

William  Iv.  Gibson,  son  of  Dr.  Gibson,  is  now,  as  he  has  been 
tor  over  2<»  years,  one  of  the  most  active  members  of  the  legal 
fraternity  of  Jackson.  Mr.  Gibson  is  one  of  the  leaders  of  the 
Bar  in  the  county,  a  position  which  he  has  attained  by  industry  and 
strict  attention  to  business,  and  to  which  he  is  entitled' by  his  legal 
attainments.  He  has  held  many  offices  of  trust,  those  of  city  attor- 
ney and  prosecuting  attorney  for  the  county  among  others.  He  is 
now  the  attorney  for  the  Michigan  Central  Railroad  in  Jackson. 
Mi'.  Gibson  has  for  several  years  taken  great  interest  in  pomology 
and  horticulture,  and  has  come  to  be  an  authority  on  all  questions 
connected  witli  those  interesting  subjects.  He  is  an  active  mem- 
ber of  the  State  Pomological  Society,  and  has  devoted  much  time 
to  the  advancement  of  its  interests. 

Jerome  li.  Eaton  immigrated  to  Michigan  in  1834.  settled  in 
Adrian,  where  he  remained  until  1*4:2.  when  he  removed  to  Jack- 
son, and  at  once  engaged  in  active  business  as  a  merchant.  In 
1858  Col.  Eaton  formed  a  copartnership  with  Charles  K.  Knicker- 
bocker, and  established  the  wholesale  grocery  house  of  Eaton  & 
Knickerbocker.  For  eight  years  tins  firm  was  one  of  the  largest 
dealers  in  their  line  of  business  in  the  State.  Col.  Eaton  was 
president  of  the  village  in  1846,  was  supervisor  for  several  years, 
member  ot  the  Legislature  in  1851,  for  four  years  member  of  the 
Hoard  of  Public  Works,  and  is  nowpresident  of  the  Michigan  Air 
Line  Railroad  Company,  which  office  he  ha-  held  since  the  organ- 
ization of  the  company, 


W.  W.  Langdon  settled  in  Jackson  in  1835,  and  has  been  a  resi- 
dent of  the  place  to  the  present  time,  except  one  year  that  he  lived 
in  Napoleon. 

Henrv  II.  Bingham  settled  in  Michigan  in  1836.  He  came  to 
Jackson  county  in  1838,  and  was  for  many  years  engaged  in  trade. 
In  1851  he  made  Jackson  his  home,  and  has  since  continued  to  re- 
side in  the  city.  He  was  for  many  years  connected  with  the  State 
prison,  first  as  clerk,  then  as  agent  or  warden. 

Simon  Holland  settled  in  the  township  of  Napoleon,  Jackson 
Co.,  in  1837.  He  removed  to  Jackson  in  1856,  and  was  for  many 
years  engaged  in  business  as  a  member,  first  of  the  firm  of  Hol- 
land &  Lattimer,  then  of  that  of  Holland  A:  Son,  dealing  largely 
in  drugs,  paints,  oils,  medicines,  etc.  The  business  is  still  con- 
tinued by  his  son,  James  M.  Holland.  Deacon  Holland  was  al- 
ways a  leading  and  zealous  member  of  the  Baptist  Church,  of 
which  he  was  a  deacon  at  the  early  age  of  -_'l  years. 

J.  B.  Tomlinson  came  to  Jackson  in  1842,  and  established  him- 
self in  business  as  a  dealer  in  jewelry  and  repairer  of  clocks  and 
watches,  in  which  he  is  still  engagea.  Mr.  Tomlinson  has  been, 
and  still  is,  a  very  active  member  of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  and 
has  frequently  been  the  presiding  officer  in  the  lodge  and  chapter. 
He  has  always  been  noted  for  his  active  benevolence,  particularly 
tor  his  attention  to  the  care  of  the  sick,  and  for  paying  the  last 
sad   tribute  to  the  dead. 

Moses  A.  McNaughton  settled  in  Jackson  in  1841,  and  entered 
at  once  upon  the  practice  of  his  profession  as  a  physician,  which 
he  followed  successfully  for  several  years.  Dr.  McNaughton  at 
an  early  day  became  a  large  holder  and  dealer  in  real  estate.  He 
has  always  taken  an  active  part  in  all  questions  of  public  improve- 
ment. He  was  one  of  the  principal  promoters  ofthe  organization 
which  secured  the  building  of  Grand  River  Valley  railroad.  Dr. 
McNaughton  was  one  of  the  first  directors  of  the  Michigan  Air 
Line  Railroad  Company,  and  as  a  member  ofthe  business  com- 
mittee was  continually  engaged  in  forwarding  the  construction  of 
the  road  until  if  was  completed  from  Jackson  to  Niles.  He  is  one 
ofthe  officers  ot  the  company  at  the  present  time.  He  was  elected 
to  the  State  Senate  in  1852,  and  mayor  ofthe  city  in  1866. 

Morris  Knapp  came  to  Michigan  in  1840.  In  the  winter  of 
1843-'4  Mr.  Knapp  settled  in  Jackson.  He  soon  after  became  in- 
terested in  mail  routes  and  stage  lines,  in  connection  with  D.  B. 
Hibbard.  The  firm  of  Knapp  and  Hibbard  was  for  a  long  time 
the  largest  stage  proprietors  in  the  State,  and  running  more  miles 
of  mail  route  than  any  other  contractors.  Mr.  Knapp  has  for 
many  years  been  proprietor  of  an  extensive  livery,  sale  and  board- 
ing stable.  His  pleasant  address  and  accommodating  disposition 
have  made  for  him  a  host  of  friends.  His  son.  Charles  A.  Knapp, 
is  associated  with  A.  G.  Sutton  in  the  hack  and  omnibus  line  of 
the  city. 

John  Westren  at  an  early  day  entered  a  large  quantity  of  land 
in  Jackson  county.      He  made  Jackson  his  home  in  1841,    and   re- 

250  ^      HISTORY    OF    JACKSON    COUNTY. 

sided  in  the  city  until  his  death.  He  was  always  a  large  holder 
and  dealer  in  real  estate.  He  took  great  interest  in  the  develop- 
ment of  the  iron  mines  of  Lake  Superior,  and  was  a  large  stock- 
holder in  the  Jackson  Iron  Company  from  the  date  of  its  organiza- 
tion. Mr.  Westren  was  a  man  of  sterling  integrity  and  great  force 
of  character.  He  was  universally  respected  and  esteemed.  His 
sun.  Thomas  Westren.  is  a  native  of"  Jackson,  and  lias  always 
made  it  his  home.  He  joined  Mr.  Douglass  Gibson  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  ••Jackson  Interest  and  Deposit  Bank."  of  which 
lie  is  now.  and  always  lias  been;  the  cashier. 

Joseph  Ilanaw  became  a  resident  of  Jackson  in  1857.  He  was 
for  many  years  engaged  in  trade,  ami  has  always  been,  as  he  is 
now.  oneof  the  most  active  businessmen  of  Jackson.  Mr.  Hanaw 
has  accumulated  a  handsome  property,  and  ha-  a  family  of  11 
children  to  share  with  him  his  days  of  prosperity.  His  time  is 
now  occupied  in  looking  after  the  rental  of  his  store-  and  house-, 
in  the  care  of  his  numerous  family,  and  as  agent  oi  a  line  of  ocean 

E.  J.  Oonnable  joined  A.  H.  Pinneyin  1858  in  a  contract  at  the 
prison  for  the  manufacture  of  farming  tool-  Mr.  Oonnable  re- 
moved from  Ohio  to  Jackson  and  took  charge  of  the  business, 
which  under  his  management  was  very  successful.  He  withdrew 
from  the  business  at  the  expiration  of  his  contract  in  1854,  and  has 
for  several  years  been  largely  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  drain 
tile,  sewer  pipe,  fire  and  paving  brick,  and  other  articles  of  stone- 
ware. Mr.  Oonnable  is  one  of  the  most  active  and  enterprising 
business  men  of  the  city.  He  opened  and  worked  one  of  the  coal 
mines.  To  him  belongs  the%redit  of  establishing  and  building  up 
the  extensive  works  of  the  Jackson  Fire  Clay  Company,  of  which 
he  is  president. 

Silas  Heyser  came  to  Jackson  in  1855.  and  engaged  in  business 
as  a  carpenter  and  joiner.  He  has  for  several  years  been  largely 
engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  sash,  blinds  and  doors,  and  has 
now,  in  connection  with  his  sons,  Winfield  0.  and  Walter  J.  Hey- 
ser. one  of  the  largest  manufacturing  establishments  in  the  city, 
in  connection  with  an  extensive  lumber  yard. 

Abram  V.  Berry  came  to  Jackson  in  1841,  and  as  a  member  of 
the  firm  of  Berry  A  Medbury,  was  one  of  the  leading  merchants 
of  Jackson.  He  was  at  one  time  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the 
••Ford  Mills,"  and  largely  engaged  in  the  purchase  of  wheat  and 
manufacture  of  flour.  Col.  Berry  has  tilled  many  offices  of  public 
trust,  and  always  with  credit  to  himself.  He  was  president  of  the 
village  in  1843-'5,  and  city  marshal  in  lSSS-^O.  He  has 
also  been  supervisor,  alderman,  and  held  other  offices  of  appoint- 
ment. Col.  Berry  is  of  an  ingenious  turn  of  mind,  and  is  the 
author  of  several  inventions  of  merit. 

James  L.  Holmes  came  to  Michigan  with  the  family  of  his  father 
in  1837.  In  L838  he  removed  to  Jackson,  and  has  since  resided 
in  this  city.  Mr.  Holmes  has  always  been  an  active  business  man, 
and  is  one  of  the  best  known  in  the  town.      He  is  now  engaged  in 

HISTORY    OF    JA<  KSON    COUNTT.  251 

the  wholesale  and  retail  wine  and  liquor  trade.  He  is  a  most  en- 
thusiastic disciple  of  Izaak  Walton,  and  has  made  his  rod  familiar 
with  most  of  the  waters  in  and  around  the  State.  To  the  lakes  of 
Jackson  county  it  is  no  unusual  practice  for  him  to  go  day  after 
day,  without  regard  to  the  weather,  especially  if  it  is  such  as  is 
favorable  to  piscatory  sport.  Mr.  Holmes  is  a  most  efficient  mem- 
ber of  the  Board  of  Public  Works  of  the  city  of  Jackson,  which 
position  he  has  held  for  three  years. 


A  good  story  is  told  at  the  expense  of  (,u,.  ,,f  the  early  pioneers 
ot  Jackson  county,  Judge  Wooley  who  in  early  times  was  a 
shoemaker  of  Sandstone.  <  >ne  cold  winter's  day  as  the  judge  was 
warming  up  his  wax.  preparatory  to  the  day's  work  of  cobbling, 
a  never-do-well  sort  of  farmer  walked  in.  lie  wanted  a  pair 
of  boots,  but  had  no  money  to  pay  for  them.  The  judge  not 
liking  to  trust  him  proposed  that  if  he  would  draw  a  load  of  wood 
the  next  day  as  he  was  entirely  out  of  that  commodity  (wood  was 
a  legal  tender  in  those  days),  he  would  let  him  have  the  boots.  In 
this  the  honest  granger  acquiesced.  Well,  the  judge  opened  up 
his  shop  the  next  day  by  borrowing  some  wood  of  his  neighbors; 
he  waited  all  that  day.  but  no  wood  came;  also  the  next  day. 
The  third  morning  he  went  to  the  livery  and  hired  a  horse  and 
cutter  to  drive  out  to  the  farmer's,  some  three  or  four  miles  to  find 
out  why  he  did  not  deliver  as  per  agreement.  He  drove  up  to 
the  house,  and  upon  enquiring  found  that  the  farmer  was  at  the 
extreme  end  of  the  farm  chopping  wood.  The  judge  started  out  to 
find  him.  He  wallowed  through  the  snow  knee  deep,  about  half  a 
mile  or  more,  and  found  him  on  top  of  a  beech  log,  whistling  and 
making  the  chips  fly.  The  judge  accosted  him,  and  said:  "Why 
in  the  old  cat  don't  you  draw  me  that  wood  as  you  agreed  to." 
Farmer  John  says:  "  Wood  !  what  wood  '."  "Why  the  wood  you 
promised  to  draw  for  those  boots  that  you  have  got  on  your  feet; 
I  told  you  I  was  entirely  out." 

Farmer  says:  ••  Well,  the  shoemakers  in  Sandstone  lie  so  that  a 
man  can't  tell  whether  they  are  out  of  wood  or  not."  The  judge 
dropped  his  head  for  a  moment,  and  upon  looking  up,  says.  "  By 
Kate  !  the  boots  are  yours."  He  turned  about  and  wades  back  to 
his  horse  and  cutter,  leaving  the  farmer  whistling  some  pastoral 
air  known  to  the  pioneer. 



It  lias  ever  been  considered  a  day  of  rejoicinu;  when  pioneers 
should  meet,  when  old  comrades  should  come  together  to  renew 
their  memories  and  cheer  up  their  souls.  In  the  dim  past,  when, 
after  Babel,  the  migrations  of  the  people  took  an  extensive  form, 
the  idea  of  periodical  reunion  was  made  practicable.  On  the  land 
where  Athens  now  stands  such  another  meeting  is  said  to 
have  taken  place  as  that  which  did  honor  to  the  pioneers  ot 
Jackson  in  1874.  Over  two  thousand  years  ago  the  spot  on  which 
is  now  built  the  city  of  Paris,  the  beautiful  Leutetiaof  Inliam.  the 
early  settlers  united  in  their  strength  and  sacrificed  to  their  gods 
in  honor  of  their  meeting  and  in  thanksgiving  for  the  beautiful 
land  they  possessed.  Three  thousand  years  ago  the  Partholanians 
met  at  Howth  and  lighted  the  pagan  tires  of  joy  for  giving  them  a 
home  in  Ireland,  so  far  away  from  the  assaults  of  their  brother 
Greeks;  and  still  later  the  warlike  Milesians  assembled  on  the 
same  shore  to  celebrate  the  anniversary  of  their  conquest  of  the 
island,  and  to  meet  this  merry  circle  before  separating  for  their 
homes.  Revert  to  the  olden  times,  to  the  history  of  every  country, 
and  the  accounts  of  those  happy  reunions  remind  us  of  their 
utility,  [f  then  our  barbarous  ancestors  ot  dim  antiquity  observed 
the  customs,  how  much  more  becoming  is  it  for  the  people  ot 
to-day,  who  may  be  said  to  have  reached  the  highest  pinnacle  ot 
civilization  to  be  attained  by  the  race  at  present  inhabiting  this 
globe  '.  The  fact  is  accepted  and  acknowledged.  Throughout  the 
length  and  breadth  of  this  great  land,  the  large-souled  pioneers 
who  have  made  this  country  great,  have  assembled  periodically  to 
celebrate  their  advent  and  their  stay,  and  to  give  thanks  to  their 
God  for  His  mercy  in  leading  them  to  peaceful  and  happy  homes. 
The  pleasure  of  such  meetings  is  only  known  to  pioneers.  Their 
children  can  scarce  conceive  the  feeling  which  such  an  assembly 
creates,  or  the  happy  memories  which  it  awakens.  For  them  alone 
it  has  an  undying  interest;  and  though  the  young  may  possibly 
share  a  little  in  the  joy  of  the  old,  they  never  can  summon  up  the 
same  endearing  memories  as  pertain  to  the  latter,  or  entertain  for 
the  soil  they  tread  that  beautiful  veneration  which  pertains  to 
the  heart  of  the  old  settler.  He  alone  saw  the  virgin  soil  and 
married  her.  His  industry  tamed  the  beautiful  wild  land  until  it 
yielded  returns  a  hundred  fold;  his  hands  decorated  the  farm 
with  a  modest  and  comfortable  cottage,  and  now  in  his  declining 
years  he  has  that  homestead  to  take  pride  in.  and  these  happy 
meetings  to  yield  him  pleasure.  Happy  settlers  !  Good  old  set- 
253  i 


tiers  !     Well  deserved  are  the  honors  you  have  won,  well   merited 
the  peace  and  joy  that  waits  upon  your  age. 

At  an  early  period  in  the  history  of  the  county  efforts  were 
made  to  organize  an  association  in  which  all  the  pioneers  would  be 
embraced.  For  many  reasons  the  progress  made  was  very  slow, 
so  that  so  late  as  seven  years  ago  no  regularly  constituted*  organ- 
ization had  existence.  Then  the  people,  having  emerged  from  the 
period  of  labor  and  careful  guard,  turned  their  attention  to  the 
good  work,  and  without  delay  handed  themselves  together  and 
the  union  of  venerable  citizens  was  completed. 


For  a  number  of  years  prior  to  1*74  many  of  the  pioneers  looked 
forward  to  the  time  when  the  organization  of  their  numbers  would 
encircle  them  with  the  magnetic  chain  of  close  fellowship,  and  en- 
able all  to  commune  with  one  another  at  stated  seasons,  relate  the 
reminiscences  ot  the  past,  and  thus  aid  in  making  subject  for  the 
history  of  the  greatest  Union  the  world  ever  saw— a  history  which 
will  only  be  entered  upon  when  other  peoples  may  read,  to  wonder 
of  the  rise  and  fall  of  their  monarchies  and  empires. 


The  organization  ot  the  Pioneer  Society  oi  .Jackson  County  took 
place  March  14.  1874,  within  Bronson  Hall,  in  the  city  of  Jackson. 
The  meeting  was  large  and  influential,  and  on  being  called  to  or- 
der by  Hon.  Fidus  Livermore,  proceeded  to  the  choice  of  chair- 
man and  secretary.  The  duties  of  these  offices  were  accorded  to 
ex-Judge  David  Johnson  and  H.  H.  Bingham,  respectively. 
Judge  Johnson  introduced  the  subjects  which  would  have  to  be 
considered  by  the  meeting,  and  then  called  on  those  who  intended 
to  bring  forward  resolutions  to  do  so.  The  first  proposal  was  that 
constituting  Messrs.  Higby,  Livermore  and  De  Lamater  a  com- 
mittee on  constitution  and  by-laws.  A  brief  adjournment  followed, 
during  which  time  these  gentlemen  compiled  a  series  of  10 
articles  for  the  government  of  the  society,  the  preamble  setting 
forth  that  the  object  ot  the  Jackson  Pioneer  Society  is  and  shall 
be  to  collect  and  preserve  a  historical  record  of  'the  county  ot 

It  is  unnecessary  to  review  at  any  length  the  10  articles  of  as- 
sociation. They  are  broad  and  liberal.  In  June,  1877,  an 
amendment  was  accepted,  granting  to  persons  who  have  resided 
in  the  State  30  years,  or  in  the  county  20  years,  the  privilege  of 
becoming  members,  together  with  making  the  admission  of  mem- 
bers' wives  free.  Prior  to  the  debate  on  these  articles  of  constitu- 
tion no  less  than  1-14  pioneers  enrolled  themselves.  Subsequently 
each  article  met  with  unanimous  approval. 

The  election  of  officers  resulted  as  follows:  Hon.  David  John- 
son, President;  P.  B.    Loomis,    Treasurer;  and   II.    II.    Bingham, 


Secretary.  These  were  the  first  county  officers  ot  the  Pioneer 

The  vice-presidency  comprised  22  members,  elected  to  represent 
their  respective  townships  and  the  city  of  Jackson.  Their  names 
and  respective  districts  follow:  W.  R.  De  Land,  J.  T.  Durand, 
Samuel  Higby  and  W.  N.  Buck,  for  the  city  of  Jackson;  Lewis 
Brown,  township  of  Parma;  James  Gennison,  Springport;  L. 
Boynton,  Grass  Lake;  Chauncey  Hawley,  Napoleon;  Chester 
Wall,  Sandstone;  R.  H.  Anderson,  Rives;  J.  C.  Southern. 
Tompkins;  II.  Daniels.  Blackman;  .Muses  Suttle,  Liberty;  Ira 
Willis.  Pulaski;  James  Videto,  Spring  Arbor;  Wm.  Clapp,  Han- 
over; J.  II.  Tanner,  Henrietta;  Jacob  Biglow,  Concord;  A.  H. 
DeLamater,  Columbia;  L.  M.  Barber,  Leoni;  A.  A.  Qurley, 
Waterloo;  Freeman  J.  Watkins,  Norville;  William  Root,  Sum- 

These  appointments  completed  the  organization  of  the  good  old 
pioneers,  and  accomplished  much  for  which  the  people  of  the  fut- 
ure must  be  thankful.  Before  the  adjournment  Hon.  H.  A.  Hay- 
den,  Hon.  David  Johnson  and  A.  H.  De  Lamater  were  appointed 
delegates  to  the  State  Convention  of  April,  1874,  and  a  most  im- 
portant resolution  carried,  requesting  the  township  representa- 
tives to  compile  a  history  of  their  districts  for  the  purposes  of  the 

During  the  second  meeting  of  the  society  in  October,  1  >74, 
James  (TDonnell.  editor  of  the  Daih/  Citizen,  B.  L.  Carlton  and 
W.  W.  Van  Antwerp,  of  the  Daily  Patriot,  with  Tobias  Miller, 
of  Ingham  county,  and  Eugene  Pringle  were  admitted  honorary 
members.  At  tlie  same  meeting  a  history  of  Pulaski  township 
was  submitted  by  Vice-President  Ira  A.  Willis,  of  Norvell,  by  F. 
C.  Watkins.  and  of  Grass  Lake,  by  L.  Boynton. 


took  place  Feb.  22,  1875.  The  annual  election,  provided  for  in 
the  articles  of  organization,  resulted  in  the  return  of  Col.  Michael 
Shoemaker.  President:  P.  B.  Loomis.  Treasurer,  and  H.  H.  Bing- 
ham, Secretary;  with  the  following  vice-presidents:  .1.  A.  Higgins, 
W.  N.  Buck, 'William  R.  DeLand.  .1.  T.  Durand,  Jackson  City; 
George  Landon,  Springport:  Lewis  Brown,  Parma;  II.  S.  Smith, 
Grass  Lake;  Chauncey  Hawley,  Napoleon;  Chester  Wall,  Sand- 
stone; Richard  Townlev.  Tompkins;  Henry  Daniels,  Blackman; 
Moses  Tuthill,  Liberty;  Ira  C.  Wyllis.  Pulaski:  George  Hatch, 
Spring  Arbor;  Wm.  Clapp.  Hanover;  Samuel  Preston,  Henrietta; 
Joel  Bigelow,  Concord;  A.  II.  DeLamater.  Columbia;  G.  M.  Bar- 
ber, Leoni;  A.  A.  Quigley,  Waterloo;  Alvinzie  Hunt.  Norville; 
William  Root.  Summit. 


The  retiring  president,  David  Johnson,  paid  a  glowing  compli- 
ment to  his  colleagues,  and  formally  vacated  the  chair.  Col.  Shoe- 
maker, in  accepting  the  position,  reviewed  the  history  of  Michigan 
and  dwelt  in  his  happiest,  manner  upon  the  State,  as  well  as  Jack- 
son county,  since  1835,  the  year  of  his  advent  hither.  Col.  Shoe- 
maker's address  was  followed  by  that  of  Hon.  Levi  Bishop,  ot 
Detroit,  on  the  "Landmarks  of  American  History."  II.  H.  Bing- 
ham read  a  historical  paper  on  Leoni  township,  written  by  Z.  M. 
Barber,  a  vice-president  of  the  society.  The  appointment  of  W. 
K.  Gibson.  F.  Livermore  and  H.  II.  Bingham  on  the  historical 
committee,  with  instructions  to  collate  and  preserve  letters  and 
records  bearing  on  the  early  history  of  the  county,  brought  the 
proceedings  of  this  meeting  to  a  conclusion. 


The  meeting  oi  June  21.  I877.  was  among  the  most  important 
gatherings  of  the  pioneers.  President  Shoemaker  read  a  record 
of  the  deaths  of  71  old  settlers  who  passed  to  their  eternity  since 
the  last  meeting.  Hon.  Jonathan  Shearer,  of  Plymouth,  was 
present,  and  gave  a  recital  of  his  recollections  of  Jackson  county 
in  1837.  together  with  an  account  of  his  adventures  in  Ingham 
county  during  the  earlier  days  of  his  settlement.  Hon.  F.  Liver- 
more  and  Hon.  P.  B.  Loomis  recapitulated  many  interesting  rem- 
inisences  of  by-gone  times.  James  Bennett  read  a  poem  by  W. 
H.  C.  Harnier,  and  Jonathan  Shearer  ,  one  written  by  himself. 
The  election  of  officers  showed  the  terms  of  Col.  Shoemaker's 
presidency,  H.  H.  Bingham's  secretaryship  and  P.  B.  Loomis' 
treasuryship  to  be  continued.  D.  E.  Wright  was  chosen  vice-presi- 
dentfor  Parma  township;  George  Landon,  Springport;  H.  S.  Smith, 
Grass  Lake:  Chauncey  Ilawley,  Napoleon;  Chester  Wall,  Sand- 
stone; Richard  Townley,  Tompkins;  Henry  Daniels.  Blackman; 
Moses  Tuthill,  Liberty";  Ira  C.  Wyllis,  Pulaski;  George  Hatch, 
Spring  Arbor:  AVilliam  Clapp,  Hanover;  Samuel  Preston,  Hen- 
rietta: Joel   Bigelow,  Concord:  A.  II.  De  Lamater,  Columbia;  Z. 

M.  Barber.  1.. i:  A.  A.  Quigley,  Waterloo;  Alvinzie  Hunt,  Nor- 

vell;  AVilliam  Boot,  Summit;  E.  Van  Horn.  Rives:  with  Marvin 
Darrill.  J.  T.  Durand.  J.  A.  Higgins  and  W.  X.  Buck  for  the  city 
of  Jackson. 

The  President,  in  concluding  his  address,  said: 

"  Since  the  last  meeting  of  the  society  there  have  been  a  num- 
ber of  deaths  among  the  early  settlers,  and  in  the  course  of  nature 
it  will  be  but  a  few  years  until  the  pioneers  of  Jackson  county 
will  be  those  bom  and  bred  here,  and  not  those  whose  stout 
hearts  and  strong  arms  first  encountered  all  the  perils  and  hard- 
ships of  frontier  life.  The  log-cabin,  brush-fence,  fields  with 
stumps  all  standing,  have  given  way  to  the  comfortable  dwelling, 
with  ample  and  convenient  out-houses,  to  the  well  fenced,  cleared 
and  improved  fields.  With  all  these  advantages  to  aid  him,  the 
young  pioneer  wonders  that   his  parents  should  complain  of  the 


hardships  and  privations  attendant  upon  their  younger  days.  As 
the  signs  of  border  life  have  passed  away,  with  its  privations  of 
every  kind,  its  unremitting  labors,  its  agues,  its  fevers,  and  its 
many  discomfort.-,  so  are  rapidly  passing  away  that  hardy  race  of 
men  and  women,  who  in  one  generation  have  accomplished  so 
much,  who  have  subdued  the  wilderness  and  have  caused  Michigan 
to  take  a  stand  among  the  first  States  of  the  Union  in  wealth,  pop- 
ulation, intelligence  and  all  that  goes  to  make  a  State  in  which  her 
sons  may  take  just  pride.  Among  those  we  are  called  to  mourn, 

Daniel  O.  Barnard,  died  at  Jackson,  June  1,  187"). 

David  Chapel,  died  at  Sandstone. 

O.  H.  Cobb,  died  at  Jackson,  July  21,  1875. 

Win.  R.  De  Land,  died  1875,  at  Jackson. 

Samuel  Higby,  died  May  12,  187(5,  at  Jackson. 

Jas.  P.  Hawley,  died  at  Napoleonjuly  3,  1876. 

John  Keys,  died  at  Grass  Lake. 

Ben.  G.  Mosher.  died  at  Jackson. 

Samson  Stoddard,  died  at  Concord. 

Thomas  Tanner,  died  at  Henrietta  Jan.  2,  187G,  aged  60. 

Freeman  M   Sandford,  died  at  Tompkins 

F.  Wilson,  died  at  Spring  Arbor. 
D.  Whiteman,  died  at  Jackson. 
Simeon  Watts,  died  at  Leoni. 
Delos  Fisher,  died  at  Jackson. 

A.  Crowinan,  died  at  Waterloo,  aged  87. 
Lewis  Darling,  died  at  Tompkins,  aged  64. 
Amasa  Hawkins,  died  at  Parma,  aged  80. 
David  Williams,  died  at  Waterloo,  aged  76. 
John  A.  Sloat,  died  at  Napoleon,  aged  73. 

John  Norton,  died  at . 

FairchiUl  Farrand,  died  at  Jackson. 
Daniel  Mann,  died  at  Concord. 
Wm.  Maybury.  died  at  Jackson. 
Darman  Felt,  died  at  Jackson. 

Robert  McGregor,  died  at . 

L.I).  Wheeler,  died  at  Blaekman,  aged  55. 
Owen  Griffith,  died  at  Jackson,  aged  74. 
Robert  Graham,  died  at  Jackson,  aged  65. 
S.  H.  Sears,  died  at  Jackson. 

Marcus  Spencer,  died  at . 

G'O.  A.  Baldwin,  died  at  Jackson. 

Allen  Case,  died  Nov.  2,  1S75. 

S.  M.  Soper,  died  at  Tecumseh,  April  6,  1877,  aged  70. 

John  Morton,  di-d  March  28.  1876,  aged  75. 

Isaac  Kibbee,  died  at  Summit,  aged  81. 

Win.  S.  Moore,  died  at  Jackson,  March  15,  1877,  aged  48 

Ap.  Lincoln,  died  at  Tompkins,  May  26,  1877,  aged  80. 

G.  G.  Gould,  died  at  Tompkins. 

Lewis  Brown,  died  at  Parma,  Oct.  16,  1876. 

C  J  .  Nobles,  died  Nov.  23,  1876.  aged  72. 

Ab.  Sanford,  died  at  Liberty,  June  5,  1877,  aged  80. 

Mr.  Palmer,  died  at  Liberty. 

Lorin  Culver,  died  April  15,  1876.  aged  57. 

M.  J.  Draper,  died  at  Jackson,  Sept7,  1876,  aged  68. 

H.  Mcllauirhton.  died  at  Jackson.  Nov.  1,  1876,  aged  40. 

T.  H.  Grosvenor,  died  at  Brooklyn,  Dec.  13,  1S76,  aged  i\'y 

Jesse  Alexander,  died  at  Jackson,  June  6,  1877,  aged  67. 

A.  H.  Peterson,  died  at  Jackson,  March  4.  1876,  aged  63. 

Mrs.  II.  H.  Bumpus,  died  at  Jackson. 

Eliza  Hand,  died  July  22,  1876. 


Mrs.  N.  Allen,  died  at  Jackson. 

"  Morrison,  died  at  Jackson,  January,  1870,  aged  84. 

"  J.  Trumbull,  died  at  Rives. 

"  Southworth,  died  at  Tompkins. 

"  R.  Townley,  died  at  Tompkins 

"  Maria  Smith,  died  at  Jackson,  March  6,  1876. 

'  J.  VT.  Bennett,  died  at  Jackson,  March  22,  187(5. 

"  M.  L.  Field,  died  at  Jackson,  March  22,  1870,  aged  43. 

"  J.  Webb,  died  at  Jackson  June  3,  1876,  aged  65. 

"  ('.  Jones,  died  June  22,  1870,  aged  57 

"  E.  Howe,  died  at  Jackson.  July  22,  1876.  aged  85. 

"  Sally  Moe.  died  at  Parma,  Aug"  21,  1876,  aged  61. 

•'  H   McArthur.  died  at  Parma.  July  29,  1876. 

••  M  J.  Draper,  died  at  Rives,  Jan.  16,  1877. 

"  M.  Myers,  died  at  Baldwin,  Jan.  30,  1877,  aged  90. 

"  A.  Pease,  died  at  Jackson,  Feb.  15.  1877,  aged  61. 

"  M   Beeker.  died  at  Jackson.  .March  22,  1*77.  aged  ^ 

-  J.  Cole,  died  at  Jackson,  April  23,  1877.  aged  66. 

"  H.  A.  Jones,  died  at  Parma.  May  10,  1877,  aged  72. 

"  Isaac  Kibbee,  died  at  Summit. 

"  A  large  number  of  those  named  were  riot  members  of  this 
society,  but  so  tar  as  I  could  inform  myself,  all  had  resided  a  long 
time  in  this  county,  pr  were  of  the  first  of  those  who  made  their 
homes  in  Jackson  county,  when  it  was  little  more  than  a  wilder- 


The  pioneers  and  old  settlers  met  June  18,  1879,  to  celebrate  the 
50th  anniversary  of  the  settlement  of  their  county.  Judge  David 
Johnson  delivered  the  address  of  welcome.  Gen.  (t.  W.  Brown,  a 
veteran  of  the  Sac  or  Black  Hawk  war.  Judge  Baxter,  F.  A. 
Dewey,  Henry  Little,  Dr.  Robinson,  Eugene  Pringle,  and  President 
Shoemaker  delivered  many  valuable  addresses  bearing  on  the  early 
settlement  of  the  county.  B.  F.  Eggleston  sang  "Forty  Years 
Ago;"  II.  Ilendee.  ofBlackman  township,  read  a  classical  poem; 
Mi"  M.  W.  Clapp  read  a  historico-biographical  sketch  oftheearly 
settlement  of  her  parents,  and  Henry  Bishop,  of  Kalamazoo,  asked 
the  pioneers  and  people  not  to  neglect  an  opportunity  to  collate 
every  sera!,  of  history  hearing  on  .Michigan.  The  ladies  of  the 
society  entertained  1,500  persons  at  dinner  and  did  much  to  con- 
tribute to  the  success  of  the  celebration. 

The  weather  was  sunny  and  pleasant,  and  the  grassy  grounds, 
shaded  by  the  thick  foliage  of  the  over-arching  trees,  seemed  never 
more  delightful  than  during  the  bright  and  genial  hours  that 
marked  this  occasion. 

Floral  Hall,  in  which  refreshments  were  served,  was  tastefully 
decorated.  Along  the  aisles  on  either  side  of  the  central  platform 
the  double  row  of  pillars  supporting  the  roof  were  trimmed  with 
evergreen,  just  above  which  small  flags  depended,  and  the  effect  of 
the  long  and  regular  array  of  these  miniature  banners  down  the  en- 
tire length  of  the  hall  was  highly  ornamental.  The  middle  space 
below  the  skylight  was  hung  with  large  flags,  and  festooned  with 
red    and    blue    bunting.       The     tables.     Is    ,,,-    2Q    in    number. 


were  set  in  the  north  end  of  the  building.  Their  snowy  coverings 
were  looped  with  sprigs  of  pine  and  cedar,  and  surmounted  with 
baskets  and  vases  of  fresh  and  lovely  flowers.  The  contrast  of  the 
emerald  and  crimson  and  innumerable  dyes  of  these  floral  decora- 
tions with  the  snowy  linen  beneath  them,  was  of  course  pleasant  to 
the  eve.  and  the  long  rows  of  tables  thus  garnished  were  a  most 
picturesque  feature  of  the  hall.  At  the  front  entrance  was  a  ban- 
ner bearing  the  words:     "Welcome  Pioneers." 

About  il  o'clock  the  pioneers  and  a  large  crowd  of  people, 
headed  by  the  C.  C.  C.  band  marched  from  Floral  Hall  to  the 
speaker's  stand  in  the  front  part  of  the  grounds  to  witness  the 
opening  exercises,  and  listen  to  the  address  of  welcome  by  Judge 
Johnson  and  such  other  addresses  as  might  be  made. 

After  the  playing  of  "Auld  Lang  Syne"  by  the  band,  Col.  M. 
Shoemaker.  President  of  the  society,  introduced  the  Rev.  Ira  C. 
Billman,  who  offered  up  an  eloquent  and  appropriate  prayer. 
.fudge  David  .Johnson,  of  this  city,  was  then  presented,  who  de- 
livered the  following  address  of  welcome: 

JUDGE  Johnson's  WELCOME. 

"JPioneers  of  Michigan: — I  am  instructed  by  the  pioneers  of 
this  county,  whom  you  have  honored  this  .lav  by  your  presence  at, 
their  little  social  gathering,  to  bid  you  a  hearty  welcome.  The  few 
surviving  men  and  women  who  came  to  this  county  50  years  ago 
or  thereabouts,  to  find  for  themselves  a  home,  greet  you  kindly 
and  cordially.  The  associations  of  those  days  call  to  their  minds 
many  reminiscences  of  the  past, — some  bright  and  pleasant,  some 
dark  and  gloomy.  They,  in  common  with  you,  endured  the  toil 
and  privation  incident  to  the  settlement  of  a  new  country;  they,  in 
common  with  you.  have  enjoyed  the  blessings  of  a  kind  providence 
in  the  acquisition  of  pleasant  homes  in  a  delightful  country.  The 
bread  that  was  thrown  upon  the  waters  that  day  has  returned  to 
them  more  bountifully  than  the  heart  can  express. 

"The  Lord  has  brought  us  a  goodly  land,  a  land  of  brooks,  of 
waters,  of  fountains,  and  depths  that  spring  out  of  valleys  and  hills: 
a  land  of  wheat  and  barley  and  vines;  aland  wherein  thou  shalt 
eat  bread  without  scarceness;  a  land  whose  stones  are  iron,  and  out 
of  whose  hills  thou  mayest  dig  brass. 

"Had  the  inspired  prophet,  who  was  describing  to  his  people  the 
land  of  Canaan,  seen  and  surveyed  Michigan  he  could  not  have 
described  it  more  happily.  He.  however,  gave  them  warning  that 
the  enj<  >yment  <  >f  the  gift  of  so  line  a  ci  nintrv  was  upon  i  me  c<  »nditi<  In, 
and  that  was.  that  they  should  not  forget  their  God,  who  brought 
them  out  of  the  land  of  Egypt,  out  of  the  house  of  bondage,  and  he 
testified  to  them  that  in  the  day  they  should  forget  their  dependence 
on  Him.  they  should  surely  perish.  I  think  it  is  a  law  of  ourbeing 
which  stamps  itself  upon  our  minds  and  consciences,  that  every 
gift  of  Providence  is  held  and  enjoyed  upon  the  same  condition;  for 
to  forget  our  dependence  is  to  forget  our  obligation.  The  penalty 
falls  upon  nations  and  individuals  alike. 


••  It  is  not    worth  while  to  indulge  in  any  fears  upon  this  subject, 

for  there  is  another  law  equally  as  potent  and  certain,  and  that  law- 
is  the  law  of  progress.  The  world  is  growing  better,  and  has  been 
growing  better  day  by  day,  since  man  began  to  worship  the  sun  as 
the  image  of  his  Maker,  and  for  long  ages  before  that  time.  1 
know  that  among  a  certain  class  it  is  a  common  thing  to  say,  and 
they  believe  what  they  say.  that  the  present  aspect  of  the  moral 
condition  of  the  world  is  gloomy  enough;  and  they  will  talk  to 
you  about  the  golden  age  when  men  were  virtuous  and  happy. 
There  never  was  a  Golden  Age.  The  whole  thing  was  a  myth,  a 
conception.  But  there  was  a  stone  age  in  the  early  part  of  the 
world,  and  it  was  an  age  of  suffering,  an  age  of  barbarism,  an  age 
when  poor  human  nature  groped  its  way  in  the  dark  caves  of  the 
earth,  Living  on  such  fruits  as  they  could  gather,  and  on  the  raw 
flesh  of  such  beasts  as  they  could  conquer.  That  is  the  golden 
age  our  progenitors  enjoyed  and  the  only  one.  This  is  not  partic- 
ularly a  delightful  picture  of  the  condition  of  our  ancestors,  but  it 
is  well  to  understand  what  the  truth  is.  and  learn  that  in  no  age  of 
the  world  has  man  retrograded.  History,  tradition  and  everything 
that  can  throw  any  light  upon  the  past,  teaches  us  that  the  law  of 
human  life  is  the  law  of  progress.  Man  has  always  been  advanc- 

"To  prove  this  proposition  to  be  true,  that  is.  that  we  are  advanc- 
ing into  a  higher  life,  let  us  for  a  moment  review  the  history  of  the 
past.  Two  thousand  years  ago,  and  in  all  prior  ages,  nations  at 
war  made  no  prisoners,  with  very  few  exceptions.  The  <  'anaanites 
were  extirpated,  as  a  nation,  by  the  Israelites.  Samuel,  their 
prophet,  hewed  down  Agog  in  the  presence  of  his  king,  who  had 
probably  saved  him  as  a  trophy  of  his  victory;  and  it  must  be  re- 
membered that  those  were  the  chosen  people  of  God,  and  alone 
worthy  of  His  care  and  protection.  The  Medes  and  Persians  and 
Assyrians  and  Chaldeans  and  other  Asiatic  nations  did  the  same 
thing.  There  was  a  noble  exception  to  this  general  rule  to  be 
noted,  in  a  single  instance.  It  was  the  captivity  ot  the  Jews 
by  the  Babylonians.  They  carried  with  them  not  only  the  men, 
but  also  the  women  and  children,  who  were  not  very  profitable,  as 
slaves;  but  whether  it  was  because  of  the  humanity  of  the  victors, 
or  because  of  their  belief  that  their  captives  were  not  fit  to  die,  is 
a  problem  which  the  history  of  the  times  has  not  solved.  The 
Greeks  and  Romans  showed  the  same  brutal  indifference  to  lite. 
the  same  low  standard  of  humanity.  Some  of  the  most  sanguinary 
wars  on  record  were  between  and  among  the  Greeks  themselves. 
They  rarely  saved  prisoners  except  for  slaves.  Rome  exhibited 
more  legislative  ability,  and  when  she  crushed  a  nation  she  took 
it  into  her  own  embrace,  but  oftentimes  it  was  the  embrace  of 

"  The  Middle  Ages  represented  a  little  better  state  of  public 
morals.  The  vast  Roman  empire  had  crumbled  to  pieces  under 
its  own  weight,  and  it  was  succeeded  by  a  great  many  petty  gov- 
ernments, more  or  less  liberal,   but  generally  arbitrary  and    des- 


potic.  They  were  constantly  at  war  with  each  other.  The  only 
organization  during  that  whole  period  that  acted  upon  any  consist- 
ent and  well-defined  policy  was  the  Church.  The  world  must  be 
saved  or  damned.  It  was  the  function  of  the  Church  to  save,  and 
the  means  she  resorted  to  to  effect  that  object  lias  been  much  con- 

"  What  better  evidence  have  we  that  our  conception  of  what  is 
right  or  wrong  is  laving  its  foundation  deep  in  the  human  heart. 
and  which  in  the  end  will  regenerate  mankind?  I  do  insist  that 
the  world  is  making  rapid  advances  in  its  conception  of  truth  and 
justice  and  mercy;  and  from  this  I  will  not  swerve  one  jot  or  tittle; 
tor  on  the  truth  of  the  proposition  hangs  all  our  hopes  of  the  fut- 
ure: and  I  do  believe  that  the  Infinite  in  His  wisdom  has  created 
man  for  some  purpose  which  lie  lias  not  yet  readied;  that  he  has 
a  glorious  destiny  to  which  he  is  slowly  but  certainly  advancing. 

•'Now.  allow  me  to  occupy  a  moment's  time  in  calling  your 
attention  to  the  material  changes  which  have  taken  place  in  our 
day  and  generation.  Assuming  the  fact  that  some  of  us  have 
lived  out  the  days  allotted  to  man.  to  such  I  can  say  that  we  have 
seen  changes  more  marked  and  more  significant  in  their  results 
than  all  the  generations  of  men  before  us.  Seventy  years  ago,  nay 
60,  we  plowed  our  ground  with  a  wooden  plow.  We  might  say 
without  any  great  departure  from  truth,  that  we  stirred  the  ground 
with  a  wooden  stick.  We  sowed  our  wheat  broadcast;  we  cut 
it  with  a  sickle;  we  threshed  it  with  a  flail,  and  cleaned  it  with 
a  corn-fan.  and  when  we  got  a  bag  tilled,  we  put  it  on  the  hack  of 
a  horse,  put  a  boy  on  top  of  the  hag  and  sent  him  to  mill.  How 
we  do  these  things  now  I  need  not  tell  you.  for  you  already  know. 
You  know  also  "the  thousand  and  one  improvements  that  have 
been  made  in  the  mechanical  departments.  I  cannot  let  the 
opportunity  pas*  without  calling  your  attention  to  the  subject 
of  electricity  and  to  heat  expansion  or  the  power  of  steam,  two 
forces  of  nature  that  have  been  mainly  utilized  in  our  day.  When 
we  use  the  word  electricity,  we  have  a  vague  idea  of  a  certain 
mysterious,  imponderable,  indefinable  something:  hut  we  know 
nothing  of  its  nature:  we  have  learned  how  to  generate  it.  and  to  a 
certain  extent  how  to  control  it;  we  know  it  passes  through  metalic 
substances  with  wonderful  rapidity,  and  through  some  substances 
it  will  not  pass  at  all.  It  was  from  17">i-'.  when  Franklin  drew 
it  from  the  clouds,  for  almost  a  century  a  plaything  among  the 
scientific  men  of  the  day.  In  ls44,  and  about  the  time  that  little 
man,  James  K.  Polk,  was  nominated  for  the  presidency,  it  became 
utilized  by  our  own  countryman,  S.  F.  B.  Morse,  who  immortalized 
himself  hy  giving  to  a  dead  world  a  living  messenger,  which  was 
to  change  its  destiny.  We  now  send  messages  to  all  parts  of  the 
world  with  the  speed  of  thought,  and  with  it  we  talk  and  sing 
to  our  neighbors  many  miles  away. 

••The  steam-engine  is  of  slower  growth.  The  utilization  of  steam- 
power  cannot  be  justly  given  to  any  one  man.  James  Watts  did 
much  to  improve  the  engine  a  hundred  years  ago.       Robert  Fulton 


first  applied  it  to  the  propulsion  of  water-crafts  in  1807,  and  Geo. 
Stephenson  to  the  locomotive  in  1829.  The  locomotive  was  first 
used  in  this  country  in  1830.  It  soon  came  into  general  use 
as  a  mechanical  power,  and  the  steam-engines  now  in  use  in  this 
country  for  manufacturing  purposes  alone  are.  it  is  said  perform- 
ing the  labor  of  50,000,000  of  men. 

"  The  locomotives  on  the  great  thoroughfares  from  the  Atlantic  to 
the  Pacific  are  performing  an  amount  of  work  exceeding  the 
capacity  ol  all  the  horses  in  the  world.  The  immensity  of  this 
work  is  beyond  all  calculation.'  yet  it  lias  but  just  commenced. 
We  can  hardly  comprehend  what  a  hundred  years  will  accomplish. 

••This  is  the  way  the  world  is  progressing;  this  is  the  way 
it  is  moving,  ami  he  who  does  not  fall  into  the  ranks  and  move  on 
with  it.  will  surely  be  trodden  under  toot,  and  the  old  nations 
of  the  world  which  have  been  sleeping  tor  ages  must,  like  Rip 
Van  Winkle,  wake  up  and  march  on  with  it  also,  or  be  crushed 
out  of  existence. 

"And  now  the  question  may  be  pertinently  put.  but  none 
can  answer  it.  If  we  do  continue  to  march  upward  and  onward,  to 
what  haven  shall  we  arrive  '.  We  may  ponder  on  this,  for  it  is  the 
problem  of  life  and  eternity.  We  may  think,  and  the  power  to  do 
so  is  the  best  gift  of  God.  I  must  bring  my  remarks  to  a  close. 
You  have  my  thanks  for  your  attention,  and  my  best  wishes  for 
your  future  welfare." 

col.   shoemaker's  addeess. 

"Ladies  and  <<■  nth  rru  n  ofth.  Pion<  er  Socii  ty  of  Jackson  (  bwnty  : 

"  It  is  now  two  years  since  there  has  been  a  meeting  of  this  so- 
ciety. In  the  meanwhile  there  has  been  un  active  interest  taken 
in  all  matters  relating  to  the  early  history  of  the  State  in  other 
counties,  and  by  the  State  Pioneer  Society. 

"I  would  recommend  that  hereafter  there  be  held  two  meetings 
in  each  and  every  year,  as  provided  in  the  constitution  of  the  so- 
ciety :  a  winter  meeting  for  the  transaction  of  business,  and  a  sum- 
mer meeting  tor  social  intercourse.  The  winter  meeting  should 
not  lie  neglected,  as  the  constitution  provides  that  the  officers  of 
the  society  shall  then  be  elected,  and  the  general  business  of  the 
society  transacted.  The  summer  meeting  is  of  still  greater  impor- 
tance. That  should  lie  in  every  respect  a  social  reunion  which 
every  pioneer  in  the  county  and  every  son  and  daughter  of  a 
pioneer  should  attend,  to  renew  old  acquaintances  and  make  new 
ones,  so  that  old  and  young  may  feel  that  those  are  not  becoming 
estranged  who  should  be  hound  to  each  other  by  ties  as  strong  as 
that  of  blood  or  kindred. 

"The  relentless  scythe  of  time  is  rapidly  mowing  down  the 
ranks  of  those  who  first  encountered  the  hardships  and  privations, 
and  enjoyed  the  excitements  peculiar  to  pioneer  life,  and  their 
sons  and  daughters  should  see  to  it  that  their  names  are  not  buried 
in  oblivion.      Every  township  should  have  its  historian,   and  a  cor- 


rect  history  should  be  written,  not  only  of  the  first  settlement  of 
every  township,  but  also,  and  more  particularly,  a  brief  biography 
of  the  first  pioneers,  giving  their  lives  in  full,  as  well  before  they 
came  to  Michigan  as  up  to  the  time  of  their  death,  or  to  the  pres- 
ent  time  of  living. 

"These  sketches  will  add  to  the  interest  of  our  meetings,  and 
furnish  material  of  the  most  reliable  kind  tor  the  history  of  the  first 
settlement  of  the  State.  If  this  is  much  longer  delayed  a  large 
amount  of  knowledge  that  can  now  be  obtained  will  he  lost  by  the 
death  of  the  few  remaining  pioneers  who  50  years  ago  -tuck  their 
stakes  in  Jackson  county. 

"We  have  now  something  from  the  townships  of  Leoni,  Grass 
Lake,  and  Pulaski,  and  a  few  personal  sketches  of  pioneers,  but 
our  record  is  a  meager  one,  and  should  no  longer  be  neglected. 
There  is  now  existing  ample  material  for  a  full  history  of  the  first 
settlement  of  each  township,  and  for  the  biography  of  most  of  the 
first  settlers,  and  the  preparation  of  it  should  no  longer  be  ne- 
glected. The  sons  and  daughters  of  our  pioneers  should  see  to  it 
that  the  record  is  made  and  given  to  the  society  so  that  it  may  he 

"As  there  was  no  meeting  of  tin-  society  in  the  winter  it  is  now- 
incumbent  upon  the  members  to  elect  officers  to  act  until  the  next 
meeting  of  the  society.  There  should  also  be  provision  made  for 
proper  books,  in  which  may  be  placed  such  histories  and  biog- 
raphies as  are  now  in  possession  ot  the  society,  and  also  those 
which  may  hereafter  be  prepared    and  presented  to  it. 

"There  are  many  members  of  the  society  who  have  but  an  im 
perfect  record  upon  its  books.  It  is  very  desirable  that  all  such 
should  be  completed,  and  members  are  requested  to  examine  the 
membership  book,  and  those  who  have  not  done  so  should  give 
the  secretary  the  information  necessary  to  enable  him  to  make 
their  record  complete. 

"The  necrology  contains  not  only  the  names  of  the  members  ot 
this  society  who  have  gone  before  us  since  our  last  meeting,  but 
also  of  all  persons,  so  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  who  at  the  time  of 
their  death  were  over  60  years  of  age,  as  being  entitled  to  this 
record  ;  for  if  they  were  not  pioneers  themselves  they  have  followed 
their  children  or  friends,  and  have  spent  their  last  days  in  this 
county.  I  regard  all  such  as  entitled  to  the  notice  of  the  society  ; 
and  in  this  connection  I  wish  to  say  that  it  should  be  a  rule  of  the 
society  that  immediately  upon  the  death  of  a  member  the  presi- 
dent and  secretary  should  be  notified,  and  a  notice  at  once  pub- 
lished by  them  asking  all  members  of  the  society  who  can  possibly 
do  so  to  attend  the  funeral.  No  member  ought  to  be  allowed  to 
go  to  his  final  resting  place  without  this  tribute  of  respect  being 
paid  to  his  memory. 

"The  society  is  largely  indebted  to  many  outside  of  their  or- 
ganization for  their  efforts  to  make  this  meeting  successful  and 
agreeable.  This  applies  to  many  in  all  parts  of  the  county  who 
have   come    forward    and  assisted    its  members  in    every  possible 


manner.  Thedaily  papers  of  the  city,  the  Patriot  and  the  Citizen, 
have  generously  granted  the  free  use  of  their  columns  to  give  the 
action  of  the  society  the  necessary  publicity.  The  Michigan  Cen- 
tral, its  leased  Hues;  the  Fort  Wayne,  Jackson  Ar  Saginaw;  and 
the  Lake  Shore  &  Michigan  Southern  railroads  have,  with  com- 
mendable liberality,  given  reduced  fare  from  all  points  in  this 
State  on  their  roads.    ■ 

"To  the  ladies  who  have  so  kindly  and  so  thoroughly  given 
their  invaluable  aid  is  the  gratitude  of  the  society  particularly  due. 
They  have  proved  themselves  worthy  wives  and  daughters  of 
pioneer  husbands  and  fathers ;  the  work  done  by  them  is  above  all 

•'To  each  and  all  the  society  returns  its  thanks  for  all  favors  re- 
ceived, and  gratefully7  acknowledge  the  many  acts  of  kindness  ex- 
tended to  it  in  the  effort  made  to  bring  together  the  pioneers  of 
the  counts*  and  the  State."  |    .■qj: 

Mrs.  N".  H.  Pierce,  of  Ann  Arbor,  appeared  on  the  stand,  and 
with  a  clear,  distinct  voice  read  the  following  poem,  entitled 


"  On  to  the  West!"  was  the  earnest  cry 

Of  our  people  some  fifty  years  ago. 

The  people  were  many,  and  labor  was  scarce, 

And  industry  crowded  our  busy  marts, 

And  the  Eastern  markets  were  glutted  and  slow. 

On  to  the  land  where  the  forests  wild 

Were  standing  so  lonely  with  out-stretched  arms. 

The  lakes  and  rivers  were  broad  and  free, 

And  all  uutrammeled  in  their  rush  and  Mow, 

And  waiting  of  human  use  to  be; 

There  were  plains  unfilled,  and  mills  and  factories  unbuilt. 

And  thousands  of  chances  for  hearts  of  steel 

To  come  and  appropriate,  till  and  build, 

And  open  a  way  for  humanity's  weal. 

There  were  richest  mines  all  unexplored; 

There  were  leagues  of  iron  and  salt  and  coal, 

The  greatest  of  blessings  on  earth  to  men, 

And  source  of  comfort  and  wealth  untold  : 

It  only  needed  the  stalwart  arm, 

The  iron  nerve,  and  the  flinty  will, 

To  push  straight  on,  to  dig  and  delve, 

And  our  beautiful  State  with  prosperity  fill. 

And  so,  on  they  come  !  and  the  western  trains 

Of  the  emigrant  wagons  white  and  slow, 

Were  circling  round  hill  tops  or  winding  through  plains, 

Undaunted  by  menace  of  half  concealed  foe. 

They  startled  the  deer  in  their  ambushes  wild, 

As  still  moving  onward  the  invaders  filed  ; 

Dark  savages  peered  at  the  unwonted  sight, 

And  forgot  to  resist  or  seek  safety  in  flight  ; 

But  a  garden  of  sweets  to  the  venturous  band 

Was  this  wild  territory,  so  new,  yet  so  grand. 

There  were  acres  of  wild  flowers  of  every  hue ; 

Springs,  rivers,  and  landscapes  most  charming  to  view  : 

There  were  silvery  lakelets  with  fine  sandy  beaches, 

And  forests  of  timber  with  broad  sunny  reaches; 

There  were  plaster  and  lime  deeply  bedded  in  earth, 

Which  have  borne  no  mean  part  in  enhancing  our  worth  ; 


There  were  meadows  of  wild  grass,  grapes,  and  wild  honey. 

And  nothing  was  wanting,  indeed,  except  money. 

But  the  millions  still  buried  in  mines  and  in  land, 

"Was  now  only  waiting  the  engineer's  hand 

To  prove  us  enriched  with  this  product  unfurled. 

Which  soon  would  astonish  the  rest  of  the  world  ! 

"Seekest  thou, "  said  a  voice  to  the  brave  pioneer, 

"A  beautiful  Peninsula  ?  Fehold  it  here  !" 

And  soon  through  the  forest  the  silence  he  breaks 

With  the  firm,  ringing  blows  of  the  engineer's  ax, 

And  humble  log-cabins  soon  dotted  the  plains, 

And  the  spirit  of  civilization  now  reigns. 

And  gardens  and  orchards  next  brighten  the  way, 

And  deep,  tangled  wildwood  soon  vanish  away, 

And  broad  fields  of  grain  with  their  tassels  of  gold 

Soon  laugh  in  the  sunlight,  a  treasure  unfold, 

And  soon  did  the  wilderness  bloom  like  the  rose, 

Prosperity  followed,  their  spirits  arose  ; 

All  nature  exulting  cries  out  with  a  cheer  : 

"  Long  life  and  success,  to  the  brave  pioneer!" 

The  years  have  rolled  on  and  the  young  head  is  old, 

And  the  heart,  warm  and  hopeful  is  fast  growing  cold, 

And  the  hand  once  so  nimble  has  finished'its  toil, 

For  the  work  of  the  laborer  in  tilling  the  soil 

Has  fallen  to  others  still  younger  in  years, 

Who  walk  in  the  wake  of  the  old  pioneer  ! 

Now,  behold  what  a  change  to  the  eyes  of  those 

Who  were  first  to  lead  in  the  onward  way  : 

Great  forests  are  felled  and  rivers  are  bridged, 

And  towns  and  cities  now  stand  this  day. 

All  over  the  country,  like  network  spread, 

The  rail  and  telegraph  routes  now  lay; 

And  eager  and  longing  and  wishing  for  more, 

Our  youths  are  still  seeking  our  western  shore; 

And  then,  when  the  uttermost  verge  is  found, 

They'll  on  to  the  east  and  the  world  go  round. 

Now,  looking  back  through  the  vanished  years, 

We're  well  repaid  for  our  toil  and  pain ; 

The  trials  are  over  of  the  pioneers, 

But  their  grand  achievements  still  remain  ; 

And  better  facilities  none  can  find, 

In  search  of  improvements  in  morals  and  mind. 


Gen.  J.  W.  Brown,  of  Teeumseh,  a  veteran  of  87  years,  and  one 
of  the  heroes  of  the  Black  Hawk  war,  in  which  he  commanded  all 
the  troops  of  the  Northwest,  was  introduced  and  made  a  short 
speech.  He  recounted  his  personal  experience  as  a  pioneer  and 
gave  a  short  sketch  of  his  early  life. 

The  band  played  ''Hold  the  Fort"  and  "Sweet  Bye  and  Bye" 
in  their  best  manner. 

Judge  Witter  J.  Baxter,  of  Jonesville,  was  introduced.  He  said 
he  was  a  pioneer  rather  by  virtue  of  his  gray  hairs  than  because  of 
any  pioneer  work  he  had  ever  done.  He  said  he  had  witnessed 
the  development  and  growth  of  the  great  Staff  <  if  Michigan  with 
pride,  and  adverted  in  glowing  terms  to  its  religious  and  moral 
standing,  to  its  educational  advantages,  and  its  political  rights  and 
privileges.     He  declared  that  she  stood  among  the  first  in  the  galaxy 


of  States;  and  in  the  course  of  his  remarks  made  eulogistic  allusions 
to  the  nation  at  large.      He  retired  amid  enthusiastic  applause. 

B.  F.  Eggleston,  of  this  city,  followed  with  the  ballad,  "Forty 
Years  Ago,'"  which  he  sang  in  the  happiest  manner,  and  was  re- 
warded by  the  attention  and  the  applause  of  the  assembly. 

Harrington  Hendee,  of  Blackman,  read  a  poem,  which  we  regret 
we  have  not  space  to  reproduce. 

Hon.  Jonathan  M.  Shearer,  of  Wayne,  was  introduced.  He  is  a 
genuine  gentleman  of  the  old  school,  and  wore  his  silver  hair  in  a 
cluster  of  curls  behind,  tied  with  a  black  ribbon.  His  speech,  which 
was  extemporaneous,  was  appropriate  to  the  occasion  and  well  re- 
ceived. At  the  close  he  sang  a  song  entitled  "The  Down  Hill  of 
Life,"  with  a  great  spirit.  His  age  is  88  years.  His  aged  but  ex- 
cellent wife  was  also  on  the  ground.  They  have  been  residents  of 
the  county  for  50  years. 

F.  A.  Dewey,  President  of  the  Lenawee  Pioneer  Society,  was 
presented  and  made  a  brief  speech.  Mr.  D.,  who  is  68  years  of  age, 
was  a  drum  major  under  General  Brown  in  the  Black  Plawk  war. 
He  has  lived  in  Lenawee  county  50  years,  and  judging  from  his 
appearance  has  a  quarter  of  a  century's  lease  of  life  before  him. 

Eugene  Pringle,  of  this  city,  made  a  most  eloquent  address  in 
which  he  urged  the  necessity  of  preserving  the  local  history  of  this 
county  and  of  all  the  counties  of  the  State.  He  said  those  who 
were  to  come  after  us  would  not  understand  the  philosophy  by 
which  the  civilization  they  will  inherit  was  molded  unless  they 
were  made  cognizant  of  the  early  history  ot  the  country.  He  said 
the  prosperity  we  enjoyed  received  impetus  from  the  pioneers  who 
braved  every  danger  and  laid  the  foundations  here  for  thousands 
of  pleasant  and  happy  homes. 

H.  Bishop, of  Kalamazoo,  read  a  paper  urging  the  advisability  of 
preserving  all  attainable  records  of  the  hardy  pioneers  who  came 
to  Michigan  when  it  was  a  wilderness  and  made  it  bloom  with 
widespread  fruitful  fields. 

Aiter  music  by  the  band,  the  daughter  of  Mrs.  M.  W.  Clapp, 
read  a  succinct  history  of  the  latter's  pioneer  life.  In  1837  her 
husband  bought  three-eighties  in  Hanover  township,  upon  which 
she  has  ever  since  resided.     Her  age  is  75  years. 

Henry  Little, of  Kalamazoo,  a  hale  and  hearty  man  of  83  years, 
read  an  address  entitled  "  Jacksonburgh  and  Jackson  County, 
in  1831  and  1879."  We  regret  that  we  are  prevented  for  want 
of  space  from  printing  it.  Mr.  L.  made  a  point  by  the  assertion 
that  "Michigan  has  better  laws  and  more  of  them  than  any  other 

Dr.  Robinson  read  a  poem  abounding  in  local  allusions  and 
pleasant  personal  references  which  was  exceedingly  well  received. 
We  regret  that  the  length  of  our  report  prevents  our  presenting 
extracts  from  it.  Hon.  James  C.  Wood  made  the  closing  address 
which  was  made  up  of  anecdote  and  personal  recollection. 

The  following  resolution  presented  by  Morgan  Case  passed  unan- 


Resolved,  That  the  thanks  of  this  city  be  and  they  are  hereby 
tendered  to  the  ladies  for  the  bounteous  banquet  which  they  have 
prepared  here  to-day:  and  for  the  ornamenting  of  the  hall,  and 
their  kind  and  successful  efforts  in  entertaining-  the  society  and  its 

The  recognition  ot  the  service  rendered  by  the  ladies  was 
merited  and  fully  deserved.  They  labored  hard  to  make  the 
occasion  what  it  was — a  big  success — and  all  united  in  according 
them  the  praise  to  which  they  were  entitled. 


The  celebration  of  the  50th  anniversary  of  the  settlement  ot 
Jacksonburgh  township,  was  also  made  the  occasion  of  memorial- 
izing the  settlement  of  the  Fifield  and  Stevens  families  therein. 
Messrs.  Fifield  and  Stevens  left  the  township  of  Salisbury,  Merri- 
mac  Co.,  N.  II.,  on  the  6th  day  of  October,  1830.  The  western 
bound  party  consisted  of  Enoch  Fifield,  James  Fifield  and  wife. 
Osgood  II.  Fifield  and  wife.  John  S.  Fifield,  George  W.  Fifield, 
William  P.  Fifield,  Edward  Morrill,  John  Stevens  and  Benjamin 
Wilson.  They  arrived  in  Jacksonburgh  on  the  22d  day  of  Octo- 
ber. 1830,  and  put  up  at  the  log  tavern  then  kept  by  Thompson, 
and  had  the  privilege  of  Bleeping  upon  a  rail  floor;  not  a  board 
was  used  in  building  the  house,  even  the  doors  were  made  of 
rails.  Enoch  Fifield  and  Edward  Morrill  returned  East  the  same 
fall.  The  remaining  nine  of  this  company,  together  with  the 
1'ease  family,  numbering  eight,  making  a  party  of  17,  win- 
tered in  this  township  in  1830-'31,  they  being  the  first  white  people 
that  ever  wintered  in  this  township  outside  of  Jacksonburgh. 
George  Fifield  and  John  Stevens  are  the  only  two  now  living  ot 
the  17  that  settled  here  in  1830  and  of  the  little  party  of  11  that 
left  Salisbury.  N.  II.,  on  the  6th  of  October,  1830. 

At  this  meeting,  June  18,  1879,  were  present  Mrs.  A.  L.  Bolton. 
a  lady  aged  70  years,  who,  with  her  family,  was  the  first  settler 
in  Napoleon,  where  she  lived  48  years.     Subsequently,   the  same 

S:ar,  M<  >rgan  ( !ase  with  his  wife  settled  here  also.  Senator 
odges,  who  lived  in  Pulaski  and  Concord  for  a  time  of  43  years, 
was  present.  Melvin  McGee,  who  came  into  the  county  in  1832, 
when  14  years  old,  and  a  resident  for  47  years,  was  also  present. 
Mr.  Tripp,  of  Hanover,  although  58  years  of  age,  was  pres- 
ent and  seemed  in  the  prime  of  life.  This  settler  has  resided  on 
the  old  homestead  47  years.  He  came  to  Hanover  in  1832,  with 
his  father,  Abel  Tripp,  who  located  the  first  farm  in  that  town- 
ship. John  Curtis,  aged  79.  who  came  to  Jackson  in  1837,  was 
also  present. 

The  secretary  of  the  Pioneer  Society  reported  a  membership  ot 
.".(»4  men  and  30  ladies.  The  oldest  member  is  Allen  Green,  ot 
Napoleon,  born  in  17S9.  His  wife  was  born  in  1801,  and  they 
were  united  in  marriage  in  1821.  The  next  oldest  member  is  Johii 
O'Dell,  88  years  of  age.  who  settled  in  Grass  Lake  in  1835. 


The  following  list  of  pioneers  who  have  died  in  Hanover  since 
1874  was  presented  to  the  president  of  the  County  Society  :  John 
Cobb,  died  Jan.  16,  1875.  He  was  a  native  of  Massachusetts,  and 
settled  in  Hanover  in  1834.  Mrs.  Densmore  died  Jan.  18,  1815. 
She  was  a  native  ot  Maine,  and  settled  in  Hanover  with  her  hus- 
band, Abiel  Densmore.  in  1839.  Orren  D.  Thompson  died  April 
11,  1877.  Mr.  Thompson  was  a  native  of  Connecticut  and  settled 
in  Hanover  in  1836.  J.  L.  Hutchins  died  Aug.  16,  1877.  He  for- 
merly lived  in  Spring  Arbor,  but  for  quite  a  number  of  years  pre- 
vious to  his  death  had  lived  in  Hanover.  Paul  Spink  died  ( >ct. 
22,  1877.  Mr.  Spink  was  a  native  of  New  York,  and  lived  in 
Concord  until  1840.  Mrs.  Nathan  Shaw  was  a  native  of  New 
York,  and  settled  in  the  town  of  Hanover,  with  her  husband,  in 
1840.  J.  L.  Rowe,  a  native  of  New  York,  settled  in  Michigan  in 
1835,  and  died  in  Hanover  Oct.  16,  1878,  nearly  86  years  old. 
Mrs.  John  L.  Rowe  died  in  Hanover  village  June  15,  1875.  She 
was  a  native  of  Vermont.  Jefferson  Drake  died  Feb.  16,  1879. 
He  was  born  in  New  Hampshire.  Mrs.  Hannah  Burdick  died 
Dec.  31,  1879.     She  was  a  native  of  Rhode  Island. 

was  held  Feb.  21,  1880.  Col  Shoemaker  and  Hon.  David  John- 
son addressed  the  members  present  and  were  emphatic  in  their 
advocacy  of  preserving  a  full  record  of  the  county.  The  speakers 
having  concluded,  the  choice  of  officers  was  made.  II.  H.  Bing- 
ham, the  indefatigable  secretary  of  the  society,  was  elected  presi- 
dent; B.  F.  Eggleston,  secretary,  and  P.  B.  Loomis,  treasurer. 
The  vice-presidents  chosen  to  represent  the  townships  were : 
George  Langdon,  Springpdrt;  Thomas  .!.  Stimson,  Parma;  Michael 
Dwelle,  Grass  Lake;  John  C.  Covert.  Napoleon;  Jared  L.  Rich- 
ardson. Sandstone;  Richard  Townley,  Tompkins;  John  R.  Poole, 
Blackman;  Moses  Tutthill.  Liberty;  Ira C.  Wyllis,  Pulaski;  George 
Hatch,  Spring  Arbor;  William  Clapp,  Hanover;  Patrick  Eankard, 
Henrietta; Richard  Rriu-s,  Concord;  A.  II.  DeLamater,  Columbia; 

Z.  M.  Rarher.  1., i;  Reter  Knauff,  Waterloo;  Charles  A.  Brown, 

Norvell;Wm.  Root,  Summit;  R.  11.  Anderson,  Rives;  Moses  A. 
MeNaughton,  1st  and  2d  wards;  .lames  C.  Wood,  3d  and  4th 
wards;  S.  ( ).  Knapp,  5th  and  6th  wards;  Eugene  Pringle,  7th  and 
8th  wards,  Jackson. 

The  president's  valedictory,  contained  in  his  address  to  the  pio- 
neers, was  as  follows: 

"  To  tht  Pioneers  of  Jack*' >/i  t'mnitij: — The  winter  meeting  ot 
the  society  is  held  for  the  election  of  officers;  to  hear  the  report 
of  its  vice-presidents,  who  each  constitutes  amemorial  committee 
for  the  township  which  he  represents,  and  whose  duty  it  is  to 
report  the  death  of  all  members  of  this  society,  and  also  ot'  an\ 
other  pioneers,  which  have  occurred  in  his  township  during  his 
term  of  office:  the  arrangements  for  a  summer  picnic  meeting  or 
meetings,  and  the  transaction  of  such  other  business  as  the  society 
may  think  proper. 


"I  would  respectfully  urge  that  vice-presidents,  in  the  future,  he 
instructed  to  give  special  attention  to  the  memorial  reports,  and 
requested  to  give,  with  the  date  of  the  death  of  each  pioneer,  the 
time  and  place  of  birth,  the  date  of  settlement  within  the  county, 
with  a  brief  sketch  of  his  or  her  life;  these  reports  to  be  made 
annually,  at  the  winter  meeting  of  the  society. 

"The  constitution  of  the  society  provides  that  there  shall  be 
two  meetings  of  its  members  and  other  pioneers,  one  Feb.  22, 
and  the  other  on  the  third  Saturday  in  August.  It  has  been  found 
more  pleasant  t<>  hold  the  summer  meeting  in  June,  rather  than  in 
August,  it  but  one  meeting  is  held  in  the  summer  months.  It  is 
desirable  that  the  practice  of  the  society  should  correspond  with 
the  requirements  of  its  constitution,  and  I  would  recommend  a 
revision  of  its  provisions,  not  only  as  to  the  times  of  holding,  but 
also  as  to  the  number  of  its  meetings.  In  Washburn  county  the 
Pioneer  Society  meets  four  times  a  year,  and  at  four  different 
places  in  the  county.  I  am  decidedly  of  the  opinion  that  it  would 
promote  the  interests  of  the  society  if  at  least  one  picnic  meeting 
each  year  should  he  held  at  some  place  other  than  Jackson,  alter- 
nating each  year,  so  that  all  parts  of  the  county  would  have  the  ad- 
vantage of  its  proximity.  There  are  many  aged  pioneers  in  the 
county  who,  if  such  a  provision  should  be  adopted  and  carried  into 
effect,  would  be  able  to  attend  our  meetings,  but  who  now,  from  the 
distance  they  are  obliged  to  travel,  are  precluded  from  doing  so.  A 
change  of  place  of  holding  our  meetings  would  also  add  to  their 
novelty  and  interest.  It  would,  I  think,  enable  us  to  obtain  more 
pioneer  history  than  we  can  by  holding  our  meetings  at  Jackson 
or  any  one  place. 

' '  Those  who  attended  the  picnic  last  June  will  always  look  back 
to  it  as  one  of  the  most  pleasant  gatherings  it  was  ever  their  good 
fortune  to  attend.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  these  meetings  will  be  no 
less  interesting  in  the  future.  This  can,  I  think,  be  better  assured 
by  holding  them  at  different  points  in  the  county,  as  each  section 
will  endeavor  to  make  its  meeting  as  pleasant  as  that  of  any  other. 
I  am  assured  that  in  Washtenaw  and  other  counties  this  practice 
has  had,  in  every  respect,  a  most  happy  effect. 

"  In  taking  my  leave  of  this  society,  as  its  president,  as  I  shall 
at  the  close  of  this  meeting,  I  wish  to  say  that  my  interest  in  all 
the  subjects  connected  with  its  organization  has  increased  with  the 
time  I  have  been  connected  with  it,  and  I  return  to  the  society  my 
m<  ist  sincere  thanks  for  the  honor  they  have  so  kindly  and  for  so 
long  a  time  conferred  upon  me.  My  interest  in  the  society  will  be 
none  the  less  than  heretofore,  and  I  have  no  doubt  but  my  associ- 
ation with  it  will  be  the  source  of  as  much  pleasure  in  the  future 
as  in  the  past." 


The  summer  meeting  of  1880  was  one  of  the  most  pleasant  re- 
unions of  the  Jackson  Pioneer  Society.     Everything  that  possibly 


could  be  done  to  render  the  occasion  one  of  pure  enjoyment  was 
done,  so  that  the  pioneers  who  attended  were  treated  to  a  mental 
and  corporeal  feast. 

The  addresses  of  Hon.  H.  H.  Bingham,  President;  Hon.  Eugene 
Pringle,  Hon.  II.  C.  Hodge,  and  the  sketches  of  the  early  settle- 
ment of  Tompkins,  by  Mr.  Richard  Townley,  and  of  Norvell,  by 
•Mrs.  8.  W.  Palmer,  were  carefully  prepared  and  rendered  excel- 
lently. The  addresses  follow  in  this  chapter,  while  the  sketches 
will  claim  a  place  in  that  section  of  the  work  given  to  reminiscences 
of  the  pioneers. 


iiPioneers  of  Jaclson  County.  Ladies  and  G>-idlem>n: 

"  On  life's  journey  we  have  been  carried  forward  another  year 
since  our  last  social  gathering  in  this  beautiful  park.  Since  then 
some  of  our  comrades  have  gone  down  the  slope,  and  have  crossed 
the  river  to  the  other  side,  joining  their  associates  who  have  pre- 
ceded  them.  Like  ripened  sheaves  for  the  harvest  they  have 
tilled  the  measure  of  their  days,  and  in  our  sorrow  for  their  loss, 
and  while  holding  their  memory  dear,  we  still  feel  and  believe  that 
they  have  reached  a  haven  of  rest. 

"  But  the  year  has  brought  with  it  much  tor  gratitude  and  thank- 
fulness. The  husbandman  has  been  blest  with  bountiful  harvests. 
no  blighting  drouth  or  devastating  storms  have  reached  us,  and  we 
have  been  visited  with  no  fatal  epidemics  bringing  sorrow  to  our 
households.  A  mild  winter  so  appreciated  by  those  whose  life's 
blood  is  flowing  slowly,  a  genial  spring  with  all  its  beauty  and 
freshness,  and  the  early  summer  giving  promise  again  of  plentiful 
fruits  and  abundant  harvests,  these  are  among  the  blessings 
vouchsafed  us  by  a  kind  Providence,  and  tilling  our  hearts  to  over- 
flowing with  gratitude,  and  to-day,  under  a  genial  sun  and  sum- 
mer sky,  we  have  assembled  here  to  greet  each  other,  and  renew 
old-time  acquaintance,  going  over  again  the  hardships  and  priva- 
tions of  pioneer  life,  but  enjoying  no\v  the  full  fruition  of  most 
of  our  highest  hopes  and  anticipations,  reaping  a  rich  reward  for 
enterprise,    industry  and  thoughtful  care  for  the  future. 

"  A  tew  years  onward,  and  after  a  few  more  annual  reunions, 
we  shall  leave  this  beautiful  heritage  to  our  children  and  our 
children's  children,  giving  them  an  example  and  a  history  that 
they  can  ever  refer  to  with  pride  and  gratification,  representing 
their  ancestry,  not  in  every  sense  perfect,  but  possessed  of  sterling 
integrity  and  guided  by  a  wise  foresight  for  those  that  were  to  fol- 
low them.  As  an  evidence,  we  have  only  to  look  over  our 
country,  with  its  highly  cultivated  farms,  provided  with  capacious 
barns  and  orchards,  and  commodious  dwellings  tilled  with  every 
convenience  and  adorned  with  works  of  art;  at  our  school -houses 
and  churches;  at  our  villages  and  our  Central  City,  with  its  busy 
streets,    manufactories  and  public  institutions,   all  giving  proof  of 


thrift  and  energy,  and  a  wisdom  in  designing  and  planning  rarely 
equaled  in  the  history  of  our  country. 

"We  greet  you  to-day,  not  as  pioneers  coming  to  this  unbroken 
wilderness  solely  to  improve  its  forests,  hills,  and  plains,  with  the 
exclusive  idea  of  greed  and  gain,  but  to  build  up  homes  with 
happy  surroundings,  and  to  establish  and  maintain  those  higher 
institutions  molding  and  guiding  in  morality  and  intelligence. 

"  Forty-four  years  ago  the  speaker  came  into  the  State.  The 
tide  of  emigration  was  then  at  its  height,  and  the  long  trains  of 
emigrant  wagons  was  a  noted  feature  of  the  day.  Those  trains, 
bringing  hither  a  race  of  men  who  were  strong  in  nerve  and 
muscle,  in  will  and  energy,  and  a  race  of  women,  ton,  noted  for 
their  fortitude  in  enduring  privations,  and  cheerfully  adapting 
themselves  to  their  circumstances,  and  taxing  every  effort  to  make 
the  new  homes  pleasant  and  enjoyable. 

''We  may  be  pardoned  some  egotism  in  writing  up  our  history, 
though  we  can  but  be  entitled  to  a  large  credit  for  what  has  been 
accomplished  in  our  generation. 

"Forty  to  fifty  years  have  transpired  since  the  first  considerable 
settlement  in  the  county.  We  were  younger  then  than  now,  and 
notwithstanding  that  gray  hairs  are  conspicuous,  we  may  be  thank- 
ful that  we  are  yet  so  hale  and  are  still  possessed  of  so  much  that 
is  enjoyable  in  life. 

"Let  the  day,  then,  he  a  stopping  place,  a  way  station  in  which 
we  can  put  away  the  cares,  and  stop  the  unceasing  toil,  and  do 
ourselves  the  pleasure  of  once  more  meeting,  and  occupy  a  little 
time  in  calling  up  reminiscences  and  memories  of  the  past,  and 
making  history  that  shall  hereafter  be  read  with  pleasure  and 

"And  in  referring  to  this  history,  may  our  children  be  filled 
with  pride  of  birthplace  and  ancestry,  of  our  State  ami  country, 
and  he  thereby  imbued  with  ambition  and  energy  in  making  noble 
efforts  to  raise  the  scale  of  manhood  in  everything  great  and  good; 

••We  take  pleasure  in  greeting  all  those  who  have  responded  to 
our  invitation,  and  have  met  with  us.  We  hope  they  will  carry 
away  the  impression  that  the\  have  been  received  with  a  cordiality 
that  comes  from  the  heart.  And  so.  after  enjoying  the  festivities 
of  this  social  reunion,  and  we  shall  have  returned  to  our  homes, 
may  the  recollections  of  the  day  be  dwelt  upon  as  one  of  the 
cheering  incidents  in  which  it  has  been  our  fortune  to  participate." 

The  following  letters  were  read  and  placed  on  the  records  of  the 
society  : 

Uon.H.  H.  Bingham  : 

Dear  Sir  : — Your  polite  invitation  to  attend  a  pioneer  meeting  at  Jackson,  on 
the  twenty-third  instant,  found  me  on  a  bed  of  sickness,  and  although  1  am  recover- 
ing, I  have  not  yet  been  able  to  leave  my  room.  In  is:;4  the  entire  population  of 
your  county  was  thirteen  hundred  and  sixty-five,  less  than  one  of  the  wards  of  your 
growing  city  at  this  time.  Many  of  these  "have  goi.e,  and  with  them  very  much 
authentic  history  which  can  never  be  recovered.  Many,  I  hope,  are  still  alive,  and 
are  the  possessors  ot  historic'  tacts,  which,  to  the  coming  generation  at  least,  will  be 


of  priceless  value — Gather   them  up — gather  them  up  !     With  my  kindest  regards 
to  all  "  old  pioneers,"  I  am  truly  yours,  etc. 

0.  C.  Comstook. 
Marshall,  June  30,  1880. 

Detroit,  June  IT.   1880 
H.  II.  Bingham,  Esq.,  President  Jackson  County  Pioneer  Society  : 

Dear  Sir  : — Your  card  of  invitation  to  attend  your  meeting  on  the  twenty-third 
instant  is  at  hand.  It  would  give  me  great  pleasure  to  meet  you  again,  for  the  rec- 
ollection of  my  meeting  with  you  a  few  years  ago  is  a  most  pleasant  one.  I  do  not 
think  I  shall  be  able  to  attend  now,  and  for  want  of  something  better  I  send  you  a 
copy  of  the  fifth  edition  of  my  poetical  works,  which  I  wish  you  to  present  at  your 
meeting  to  the  oldest  pioneer  of  Jackson  county.  Wishing  long  life  and  health 
and  happiness  to  all  the  pioneers,  T  remain, 

Yours  respectfully, 

Levi  Bishop. 

Detroit,  June  19,  1880. 
Son.  H.  II.  Bingham  : 

My  Dear  Sir: — Your  polite  invitation  to  the  Jackson  county  pioneer  meetiug, 
nest  week  Wednesday,  is  received.  It  is  very  doubtful  whether  I  can  be  present, 
for  next  week  I  have  an  avalanche  of  engagements  and  preparations  therefor.  If  I 
do  not  come  this  year,  please  say  to  the  pioneers  and  friends  that  next  year  I  will 
try  and  be  with  them  and  contribute  something  of  interest  to  the  occasion.  It  is 
no  more  than  fair  that,  as  the  pioneers  made  history,  we  should  take  an  interest  in 
collating  it.  I  hail  with  pleasure  the  interest  that  is  being  awakened  on  this  sub- 
ject. With  my  best  wishes  for  the  cause  and  the  occasion,  for  the  pioneers  |  what 
there  are  left,  of  them),  and  for  yourself  personally,  I  remain,  yours  truly, 

T.  W.  Palmer. 

Jonesville,  June  17,  1880. 
Hon.  H.  II.  Bingham,  President  »f  the  Jackson  Canity  Pioneer  Society,  Jackson  : 
Dear  Sir  : — I  regret  very  much  that  I  shall  not  be  able  to  accept  your  kind  in- 
vitation to  attend  your  annual  meeting  on  the  twenty-third  instant.  I  am  compelled 
to  go  East  on  business  of  the  State  Board  of  Education  to-morrow,and  shall  probably 
not  be  able  to  return  before  the  first,  of  July.  I  trust  you  will,  as  I  know  you  al- 
ways do,  have  a  pleasant  and  profitable  time. 

Truly  yours, 

W.J.  Baxter. 

Plymouth,  June  21,  1880. 
Hon.  II. II  Bingham.  President,  andB.  F.Bggleston,8ecir:etary,  oftheStatt  Pioneer 

Society  of  Michigan 

Gentlemen: — Please  accept  the  highest  acknowledgments  for  the  kind  invita- 
tion to  meet  our  brothers  and  sisters  of  the  Pioneer  Society  of  Michigan,  on  the 
twenty -third  day  of  June,  at  Jackson.  It  would  be  highly  gratifying  to"  meet  with 
you,  and  enjoy  the  pleasing  recollections  of  pioneer  life  in  the  beginning  of  this 
beautiful  State,  and  behold  the  noble  faces  of  the  care-worn  women  and  men  who 
have  made  Michigan  a  glorious  State,  one  of  the  best  in  the  union.  Please  remem- 
ber me  to  the  Hon.  M.'Shoemaker,  Judge  Johnson,  and  all  the  noble  pioneers  of 
which  I  should  be  very  glad  to  meet  on  that  festive  occasion  ;  but  engagements  are 
such  that  it  will  be  impossible.     Very  respectfully  and  truly  yours, 

Jonathan  Shearer. 

P.  S.  — I  learn  by  the  papers  that  our  old  pioneer  friend,  Livermore,  has  been 
called  to  leave  us.  His  friendly  acquaintance  was  formed  many  years  ago,  while 
members  of  the  Legislature.  In  the  advocacy  of  the  right,  and  the  welfare  of  the 
people  at  large,  his  equal  was  not  surpassed  by  any,  and  as  pioneers  we  most  heart- 
ily feel  and  sympathize  with  his  bereaved  friends  for  their  uncommon  loss.        J.S. 

Friend  Bingham  :— I  send  you  "  Hints  on  Modern  Education,"  to  be  read  to 
the  pioneers,  and  say  to  them  that  if  I  cannot  be  with  them  personally,  my  mind 
and  best  wishes  will  be  always  with  them  while  life  lasts.  "     J.  S. 


In  pioneer  life  are  always  incidents  of  peculiar  interest,  not  only 
to  the  pioneers,  but,  also,  if  well  preserved,  to  their  children  and 
the  historian.  It  is  a  matter  to  be  regretted  that  the  Pioneer  So- 
ciety ot  Jackson  was  not  organized  many  years  prior  to  1874; 
because  many  of  those  men  who  converted  the  wilderness  into  pro- 
ductive fields  passed  away  before  that  time,  and  left  no  record 
behind.  Such  a  society,  with  copious  records,  is  invaluable.  It 
is  the  main  channel  through  which  history  is  to  be  handed  down, 
and  justice  done  to  the  memory  of  men  who  battled  with  nature  in 
her  wildest  form,  and  tamed  her  after  years  of  well-directed  labors. 
While  regretting  the  want  ot  antiquity  in  connection  with  the 
Jackson  Pioneer  Society,  the  county  and  people  have  to  be  con- 
gratulated on  the  magnificent  progress  made  during  the  six  years 
of  its  existence.  For  this,  thanks  are  due  to  the  first  secretary, 
Hon.  H.  H.  Bingham.  A  glance  at  the  records  will  be  sufficient 
to  prove  his  zeal  in  the  work  of  the  very  important  office  to  which 
he  was  elected.  With  the  Hon.  David  Johnson,  First  President, 
and  Col.  Shoemaker,  President  of  the  State  Society,  Mr.  Bingham 
takes  a  large  share  in  the  honor  which  pertains  to  its  organizers, 
and,  like  his  friends  just  named,  he  has  reached  the  most  honorable 
position  connected  with  a  society, — that  of  president. 

Let  the  good  work  grow  apace.  The  men  who  performed  so 
much  good  are  capable  of  doing  more.  They  deserve  and  enjoy 
the  confidence  of  their  comrades  of  early  days,  and  such  being  the 
case,  society  demands  that  they  persevere  in  following  the  paths 
which  friends  of  knowledge  tread. 



Owing  to  the  earnestness  of  the  settlers  <>t  1830,  and  the  glow- 
ing reports  previously  circulated  by  the  Blackmails,  .1  acksonburgh 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  Legislature  as  early  as  1829,  and 
proved  the  suggestive  point,  which  resulted  in  laying  out  the 
southern  counties,  including  Jackson.  In  opening  this  chapter  the 
act  of  general  organization  takes  precedence-,  followed  by  subse- 
quent legislative  enactments  affecting  the  district,  and  a  resume  of 
the  first  township  election.  A  review  ot  the  important  labors  of 
the  board  of  supervisors  ami  that  of  the  commissioners,  during 
the  brief  time  of  their  official  existence,  from  1  sMl  to  1880,  is 


An  act,  approved  Oct.  29,  1829,  by  the  governor  and  council 
of  the  Territory  of  Michigan,  which  provided  for  the  laying  out  ot 
counties,  ordained,  that  the  boundaries  of  Washtenaw  county 
should  be  a  line  beginning  on  the  base  line  where  the  line 
between  ranges  seven  and  eight  east  of  the  principal  merid- 
ian crosses  the  base  line;  thence  west  along  the  base  line  to 
the  intersection  of  the  line  between  ranges  six  and  seven  east  of 
the  meridian;  thence  north  between  said  ranges  six  and  seven  to 
the  intersection  of  the  line  between  townships  two  and  three  north 
of  the  base  line;  thence  west  between  said  townships,  two  and 
three  north,  to  the  intersection  of  the  line  between  two  and  three 
east  of  the  principal  meridian;  thence  south  on  the  line  between 
said  ranges  two  and  three,  to  the  intersection  of  the  line  between 
townships  four  and  five  south  of  the  base  line;  thence  east  on  the 
line  between  said  townships  to  the  intersection  of  the  line  between 
ranges  seven  and  eight  east  of  the  meridian;  thence  north  on  the 
line  between  said  ranges  to  the  base  line. 

Tngha/m  Gowvty. — This  county  was  comprised  within  the  follow- 
ing boundaries  :—  North  of  the  base  line,  and  south  of  the  lines 
between  townships  four  and  five  north  of  the  base  line,  and  east  of 
the  line  between  ranges  two  and  three  west  of  the  principal  merid- 
ian, and  west  of  the  line  between  ranges  two  and  three  east  of 
the  meridian,  be,  and  the  same  is,  hereby  set  off  into  a  separate 
county,  and  the  name  thereof  shall  be  "Ingham." 

Eaton  Count i/. — The  boundaries,  ordained  by  the  act  of  1829, 
were:  North  of  the  base  line,  and  south  of  the  line  between 
townships  tour  and  five  north  of  the  base  line,  and  east  of  the  line 


between  ranges  six  and  seven  west  of  the  principal  meridian,  and 
west  of  the  line  between  ranges  two  and  three  west  of  the  meridian 
be  set  off  into  a  separate  county,  and  the  name  thereof  shall  be 

Jackson  Coimty. — The  council  enacted  that  so  much  of  the 
country  included  south  of  the  base  line,  and  north  of  the  line  between 
townships  four  and  five  south  of  the  base  line,  and  west  of  the  line 
between  ranges  two  and  three  east  of  the  meridian,  and  east 
of  the  line  between  ranges  three  and  four  west  of  the  meridian,  be 
set  off  into  a  separate  county  and  the  name  thereof  shall  be 

Calhoun  County — comprised  the  country  lying  south  of  the  base 
line,  and  north  of  the  line  between  townships  four  and  five  south 
of  the  base  line,  and  west  of  the  line  between  ranges  three  and  four 
west  of  the  meridian,  and  east  of  the  line  between  ranges  eight 
and  nine  west,  be  set  off  and  called  ' '  Calhoun. " 

Hillsdale  Coimty — comprised  the  country  lying  west  of  the 
meridian,  and  east  of  the  line  between  ranges  four  and  five  west  of 
the  meridian,  and  south  of  the  line  between  townships  four  and 
five  south  of  the  base  line,  and  north  of  the  boundary  line  between 
this  Territory  and  the  State  of  Ohio,  be  named  "Hillsdale." 

Branch  County. — That  portion  of  the  country  lying  west  of  the 
line  between  ranges  four  and  five  west  of  the  meridian,  and  east  of 
the  line  between  ranges  eight  and  nine  west,  and  south  of  the 
line  between  townships  four  and  five,  south  of  the  base  line,  and 
north  of  the  boundary  line  between  the  State  of  Indiana  and  this 
Territory,  was  called  "Branch  county." 

Other  Acts. — The  council  approved  of  an  act  setting  off  and 
organizing  the  township  of  Jacksonopolis,  July  30,  1830.  This 
act  recognized  Jackson  county  as  a  township  in  these  words: 
"That  all  that  part  of  the  country  lying  within  the  limits  of  the 
county  of  Jackson  be,  and  the  Bame  is,  herebV  set  off  into  a  separate 
township,  and  the  name  thereof  shall  he  Jacksonopolis;  that  the 
first  township  meeting  to  he  held  in  said  township  shall  be  at  the 
dwelling  house  of  J.  W.  Bennett,  in  said  township,  on  the  third 
Tuesday  of  August,  in  the  year  L830;  that  the  officers  who  shall  be 
appointed  in  said  township  shall  transact  the  business  of  said 
township,  in  all  things  as  far  as  may  be,  in  the  same  manner  as 
they  were  by  law  required  to  do  if  they  had  been  elected  at  the 
annual  township  meeting,  provided  the  officers  who  may  be  ap- 
pointed at  said  special  township  meeting  shall  not  hold  their 
offices  longer  than  until  the  first  Monday  in  April,  which  will  be 
in  the  year  1831. 

By  authority  of  an  act  of  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Territory, 
approved  Nov.  4,  1829,  the  counties  of  Jackson  and  Ingham  were 
attached  to  the  county  of  Washtenaw  for  judicial  purposes. 

The  council  enacted  in  1829  that  the  counties  of  Jackson  and  Ing- 
ham should  be  attached  to  Dexter,  in  Washtenaw  county,  and  form 
a  part  of  that  township.     This  was  approved  Nov.  5,  1829. 


For  some  reason  this  meeting,  as  directed  in  the  act,  did  not 
take  place  in  due  form,  as  the  premier  election  was  held  in  1831. 
This  is  known  as  the  first. 

TOWNSHIP     MEETING,    1831. 

At  the  first  annual  township  meeting  held  in  and  for  the  town 
of  Jacksonhurgh,  at  the  house  of  W.  R.  Thompson,  Alexander 
Laverty  was  chosen  moderator,  Samson  Stoddard,  clerk,  who,  with 
Wm.  R.  De  Land,  Justic  of  the  Peace,  formed  the  Board  of  Election, 
and  proceeded  to  ballot  first  for  supervisor,  when,  on  canvassing  the 
votes,  there  were  17  for  Ralph  Updike,  13  for  Wm.  R.  Thompson, 
and  one  for  Alexander  Laverty,  whereupon  Ralph  Updike  was  de- 
clared duly  elected.  They  then  proceeded  to  ballot  for  township 
clerk,  and  on  canvassing  the  same  there  were  15  for  Christian 
Prusia,  13  for  David  Striker,  and  one  for  Hiram  Thompson, 
whereupon  Christian  Prusia  was  declared  duly  elected. 

For  Assessors- -Horace  Blackmail,  15  votes;  Isaac  Sterling,  15  votes;  Ezekiel  T. 
Critchett,  15  votes. 

For  Constable— Horace  Blackmail,  18  votes;  Ezekiel  T.  Critchett,  4  votes. 

For  Commissioners  of  Highway-Alexander  Laverty,  36  votes  (ehcted);  Isaac 
Sterling,  30  votes  (elected);  Isaiah  W.  Bennett,  21  votes ;  Russell  Blackman,  14 

For  Overseer  of  Poor — Lemuel  Blackman,  19  votes  (elected). 

For  School  Commissioners— Samson  Stoddard,  Wm.  R.  De  Land,  and  Oliver  Russ, 
chosen  by  uplifted  hand. 

For  School  Inspectors— Osgood  H.  Fifield,  Hiram  Thompson,  Daniel  Walker, 
Isaac  N.  Swaineand  James  Valentine. 

For  Fence  Viewers — John  Durand,  Martin  Flint,  Samuel  Roberts  and  Timolhy 

For  Overseers  of  Highway— Chester  Wall,  Horace  Blackman.  Ralph  Updike  and 
Wm.  C.  Pease. 

Pound  Master— Martin  Flint. 

The  act  to  change  the  name  of  the  township  of  Jacksonopolis 
was  approved  Feb.  18,  1831,  in  the  following  terms:  "Be  it 
enacted  by  the  Legislative  Council  of  the  Territory  of  Michigan, 
that  the  township  of  Jacksonopolis  shall  hereafter  be  called 
'  Jacksonburgh,'  any  law  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding." 


The  act  of  the  council  organizing  the  county  of  Jackson  was 
not  approved  until  June  26,  1832,  and  was  not  ordered  to  come 
into  force  until  Aug.  1,  the  same  year.  •  The  act  says,  "That  the 
county  of  Jackson  shall  be  organized  from  and  after  the  taking- 
effect  of  this  act,  and  the  inhabitants  thereof  entitled  to  the  rights 
and  privileges  to  which,  by  law,  the  inhabitants  of  the  other  coun- 
ties of  this  Territory  are  entitled  ;  that  all  suits,  prosecutions  and 
other  matters  now  pending  before  the  Courts  of  Record  of  Washte- 
naw county,  or  before  any  justice  of  the  peace  of  said  county  of 
Washtenaw,  shall  be  prosecuted  to  final  judgment  and  execution, 
and  all  taxes  heretofore  levied,  or  which  may  be  hereafter  levied 


tor  the  year  1832,  shall  be  collected  in  the  same  manner  as  though 
the  said  county  of  Jackson  had  not  been  organized." 

JACJKSON    COUNTY    IN   1832. 

"When  -Jackson  county  was  young  and  struggling,  48  years  ago, 
it  had  about  the  same  machinery  for  county  government  as  it  now 
has,  except  that  there  was  not  so  much  of  it.  The  records  show 
that  the  first  meeting  of  board  of  supervisors  met  at  the  house  of 
Lemuel  Blackman,  in  the  village  of  Jacksonburgh,  the  first  Tues- 
dayin  October,  1833.  Atthat  time  the  county  was  divided  into  only 
four  towns,  which,  with  their  supervisors,  were  as  follows :  Spring 
Arbor,  Amasa  B.  Gibson;  Jacksonburg,  C.  Harrington;  Napoleon, 
H.  Austin;  and  Grass  Lake,  W.  H.  Pease.  Amasa  Gibson  was 
elected  chairman,  and  Hiram  Thompson,  clerk.  At  this  meeting  it 
was  voted  that  a  sum  of  $2.50  be  paid  for  the  scalp  of  any  full- 
grown  wolf  killed  within  three  miles  of  the  dwelling  of  any  white 
inhabitant.  Claims  for  such  killing  were  allowed  to  the  amount 
of  $35.  The  total  of  bills  allowed  at  this  session  was  $220.19. 
Property  was  not  quite  so  valuable  then  as  now,  neither  were  taxes 
so  heavy.  The  assessed  valuation  and  total  taxation  of  the  towns 
was  as  follows : 

Valuation.  Tax. 

Spring  Arbor 130,11100  *  150  64 

Jarksonslmr-rh 34,765  00  164  05 

Napoleon 14,  TOO  00  74  28 

Grass  Lake 4,260  00  12  73 

In  the  tax  tor  Jacksonburgh  were  $25  for  sickness.  The  pay  of  the 
supervisors  was  $1  per  day.  The  next  meeting  was  held  in  March, 
1834,  the  members  of  the  same  board  being  present.  Among  the 
accounts  then  allowed  were  $1.50  to  Alexander  Laverty  for  crying 
at  court.  The  treasurer  was  allowed  three  per  cent,  for  collecting 
taxes,  and  at  that  rate  Dr.  Stoddard  managed"  to  earn  the  princely 
sum  of  $6.72.  There  was  a  balance  reported  in  the  treasury,  but 
only  of  26  cents.  At  that  early  day  there  were  individuals  so 
poor  that  the  county  had  to  provide  for  them.  At  this  session  the 
names  of  two  sufferers  were  mentioned,  and  accounts  for  their 
maintenance  presented. 

A  special  session  was  held  in  April  to  see  about  building  a  jail. 
John  Daniels  succeeded  C.  Harrington  as  supervisor  for  Jackson- 
burgh, and  he  was  instructed  to  act  as  a  committee  of  one  to  secure 
a  safe  room  for  use  as  a  jail.  In  October  it  was  voted  to  raise 
$355.72,  and  the  taxes  this  year  were  considerably  higher  than 
before.  Spring  Arbor  had  outstripped  Jacksonburgh,  and  was  the 
wealthiest  town,  and  its  share  of  the  tax  was  $238.76;  Jackson- 
burgh, $226.62;  Grass  Lake,  43.82;  Napoleon,  $138.68. 

In  March,  1835,  $21.09  were  reported  in  the  treasury,  and 
$116.79  had  been  allowed.  Joseph  Morris  and  others  objected  to 
the  line  of  the  Washtenaw  Territorial  road,  and  it  was  ordered  to 


be  changed,  if  the  change  could  be  made  without  doing  greater 
public  or  private  injury  than  the  one  complained  of. 

In  October  a  new  board  appeared.  Col.  Abram  Bolton  repre- 
sented Napoleon,  and  was  elected  chairman;  Samuel  Hamlin,  from 
Jacksonburgh,  and  Caleb  Culver,  from  Grass  Lake,  with  W.  R. 
De  Land  as  clerk.  Property  was  rising,  and  the  assessment-roll 
showed  an  increase  in  the  valuation  of  from  200  to  450  per  cent. 
Spring  Arbor  was  valued  at  $111,817;  Jacksonburgh,  $72,084; 
Napoleon,  $51,749;  Grass  Lake,  $18,657.  This  session  was 
marked  by  nothing  special  except  that  the  board  forgot  to  approve 
the  proceedings,  and  had  to  meet  the  next  week  to  set  the  seal  ot 
approval  on  the  record. 

In  October,  1836,  the  number  of  towns  were  increased  to  ten, 
namely  :  Jacksonburgh,  Concord,  Grass  Lake,  Hanover,  Leoni, 
East  Portage,  West  Portage,  Spring  Arbor,  Napoleon,  Sandstone. 
The  assessed  valuation  was  $737,621.  In  January,  1837,  a  resolu- 
tion was  adopted  to  issue  bonds  for  $10,000  to  build  a  jail  and 
court-house,  Jerry  G.  Cornell  and  Geo.  B.  Cooper  being  appointed 
to  negotiate  the  loan,  which  was  to  run  10  years  and  draw  inter- 
est at  seven  per  cent.  Proposals  were  advertised  for,  and  a  con- 
tract for  stone  building  awarded  to  David  Porter. 

This  was  the  last  time  the  board  met  in  "  Jacksonflw/v/A,"  for 
before  the  October  session  the  last  syllable  was  dropped,  and  it 
became  "Jackson."  Michigan  was  lifted  to  the  plane  of  a  State, 
and  now  all  through  the  record  appears  a  new  item, — "State 
Tax."  Owing  to  there  being  so  many  non-resident  landholders, 
the  treasurer  could  not  collect  the  State  tax  as  assessed,  and  he 
was  directed  to  pay  it  out  of  the  first  moneys  he  might  collect,  and 
to  sell  the  lands  of  non-payers.  In  the  minutes  of  this  session  ap- 
pear the  names  of  Parma,  Rives,  Liberty,  as  new  towns.  There 
were  also  represented  Aurelius  and  Stock'b ridge,  of  Ingham  county, 
which  county  was  then  attached  to  this  for  business  purposes.  In 
1838  Pulaski,  Springport  and  Tompkins  were  added.  In  this 
year  the  record  closed  somewhat  abruptly,  on  account,  as  a  note 
says,  of  the  board  of  supervisors  being  abolished  by  law. 

For  the  next  four  years,  the  affairs  of  the  county  were  conducted 
by  a  board  of  three  county  commissioners,  who  were  Nicholas 
Townley,  of  Tompkins,  Drusas  Hodges,  of  Spring  Arbor,  and  Al- 
vin  Clark,  of  Grass  Lake.  During  the  first  two  years  ot  their  rule 
nothing  of  interest  occurred,  except  the  addition  of  Columbia  to  the 
sisterhood  of  towns  in  1839.  In  1810  the  commissioners  of  Jack- 
son and  Ingham  counties  met  to  settle  up  the  joint  affairs, — Ing- 
ham being  now  old  enough  to  run  alone.  The  Jackson  commis- 
sioners were  Clark,  Townley  and  Hodges,  with  the  treasurer,  John 
N.  Dwight.  Ingham  county  was  represented  by  J.  Loomis, 
William  A.  Dryer  and  Henry  Lee,  Commissioners,  with  H.  H. 
Smith  as  Treasurer.  It  was  agreed  that  Ingham  should  pay  $120 
for  her  nursing. 

In  1840  West  Portage  drops  out,  and  Henrietta  appears;  but  it 
was  seven  years  before  Waterloo  took  the  place  of  East  Portage. 

278  HISTORY    <>F    JACKSON    nH'NTY. 

In  1842  the  supervisors  again  appear,  the  county  system  not  last- 
ing long. 

The  writing  in  the  old  record  book  is  well  preserved,  though  an 
occasional  page  is  faded.  Of  the  many  clerks,  whose  penmanship 
is  found,  that  of  the  late  J  udge  W.  R.  De  Land  was  the  finest  and 
handsomest.  Czar.Jones  was  clerk  in  1843.  and  claims  the  palm 
for  plain  working. 


Amasa  B.  Gibson,  Chairman.  W.  H.  Pease,  Grass  Lake;  C. 
Harrington,  Jacksonburgli ;  Harvey  Austin,  Napoleon,  and  A.  B. 
Gibson,  Spring  Arbor. 

A  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors  of  the  county  of  Jack- 
son, held  at  the  house  of  Lemuel  Blackman,  in  the  village  of 
Jacksonburgli,  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  October,  1833,  pursuant  to 
law.  Amasa  B.  Gibson,  ot  Spring  Arbor,  was  chosen  chairman, 
and  H.  Thompson,  clerk.  The  first  business  of  the  meeting  was 
the  auditing  and  payment  of  public  accounts  ;  and  as  the  list  ot 
county  auditors  contains  names  that  cannot  but  recall  the  past, 
and  the  simple,  easy  and  economical  manner  in  which  the  pioneers 
attended  to  the  interests  of  the  county,  it  is  but  just  that  the  list 
be  subscribed : 

David  Keyes,  services  as  sheriff $  47  49 

Russell  Biackman,  services  to  county  paupers 4  03 

Lyman  R.  Lowell,  services  to  county  paupers  14  68 

Oliver  Russ,  attendance  and  medicine 2  25 

Hiram  Godfrey,  services  to  countv  paupers 10  00 

John  T.  Durand,  surveying  bill . .' 37  54 

John  T.  Durand,  clerk  bill 3  70 

David  Keyes.  com.  highways 10  00 

Chester  Wall 4  00 

Samson  Stoddard,  county  clerk 3  50 

Hiram  Austin,  chairman  1  50 

John  Wellman.  chairman 75 

Martin  Flint,  chairman 75 

James  Voluntine,  returning  votes  for  treasurer  and  coroner 1  00 

Mart iu  Flint,  services  to  county  paupers 5  00 

John  M.  Dwight,  bill  for  room 4  50 

Samuel  Clinio,  bill  as  chairman 1  50 

Daniel  Coleman,  bill'  for  book 5  00 

H.  Thompson,  services  on  appeal  on  road 2  50 

John  Met  'oniK'l,  com.  highways 3  00 

W.  R.  De  Land,  on  appeal  on  road 2  50 

Charles  Harrington,  supervisor 3  50 

Amasa  B.  Gibson,  supervisor 5  50 

Harvey  Austin,  supervisor 4  00 

William  H.  Pease 2  00 

Hiram  Thompson,  clerk  of  the  board 5  00 

Total $185  19 

The  first  ordinance  of  the  board  was,  ' '  That  the  sum  of  $2. 50  be 
given  as  a  bounty  for  the  killing  of  every  lull-grown  wolf ;  that 
the  nature  of  proof  shall  be  as  follows :  Every  person  before  he 
shall  be  entitled  to  such  bounty  shall  make  affidavit  before  a  jus- 

1  /rn^       fj 

-    m  t 


HISTORY    OF    JACKSON    t'oUNTY.  28J 

tice  of  the  peace  of  the  county  in  which  said  wolf  was  killed,  of 
the  time  and  place  of  killing  of  said  wolf,  and  that  said  wolf  was 
killed  within  three  miles  of  a  white  inhabitant,  and  shall  present 
the  justice  the  scalp  of  the  wolf  so  killed,  which  scalp  shall  be 
destroyed  by  said  justice;  and  the  said  justice  shall  make  certiticate 
of  the  same,  and  that  such  person  is  entitled  to  said  bounty." 

After  the  ordinance  was  duly  promulgated,  the  following 
accounts  for  the  killing  of  wolves  were  audited  and  county  orders 
issued  for  amounts  : 

Thomas  McGee,  killing  two  wolves $  3  00 

Leander  McCain,  killing  live  wolves    (L.  McCain's   order  was   $2  50  too 

much.) 12  50 

John  Daniels,  killing  one  wolf  2  50 

Henry  Daniels,  two  certificates 5  00 

Abel  W.  Daniels,  two  certificates 5  00 

Isaac  Sterling,  two  certificates 5  00 

Samson  Stoddard,  Treasurer. 

The  supervisors  ordered  "  That  orders  upon  the  county  be  issued 
by  the  clerk  upon  all  the  accounts  preferred  against  the  county, 
except  for  wolf  certificates,  which  are  not  to  be  given  out  until 
there  are  sufficient  funds  in  the  treasury  to  pay  them,  after  all  other 
bills  now  audited  and  pending  against  said  county  are  paid  off  and 
discharged. " 

The  assessment  of  the  townships  was  next  supervised  : 


The  aggregate  amount  on  the  assessment  roll $34,765 

Amount  of  town  allowances $  43  17 

Money  raised  to  prevent  infectious  diseases 25  00 

Proportion  of  county  expenses 95  88 

Amount  of  tax 164  05 


Aggregate  amount  of  assessment  roll $30,111 

Amount  of  town  allowances $  79  13 

Proportion  of  county  expenses 7151 

Amount  of  tax 150  64 


Aggregate  amount  of  assessment  roll $14,712 

Amount  of  town  allowances $  30  16 

Proportion  of  county  expenses 44  04 

Amount  of  tax 74  20 


Aggregate  amount  on  assessment  roll $4,260 

Proportion  of  county  expenses $12  73 

Daniel  B.  Brown,  Sheriff  of  the  county  of  Washtenaw,  pre- 
sented his  account  of  $25.13,   for  keeping  William  Savacool,  a 


prisoner  from  Jackson  county.  The  account,  however,  was  pre- 
sented too  late  for  adjustment,  and  was  placed  on  file,  to  be  brought 
up  at  the  next  annual  meeting  of  the  board.  A  note  says  :  "No 
further  business  being  before  the  board,  it  was  adjourned  sine  die.'''' 
This  closed  the  proceedings  for  that  meeting,  and  the  report  was 
duly  signed  by  H.  Thompson,  Clerk. 

The  next  meeting  of  the  board  of  supervisors  was  held  April  14, 
1834,  at  the  house  of  Lemuel  Blackman.  The  supervisors  present 
were  :  Amasa  B.  Gibson,  of  Spring  Arbor;  William  H.  Pease,  of 
Grass  Lake;  Harvey  Austin,  of  Napoleon,  and  John  Daniels,  of 
Jacksonburgh.  The  object  of  the  meeting  was  to  provide  a  jail 
for  the  reception  of  prisoners,  and  the  only  resolution  accepted  was 
that  authorizing  Supervisor  John  Daniels  to  furnish  a  room  for  the 
reception  and  keeping  of  prisoners  committed  to  the  custody  of  the 
sheriff  of  Jackson  county. 

The  board  met  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  October,  1S34,  being 
the  second  "  annual"  meeting.  Among  its  first  acts  was  the  issue 
of  a  county  order  to  D.  B.  Brown,  Sheriff  of  Washtenaw,  for 
$25.13,  amount  due  him  for  boarding  a  prisoner.  Reuben  Barns, 
Russell  Swain,  Linus  Gillett,  John  Learn,  Wm.  P.  Worden  and 
Amos  Fassett  were  acknowledged  the  slayers  of  nine  wolves;  but 
the  orders  for  amount  of  bounty  were  not  issued  to  Kearn  and  Fas- 
sett  until  May  1,  1836.  Lemuel  Blackman  was  allowed  $1.50  for 
the  use  of  the  court  room. 

The  financial  condition  of  the  county  may  be  gleaned  from  the 
following  order  of  the  board  :  That  the  following  sums  be  raised, 
to  wit : 

Balance  on  allowances  for  the  year  1833 $     47  02 

Allowed  at  the  March  meeting  1834 80  80 % 

Allowed  October,  1834 168  48^ 

A  sum  to  meet  contingent  expenses 59  35 

Total $  355  72 

Now  with  a  view  of  equalizing  the  assessment  roll  of  the  several 
townships  of  the  county,  the  supervisors  ordered  that  the  four 
divisions  of  the  county  raise  the  following  amounts  : 


Share  of  county  expenses $  118  20 

Town  charges 108  63 

Collector's  fees 11  93 

Total $  238  76 


Share  of  county  expenses $  116  26 

Town  charges 99  03 

Collector's  fees 11  33 

Total S  226  62 



Share  of  county  expenses $  68  2!> 

Town  charges 63  50 

Collector's  fees 6  93 

Total $  138  68 


Share  of  county  expenses $  21  63 

Town  charges 20  00 

Collector's  fees 2  19 

Total .$  43  82 

The  entire  tax  amounted  to  $647.88,  with  Spring  Arbor  town- 
ship leading  in  the  van  of  prosperity,  and  Jacksonburgh  following 
closely.  Napoleon  in  one  year  almost  doubled  its  taxable  prop- 
erty, while  Grass  Lake  showed  a  three-fold  amount  of  wealth. 

The  fourth  meeting  of  the  board  convened  March  3,  1835,  with 
the  same  supervisors  present.  Lorenzo  Rice  was  allowed  $5  for 
killing  two  wolves,  and  D.  Shannon  $1  for  guarding  prison,  to- 
gether with  other  accounts,  amounting  in  the  aggregate  to  $116.79, 
for  all  which  county  orders  were  issued,  and  a  balance  left  in  favor 
of  the  people  of  $21.09.  The  order  of  the  board  to  the  commis- 
sioners of  highway  to  enquire  into  the  complaint  of  Joseph  Morris 
and  others  against  the  location  of  the  Washtenaw  Territory  road, 
closed  the  proceedings  of  the  meeting. 

The  fifth  annual  session  of  the  board  was  held  in  the  house  of 
Wm.  Bothwell  in  the  village  of  Jacksonburgh,  Oct.  5,  1835. 
Present — Cabel  Culver,  Supervisor  of  Grass  Lake;  Samuel  Hamlin, 
Supervisor  of  Jacksonburgh;  Col.  Abram  F.  Bolton,  Supervisor  of 
Napoleon;  Caleb  M.  Chapel,  Supervisor  of  Spring  Arbor;  Samson 
Stoddard,  County  Clerk. 

The  supervisor  of  Spring  Arbor  was  not  present  at  that  meeting, 
yet  a  quorum  being  present,  it  was  organized  and  immediately  ad- 
journed to  the  7th.  Caleb  M.  Chapel  appeared  at  the  adjourned 
meeting  and  took  his  seat.  Accounts  were  passed  to  the  amount 
of  $128.12,  among  the  items  of  which  is  one  showing  the  claim  of 
Alexander  Laverty  for  crying  in  court,  $3.75. 

Olney  Hawkins,  the  former  district  attorney,  presented  an  ac- 
count of  $100  for  professional  services  rendered  in  1834.  This 
claim  was  rejected,  after  which  the  board  received  the  following 
notice  : 

Gentlemen  : — Please  take  notice  that  I  shall  appeal  to  the  Circuit  Court,  tobe  held 
in  and  for  said  county,  on  Tuesday,  j-fter  the  first  Monday  in  December  next,  on 
my  claim  for  professional  services  as  district  attort  ey  for  said  county,  for  the  year 
1834  this  day  presented  before  said  board,  and  rejected,  and  ask  said  court  to  do  me 
justice  in  regard  thereto.  Olney  Hawkins. 

Jacksonburgh,  Oct.  7,  1835.  By  Daniel  Coleman,  Agent. 

Seth  T.  Atkins,  John  Pratt,  L.  Gillett,  C.  Matthews,  Elijah 
Spencer,  John  F.  Fifield,  received  $22.50  for  killing  wolves. 


Wm.  R.  De  Land  was  allowed  $10  for  services  rendered  in  crimi- 
nal prosecutions.  l833-'4,  and  $7  to  Wm.  R.  Perrine  on  lost  order, 
which  sums  brought  up  the  disbursements  to  $167.62.  The  as- 
sessments of  the  townships  for  L835  were:  Jacksonburgh,  $206.53; 
Spring  Arbor,  $407*90;  Napoleon,  $255.64;  Grass  Lake,  $90.00; 
total,  $060.07. 

The  board  sat  on  Oct.  8,  13,  and  26,  and  transacted  much  rou- 
tine business.     Wm.  R.  De  Land  acted  as  county  clerk. 

The  sixth  meeting  of  the  board  was  held  Jan.  20,  1836,  in  the 
house  of  Paul  B.  Ring,  of  Jacksonburgh,  but  the  only  subject 
brought  before  the  meeting  was  the  petition  of  E.  H.  Packard, 
asking  for  alterations  in  the  Territorial  road  between  Jacksonburgh 
and  White  Pigeon.  The  board  did  not  accede  to  the  prayer,  being 
convinced  that  said  alterations  were  not  required  for  public  con- 
venience and  expedient. 

The  seventh  meeting  was  also  held  in  Mr.  Ring's  dwelling. 
March  1,  1836,  with  Win.  E.  DeLand,  Clerk.  County  Treasurer 
Samson  Stoddard  reported  a  balance  in  the  treasury  of  $34,371-2. 

The  eighth  meeting  was  held  July  7,  1836,  at  which  were  pres- 
ent Jerry  G.  Cornell,  Alonzo  Brown,  Daniel  Porter,  Josiah  Mills, 
John  Barnum  and  Thomas  McGee.  The  board  resolved  that  the 
assessors  of  Sandstone  township  should  report  to  the  meeting  to  be 
held  July  20.  1836. 

The  ninth  meeting,  or  fourth  annual  meeting,  was  held  in  the 
dwelling  of  Paul  B.  Ring,  Oct.  4,  1836,  witlTWm.  R.  De  Land. 
Clerk,  and  the  following  supervisors  elect:  Jerry  G.  Cornell, 
Spring  Arbor;  Alonzo  Brewer,  Grass  Lake;  Daniel  Porter,  Han- 
over; Jonathan  Wood,  Jacksonburgh;  Josiah  Mills,  Leoni;  Har- 
vey Austin,  Napoleon;  John  Barnum,  Sandstone;  Thomas  McGee, 
Concord;  Andrew  Coryell,  East  Portage;  Lewis  D.  Stowell,  West 

Israel  S.  Love  was  allowed  for  services  as  constable  at  court, 
$2.13;  P.  B.  Ring,  for  use  of  court  room,  $30;  Geo.  B.  Cooper, 
for  jail  room,  $19.50;  A.  B.  Gibson,  for  sheriff,  $31.50;  Samuel 
Hamlin,  for  services  as  supervisor,  $7;  making  a  disbursement  for 
the  day  of  $90. 13. 

The  following  day  Guy  H.  Gorham,  Deputy  Sheriff,  was 
allowed  $35;  Samuel  Hamlin,  for  use  of  grand  jury  room  for  two 
terms — June,  1835,  and  December,  1836,  $6;  and  Samson  Stod- 
dard, as  county  clerk,  $21;  aggregating  a  sum  of  $69. 

The  sitting  of  Oct.  6  was  the  most  important  of  the  session. 
The  assessment  rolls  of  the  new  and  old  townships  were  received 
and  examined,  showing  the  valuation  of  property  to  be  as  follows: 
Jacksonburgh,  $194,205;  Concord,  $125,159;  Grass  Lake,  $40,136; 
Hanover,  $64,867;  Leoni,  $27,731;  East  Portage,  $6,112;  West 
Portage,  $11,864;  Spring  Arbor,  $50,872;  Napoleon,  $77,171; 
Sandstone,  $139,507.  The  board  subsequently  lessened  the  valu- 
ation to  the  following  townships,  from  10  to  50  per  cent.:  Jackson- 
burgh, $174,784;  Concord,  $68,837;  Hanover,  $32,433.  The  tax 
ordered   to   be   levied    off   townships   was;   Jacksonburgh, 


#1,008. 77i;  Concord,  $400;  Grass  Lake,  $250;  Hanover,  $188.81; 
Leoni,  $254.85;  East  Portage,  $44.62;  West  Portage,  $61.40; 
Spring  Arbor,  $323. 8£;  Napoleon,  $493.50f;  Sandstone,    $687.08. 

An  amendment  to  the  wolf  section  of  the  by-laws  was  carried, 
directing  that  $1.25  be  the  bounty  for  the  scalp  of  a  wolf  whelp, 
and  $2.50  for  that  of  the  full-grown  animal.  The  business  of  the 
session  closed  Oct.  8. 

The  tenth  meeting  was  held  in  the  office  of  Wm.  R.  De  Land, 
County  Clerk.  A  number  of  county  orders  were  issued  in  pay- 
ment of  the  following  accounts: 

Thomas  McGee,  services  as  coroner,  holding  inquisition  on  body  of  George  C. 

Pease t  4  25 

Chauncey  Hawley,  as  grand  juror I  85 

J.  N.  Swain,   as  grand  juror 2  15 

Drusus  Hodges,  as  grand  juror 1  35 

Elias  Keyes,  as  grand  juror 1  95 

A.  B.  Gibson,  summoning  grand  jury 1G  50 

Paul  B.  Ring,  room  for  court 32  00 

Samuel  Hamlin,  as  juror 85 

Anson  De  Lamater 2  55 

Czar  Jones 2  25 

Thomas  \V.  Pray 2  55 

Jonathan  Wood,  services  as  supervisor 6  00 

Jonathan  Wood,  services  making  tax  and  copy 7  00 

Thomas  McGee,  supervisor  and  making  tax  and  copy 15  00 

Lewis  D.  Stowell,     "              "               "            "      4  00 

Wm.  R.  De  Land,  clerk  to  the  board 10  75 

Daniel  Porter,  as  supervisor,  and  making  tax  and  copy 12  00 

H.Austin,                   "                  "                "              "     13  00 

Josiah  Mills,                "                   "                "              "     13  00 

John  Barnum,              "                  "                -              "     17  00 

Jerry  G.  Cornell,         "                  '■                "              "     15  00 

Alonzo  Brewer,           "                  "                "               "     10  50 

Andrew  Coryell,          "                  "                "               "     4  00 

The  eleventh  session  began  Monday,  -Ian.  2,  1837,  but  owing  to 
a  quorum  not  being  present  it  was  postponed  to  Jan.  9.  The 
legislators  of  the  county  assembled  that  day  at  the  dwelling  of 
P.  B.  Ping,  ami  at  once  proceeded  to  resolve — 

"That  the  sum  of  $10,000 be  raised  (agreeably  to  the  provisions 
of  an  act  to  authorize  the  boards  of  supervisors  of  certain  counties 
to  borrow  money,  etc.,  for  the  erection  of  county  buildings, 
approved  March  24,  1836)  for  the  purpose  of  a  court-house  and 
jail  for  the  county  of  Jackson. 

"That  Jerry  G.  Cornell  and  George  B.  Cooper,  Esqs.,  be 
authorized  to  negotiate  a  loan  of  $10, (too  (at  an  interest  not  exceed- 
ing 7  per  cent,  per  annum)  for  the  above  mentioned  purposes. 

"That  the  above  mentioned  loan  be  made  for  10  years,  condi- 
tioned that  the  board  of  supervisors  of  said  county  may  be  at 
liberty  to  pay  up  said  loan  at  anytime  after  five  years,  and  in  such 
installments  as  the  board  may  direct,  by  giving  three  months' 
notice  to  any  person  or  persons  to  whom  said  loan  or  loans  may 
be  due,  provided  a  loan  can  be  negotiated  on  such  conditions." 

The  first  regular  salary  was  ordered  by  the  following  resolution: 
"  That  the  district  attorney  for   the    county    of   Jackson    be    al- 


lowed,  as  compensation  for  his  services,  a  salary  of  $100  per 
annum,  to  commence  the  first  day  of  January,  1836;  and  the  clerk 
of  the  board  he  authorized  to  issue  an  order  for  the  same  for  one 

The  sheriff  was  ordered  to  expend  $20  on  preparing  a  room  for 
the  reception  of  criminals. 

Plan  of  Court-house  and  Jail.  — At  the  adjourned  meeting,  held 
Jan.  10,  1837,  Messrs.  Austin  and  Porter  were  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  procure  a  draft  or  plan  of  the  proposed  court-house  and 
jail,  together  with  estimates  for  building  the  same. 


Reuben  Barns,     1   wolf  killed *     2  50 

Roswell  Hall,  1  wolf  killed 2  50 

Henry  Daniels,  I  wolf  killed '^  50 

Abraham  Francisco,  grand  juror 2  25 

Phineas  Farrand,  one  year's  salary  as  district  attorney  for  the  county..  .  .  .   100  00 

Thomas    McGee,   as  supervisor ...  4  00 

Jonathan  Wood,              "             4  00 

Daniel  Porter,                 "             4  00 

Josiah  Mills.                    "             4  00 

Henry  Austin,                 "             2  00 

A  Ion  zo  Brown,                " 2  00 

Wm.  R.  De  Land,  as  clerk  to  the  board 7  00 

The  board  adjourned  to  the  25th  of  January,  but.  as  was  pre- 
viously the  case,  there  was  not  a  quorum  present  on  that  day.  and 
the  meeting  was  postponed  until  the  26th,  when  a  similar  comedy 
was  enacted.  The  few  members  of  the  board  adjourned  until  Feb- 
ruary 6. 

Ait  the  February  meeting  they  considered  the  plans  and  estimates 
furnished  by  S.  R.  Green  for  the  new  court-house  and  jail.  The 
board  resolved,  that  in  case  the  loan,  referred  to  hitherto,  could 
be  negotiated,  the  two  county  buildings  should  be  erected  at  once. 
With  this  view  the  clerk  of  the  board  was  instructed  to  cause 
notices  to  be  posted  throughout  the  neighboring  counties,  asking 
proposals  for  building  a  court-house  and  jail  of  stone  or  brick, 
such  proposals  to  be  opened  March  1,  1837. 

The  consideration  ot  the  taxes  due  by  absent  property-holders, 
drew  from  the  board  the  following  resolution: 

"  Whereas,  It  is  ascertained  that  by  reason  of  the  large  amount  of  non-resident 
taxes  unpaid  in  the  county  of  Jackson,  there  is  not  money  sufficient  to  pay  the  State 
tax  and  county  contingent,  expenses,  and  that  to  proportion  the  amount  would  be 
attended  with  much  difficulty  and  perplexity,  in  as  much  as  a  balance  would  be  due 
the  State,  and  a  portion  of  county  expenses  remain  unpaid,  until  said  taxes  may  be 
collected:  therefore, 

"■Resolved,  That  the  treasurerof  said  county  be  and  he  is  hereby  instructed  to  pay 
off  all  county  orders  already  issued,  and  no  others,  until  the  State  tax  shall  be  fully 

The  session  of  March  was  important,  as  it  undertook  to  review 
the  public  accounts.     This  review  proved  that  on   March  8  the 


treasurer  held  a  balance  in  favor  of  the  county  amounting  to 

The  board  also  opened  the  proposals  for  the  building  of  county 
offices,  and  resolved,  ' l  That  the  proposal  offered  by  David  Porter 
for  building  a  court-house  and  jail  of  stone  for  the  sum  of  $10,000, 
be  and  is  hereby  accepted;  provided,  that  (agreeable  to  a  previous 
resolution  of  this  board)  the  loan  of  $10,000  shall  be  effected." 
Supervisors  Daniel  Porter,  of  Hanover,  Jonathan  Wood,  of  Jack- 
sonburgh,  and  Amasa  B.  Gibson  were  appointed  members  of  the 
building  committee. 

The  sitting  of  March  9  was  given  up  to  the  examination  of  ac- 
counts and  the  payment  of  themselves  and  the  county  clerk,  $7.53 
to  Messrs.  Dwight,  and  $15  to  Paul  B.  Ring  for  room. 

Tlie  Meetmg  of  October,  LS37. — The  supervisors  present  at  this 
session  were  J.  G.  Cornell,  Spring  Arbor;  Thomas  McGee,  Con- 
cord; James  Ganson,  Jackson;  Daniel  Porter,  Hanover;  R.  B. 
Rixford,  Napoleon;  Ezra  Rumery,  Liberty;  C.  M.  Chapell,  Sand- 
stone; John  Barnum,  Parma;  E.  B.  Chapman,  Rives;  Sherlock 
Patrick,  West  Portage;  Ben.  Davis  and  O.  Gregory,  Aurelius  and 
Stockbridu'e.  Ingham  county;  A.  Brewer,  Grass  Lake:  Josiah 
Mills,  Leoni;  P.  Hubbard,  East  Portage. 

The  reading  of  the  journal  of  proceedings  for  the  past  12  months 
was  then  gone  through,  after  which  $85.16  were  voted  away  for 
services  rendered  to  the  county.  Chippewa  and  Wenonquit,  two 
Indians,  were  paid  $5  tor  killing  two  wolves.  A.  B.  Gibson,  as 
sheriff,  received  $3S.47-jV,  and  the  balance  was  paid  to  wolf-scalpers. 
October  4  a  sum  of  $182.  64  1-4  was  voted  to  the  various  officers 
of  the  county. 

At  the  sitting  of  Oct.  5  the  bounty  for  killing  wolves,  to  be 
granted  only  to  white  inhabitants,  was  increased  to  $5.  The 
equalization  of  the  assessment-rolls  was  a  most  important  portion 
of  their  proceedings. 

Wm.  D.  Thompson  presented  an  appeal  asking  $15.50  for  ser- 
vices performed  by  him  as  county  clerk. 

Leander  Chapman,  Judge  of  Probate,  was  allowed  $550,  and  as 
district  attorney  received  his  salary  of  $100,  with  $22.35  for  ex- 

The  board  gave  notice  to  the  electors  that  it  recommended  the 
raising  of  $5,000  for  the  purpose  of  completing  county  buildings, 
and  erecting  a  fire-proof  safe  for  the  county  records. 

Wm.  J.  Moody.  District  Attorney,  was  allowed  $25  for  a  half 
year's  services. 

The  board  also  ordained  that  $4,600.07  be  raised  during  the 
current  year  to  defray  contingent  expanses  of  the  county  and  for 
the  purpose  ot  paying  State  tax. 

Not.  10,  the  subject  of  the  $5,000  loan  was  taken  up,  with  the 
following  result:  "  Whereas,  the  electors  of  the  county  of  Jackson 
have  by  their  vote  authorized  the  board  of  supervisors  to 
negotiate  a  loan  of  a  sum  of  money  not  exceeding  $5,000,  for  the 
purpose  of  erecting  a  fire- proof  register's  office  and  the  completion 


of  the  court-house  and  jail  yard,  it  was  therefore  resolved  that  the 
hoard  authorize  Amasa  B.  Gibson  to  effect  said  loan  of  $5,000  for 
the  accomplishment  of  said  object." 


was  next  ordered  to  be  constructed,  24  feet  in  the  clear;  to  be  built 
of  wrought  stone,  one  story  high;  to  be  partitioned  into  four  rooms. 
This  order  was  conditioned  on  the  loan  being  obtained.  The  busi- 
ness of  the  year  was  concluded  in  December. 

The  first  meeting  of  1838  was  held  March  6,  with  Super- 
visors Thomas  McGee,  James  Ganson,  G.  M.  Chapell,  Benj.  Davis, 
E.  I).    Chapman,   S.  Patrick,  A.  Brewer,  John  Barnum,  J.  Mills 

and Hubbard  present.     The  session  was   continued  to  March 

8,  but  the  only  business  transacted  was  the  auditing  of  numerous 
accounts,  aggregating  $519.11,  and  the  reception  of  a  petition  from 
Sylvanus  Parkinson  and  other  inhabitants  of  Concord  township, 
asking  the  alteration  of  the  Monroe  (State)  road. 

The  meeting  of  Oct.  1,  1838,  was  carried  over  to  the  following 
day  for  want  of  a  quorum.  On  the  2d  the  following  members  of 
the  board  presented  themselves:  Jerry  G.  Cornell,  Spring  Arbor; 
Henry  Aiker,  Concord;  Benjamin  Copeland,  Napoleon;  Jonathan 
"Woods,  Jackson;  C.  M.  Chappell,  Sandstone;  Daniel  Porter,  Han- 
over; John  Barnum,  Parma;  Jesse  B.  Burrougli,  Pulaski;  Nicholas 
Townley,  Tompkins;  E.  B.  Chapman,  Rives;  Isaiah  Whitman, 
Spring] xirt;  A.  Brewer,  Grass  Lake;  J.  Mills,  Leoni;  James  Pres- 
ton, East  Portage;  E.  Rumery,  Liberty.  William  R.  De  Land 
was  appointed  deputy  clerk  by  William  D.Thompson,  County  Clerk, 
and  ex-qfficio  Clerk  of  the  Board. 

The  equalization  of  assessment-rolls  was  the  principal  business 
before  the  meeting. 

77„  .\,,r  O&urt-JBbuse.— The  supervisors  appointed  a  committee 
of  three,  at  their  sitting  of  Oct.  18,  to  examine  and  report  on  the 
rooms  in  the  court-house,  fixing  the  amount  of  rent,  annually,  for 
each  room  according  to  its  size,  situation  and  value.  This  com- 
mittee' reported  as  follows:  "That  the  north  and  middle  rooms  on 
the  west  side  of  the  hall,  occupied  as  the  registry  and  probate 
offices,  were  worth  s7.">  each:  that  the  south-west  room,  same  side 
of  the  hall,  occupied  by  P.  Earrand,  was  worth  $100,  and  that 
the  north  and  middle  rooms,  on  the  east  side  of  the  hall,  were 
worth  $50  each  per  annum."  A  debate  ensued,  but  the  report 
was  adopted. 

Th>    Board  Abolished.— The  last  meeting  of  the  old  hoard  of 

supervisors  was 

held  Oct.   19,   1838,    whel 

i  wai 

rant-  were  issued  to 

the  several  coll 

■ctors.     The  following  ac< 


were  ordered  to  be 

paid:  Bildad    I 
Crowell,  bill  of 

einiett.    for    services    as 


ible,    $2.25;   A.    P. 

costs,  $2.44;  Bildad  Benn 

ett,  c 

•nstable  bill,  $20.13; 

O.   Puss,  con^t: 

hie  hill,  $1.31;  N.  Sullivs 

n,  pi 

mtingSO  blank  war- 

rants,  $2;  W.  I 

.  De  Land.  Deputy  Clerk 


ard  for  two  last  sea- 

sions,  §25. 


The  board  ordered  that  the  clerk  do  issue  orders  on  the  treasurer 
of  the  county  for  the  payment  of  all  claims  admitted  and  allowed 
by  the  board,  prior  to  that  date.  The  final  motion  was  to  adjourn 
slur  ,///>,  and  the  record  was  signed  by  W.  D.  Thompson,  Clerk, 
per  "W".  R.  De  Land,  Deputy  Clerk. 

'  New  Government. — The  first  session  of  the  Board  of  Commis- 
sioners of  Jackson  county  was  held  in  the  office  of  the  county 
clerk  Nov.  19,  1838.  Messrs.  Nicholas  Townley.  of  Tompkins, 
Drusus  Hodges,  of  Spring  Arbor,  and  Alvin  Clark,  of  Grass  Lake, 
the  commissioners  elect,  were  present,  and  having  taken  the  oath 
of  otfice,  proceeded  to  the  classification  of  the  board,  with  the 
following  result:  Nicholas  Townley,  commissioner  for  three  years; 
Drusus  Hodges,  Jim.,  commissioner  for  two  years;  Alvin  Clark, 
commissioner  for  one  year.  The  organization  of  the  new  body 
was  perfected  by  the  election  of  Nicholas  Townley  as  chairman, 
W.  D.  Thompson,  clerk,  and  Wm.  R.  DeLand,  deputy  clerk. 

These  first  labors  being  performed,  the  members  adjourned  to 
Dec.  3,  1838.  On  that  day  the  commissioners  held  their  second 
conference,  and  their  first  regular  duties  were  entered  upon. 
Norman  Allen,  the  county  treasurer  elect,  who  would  have  charge 
of  the  public  moneys  from  Jan.  1,  1839,  to  Jan.  1,  1841,  received 
their  early  attention,  so  that  on  motion  of  Commissioner  Alvin 
Clark,  it  was  resolved,  --That  Norman  Allen  be  required  to 
execute  a  bond  to  said  commissioners,  with  three  or  more  good 
and  sufficient  sureties,  in  the  penal  sum  of  $10,000,  before  enter- 
ing upon  the  duties  of  his  office." 

Dec.  4,  A.  B.  Gibson,  of  the  court-house,  jail  and  clerk's  office 
building  committee,  presented  his  report,  in  accordance  with  the 
request  of  the  commissioners,  and  also  one  dealing  with  the  loans 
which  he  was  empowered  to  negotiate. 

The  board  entered  upon  the  work  of  an  important  session  .Ian. 
8,  L839.  The  three  commissioners  were  present.  The  name  ot 
Wm.  R.  De  Land  now  appears  as  county  clerk,  and  <./■  ojfirio  clerk 
of  county  commissioners.  A  verbal  report  of  A.  B.  Gibson 
showed  that  the  title  to  the  lands  on  which  the  county  buildings 
were  erected,  was  full  and  complete.  Mr.  (Gibson  presented  to 
the  board  the  release  deeds  at  the  same  time.  Mr.  Perrine,  the 
register  elect,  applied  to  the  board  for  blank  books  for  use  in  his 
omce.     Such  books  A.  B.  Gibson  was  authorized  to  procure. 

Norman  Allen's  bond  as  county  treasurer  was  signed  by  Jona- 
than Wood,  David  F.  Dwight  and  Henry  H.  Gilbert,  sureties  in 
the  sum  of  $10,000,  and  was  accepted  by  the  board.  (See  page 
53  of  old  record.) 

The  first  license  granted  to  an  auctioneer  was  issued  Jan.  9, 
1839,  to  Charles  Derby,  in  the  following  form: 

We  the  undersigned,  the  Board  of  Commissioners  in  and  for  the  county  of 
Jackson  aforesaid,  do  hereby  license  Charles  Derby,  of  the    township  of  Jackson, 


in  the  county  aforesaid,  to  be  and  act  as  auctioneer   within  said  township  for  the 
term  of  one  year  from  the  date  hereof. 

Given  under  our  hands  at  Jackson,  this  ninth  day  of  January,  A.  D.  1839. 

a"N  ClArk      '        J    of*"  CvuntyofJackM. 
A  true  copy  of  the  original.  \  p       -„  p  . , 
W.  R  DeLand,  Clerk.      J  *  ee-  *'*•  ™a- 

The  first  licensed  auctioneer  had  to  give  bonds  for  the  faithful 
discharge  of  his  duty,  prior  to  the  issue  of  the  license. 

Jan.  10,  the  board  received  the  statement  of  the  former  county 
treasurer,  Oliver  Russ:  Amount  of  receipts,  $12,038.26;  amount 
of  disbursements,  $6,1*72.15;  balance  in  treasury,  $5,066.11. 
Oliver  Russ  received  the  sum  of  $90  in  full  compensation  for  his 
services  in  receiving  and  disbursing  the  sum  of  $6,972.15. 

A  board  of  superintendents  of  the  poor  was  appointed  during 
the  same  sitting,  composed  of  W.  R.  DeLand,  Jackson;  Thomas 
Cotton,  Napoleon;  and  Elihu  M.  Goold,  Parma. 

Jan.  11  the  board  resolved  that  A.  B.  Gibson  should  be  author- 
ized to  pay  L.  S.  House  $-K>0.  the  sum  to  apply  on  his  bill  of  extra 
work  on  the  court-house;  and  also  $100  to  David  Porter  to  pur- 
chase materials  for  the  clerk's  and  registrar's  office.  The  sum  of 
$25  was  also  voted  to  the  judge  of  probate.  L.  Chapman,  to  pur- 
chase blank  books  for  his  office. 

The  board  ordained  that  H.  Acker  be  authorized  ' '  to  procure 
the  following  weights  and  measures,  scales  and  beams,  to  be  pur- 
chased in  the  city  of  Detroit,  for  to  be  the  standard  measures  of 
said  county,  viz.  :  One  half  bushel,  one  peck  measure,  one  half 
peck — one  measure  to  contain  two  quarts,  one  ditto,  one  quart,  one 
ditto  one  pint,  said  measures  to  be  made  of  copper,  in  a  substantial 
manner.  The  weights  to  be  of  cast  iron,  of  good  workmanship, 
the  scale  and  beam  such  as  are  usually  furnished,  and  a  com- 
plete set  of  wine  measures,  made  of  copper."  Subsequently  Mr. 
Acker  applied  to  the  State  for  standards,  but  on  account  of  the 
State  being  minus  such,  the  agent  of  the  board  in  the  matter  could 
not  procure  the  same. 

The  prison  cells  occupied  the  attention  of  the  commissioners  on 
the  12th.  L.  8.  House,  the  builder  under  Mr.  Porter,  was  directed 
to  make  the  door  in  the  partition  of  the  hall  of  the  jail  in  the  fol- 
lowing manner:  "Of iron  bars  1J  inches  wide,  the  bars  crossing 
at  right  angles,  and  firmly  riveted  at  each  angle.  The  open  space 
of  the  squares  shall  not  exceed  5  inches  square.  The  hangings 
and  fastenings  of  said  door  shall  be  similar  to  those  now  used  on 
the  doors  of  the  cells  of  the  State's  prison  now  building  at  Jack- 
son. This  door  to  be  made  in  lieu  of  a  door  which  said  House  was 
bound  to  make  by  contract  for  the  finishing  of  said  jail,  and  that 
Mr.  House,  for  complying  with  the  above,  shall  receive  the  sum  of 
$32.50  as  entire  pay  for  making  said  door." 

A  similar  instruction  was  given  him  in  regard  to  the  doors  of 
cells,  and  so  far  the  labors  of  the  commissioners  may  be  consid- 
ered of  a  most  precise  character. 


The  new  Board  of  Superintendents  of  the  Poor  took  the  oath  of 
office  on  the  21st,  and  was  duly  organized 

At  the  meeting  of  the  board,  held  Feb.  4,  1839,  Leander  Chap- 
man, Judge  ot  Probate  of  the  county  of  Jackson,  by  virtue  of  his 
said  office,  took  the  oath  of  a  commissioner,  as  required  by  law, 
and  was  constituted  one  of  the  board.  On  the  5th  Judge  Chap- 
man's resolution,  asking  A.  B.  Gibson  to  show  by  certificate  of 
deposit  or  otherwise  the  amount  of  public  money  he  has  in  his 
control,  was  carried,  and  a  statement  of  the  result  was  submitted. 

May  7,  1839,  the  board  abolished  all  distinctions  between  town 
and  county  poor.  James  M.  Goold.  of  Tompkins,  was  appointed 
to  fill  a  vacancy  on  the  Board  of  Superintendents  of  the  Poor. 

The  first  county  poor-house  was  the  work  of  the  commissioners. 
A  resolution  of  theirs  says  :  "  In  view  of  the  resolution  abolish- 
ing the  distinction  between  town  and  county  pom-,  the  board  is  of 
opinion  that  it  is  necessary  and  expedient  to  carry  into  effect  the 
provisions  of  law  in  regard  to  the  erection  of  a  county  poor-house; 
therefore,  it  is  resolved  that  the  superintendents  of  county  poor 
are  hereby  authorized  to  purchase  for  the  use  of  the  county  a  tract 
of  land,  not  exceeding  320  acres,  and  to  erect  one  or  more  suitable 
buildings  for  the  reception  and  accommodation  of  the  county 

The  board  resolved  "  That  E.  Higby,  Esq.,  be  charged  $20  for 
the  rent  of  room  No.  4,  from  the  time  he  first  occupied  it  up  to 
the  1st  day  of  April,  1839;  that  P.  Farrand  be  charged  $40  for 
rent  of  room  No.  5  prior  to  said  1st  day  of  April,  1839;  that  Joseph 
C.  Barley,  Esq.,  be  charged  for  the  use  of  room  No.  1,  from  the 
9th  day  of  January,  1839,  to  the  1st  day  of  April,  1S39,  nine  dol- 
lars, it  being  at  the  rate  of  $40  per  annum,  and  that  the  rent  of 
said  room  (No.  1)  be  fixed  and  rated  at  $40  per  year,  provided 
the  treasurer's  office  shall  be  continued  and  kept  in  the  same 

The  clerk  of  the  board  was  directed  to  open  accounts  with  each 
occupant  of  the  rooms,  and  to  prohibit  all  gambling  and  card  play- 
ing. Sheriff  Jas.  A.  Dyer  was  authorized  to  rent  the  court-room 
to  religious  societies  for  Sabbath  services  only. 

On  June  24  the  following  statement  was  pronounced  correct  by 
the  board  : 



Napoleon   . . 




Grass  Lake. . 
Tompkins.  . . 


Spring  Arbor 
West  Portage 
East  Portage 



Springport .  . 




The  object  of  these  statistics  was  to  afford  such  information  to 
the  auditor  general  as  would  enable  him  to  impose  upon  the  county 
a  share  of  the  new  tax,  ordained  March  29,  1838. 

On  June  27  the  resignation  of  Thomas  Cotton,  one  of  the  super- 
intendents of  the  county  poor,  was  accepted,  and  Chester  C.  Car- 
penter, of  Napoleon,  and  Daniel  Parkhurst,  of  Jackson,  were 
appointed  to  fill  the  vacancies  then  existing. 

The  appeal  of  Abram  F.  Bolton  and  others  from  a  decision  ren- 
dered by  the  commissioners  of  highways  of  the  town  of  Columbia, 
came  before  the  board  for  final  hearing  July  9,  1839.  Messrs. 
Farrand  and  Higby  represented  the  appellants,  and  Samuel  H. 
Kimball  the  respondents.  After  the  examination  of  40  witnesses, 
the  board  deliberated,  and  finally  rendered  the  following  judgment. 

In  the  matter  of  appeal  of  Abram  F.  Bolton  and  others  from  the  decision  of 
the  road  commissioners  of  the  town  of  Columbia  to  the  count}'  commissioners  of 
the  county  of  Jackson,  the  said  road  commissioners  having  discontinued  the  follow- 
ing described  road,  viz.:  The  Napoleon  and  Michigan  Center  road,  so-called,  or  so 
much  of  the  same  as  is  within  the  town  of  Columbia,  commencing  on  th«  section 
line  about  50  rods  east  of  the  northeast  corner  of  section  36,  in  T.  3  S.,  R.  1  E.,  and 
running  in  nearly  a  northwest  direction  until  it  intersects  the  north  line  of  the  town 
of  Columbia. 

Now,  therefore,  we,  the  commissioners  in  and  for  the  county  of  Jackson,  having 
heard  the  proofs  and  allegations  of  the  parties,  and  all  the  testimony  of  witnesses 
offered  under  oath,  and  upon  due  consideration  of  til's  whole  matter,  do  hereby 
adjudge  that  said  road  is  necessary  and  for  the  public  convenience,  and  we  hereby 
reverse  the  decision  of  the  said  commissioners  of  highways  discontinuing  said  road, 
and  establish  the  same  according  to  the  survey  of  said  road  on  record. 

9,  A.  D.  183!). 

Nicholas  Townley,  1 

Alvin  Clark,  -  Committet 

DRtTSns  Hodges,  Jr.  ) 


The  annual  meeting  of  the  hoard  was  held  Oct.  7,  1839,  with 
Commissioners  Townley,  Hodges  and  Clark  present.  The  audit- 
ing of.  accounts  and  the  consideration  of  taxes  for  the  years  1839- 
'40  were  proceeded  with. 

Nov.  18,  1839,  Alvin  Clark  took  his  seat  in  the  board,  having 
been  re-elected  to  that  position,  and,  on  the  motion  of  N.  Townley, 
was  chosen  chairman. 

Dec.  17  the  board  investigated  the  public  accounts,  as  kept  by 
ex-Treasurers  O.  Russ  and  N.  Allen.  In  the  settlement  there  is  a 
sum  of  $9  allowed  Norman  Allen  for  money  he  received  as  treas- 
urer when  current,  and  failed  in  liis  hands. 

Dec.  20  the  resignation  of  N.  Allen  was  accepted,  and  the  board 
appointed  John  N.  Dwight  to  that  position.  The  closing  days  of 
1839  were  given  up  to  much  routine  business,  such  as  the  auditing 
of  accounts  and  examination  of  tax  records.  The  Christmas  holi- 
days were  unobserved  by  the  members,  nor  did  they  adjourn  until 
Saturday,  Dec.  28,  1839! 

The  first  meeting  for  1840  was  iinportant,  in  so  much  that  the 
accounts  of  1839  were  received,  and  W .  R.  De  Land,  County  Clerk, 
ordered  to  superintend  their  publication  in  the  columns  of  a  news- 
paper known  as  the  Sentinel,  then  printed  in  the  county.  This 
report  appeared  Jan.  15,  1840,  and  is  said  to  have  afforded  much 
satisfaction  to  the  people. 

The  meeting  of  Jan.  16,  took  up  the  question  of  standard  weights 
and  measures,  and  ordered  the  clerk  to  apply  to  the  State  for  them. 

Jackson  and  Ingham,  Counties. — The  commissioners  of  the  two 
counties,  with  the  county  treasurers,  assembled  at  Jackson  March 
23,  1840,  for  the  adjustment  of  claims  existing  between  the  two 
corporations  since  the  time  they  were  united  for  judicial  purposes. 
Messrs.  Alvin  Clark,  Nicholas  Townley,  Drasus  Hodges,  Jr.,  and 
Treasurer  John  N.  Dwight  represented  Jackson,  with  Wm.  R.  De 
Land  acting  as  clerk.  Messrs.  Jacob  Loomis,  Henry  Lee,  Wm.  A. 
Dryer  and  Treasurer  H.  H.  Smith,  of  Ingham,  represented  their 

The  afternoon  of  the  23d  was  devoted  to  a  resume  of  the  ac- 
counts of  both  corporations  and  in  fixing  upon  a  principle  which 
might  lead  to  a  friendly  adjustment  of  claims.  Much  desultory 
debate  ensued,  in  which  all  the  members  of  the  convention  took 
part.  A  simultaneous  proposition  from  each  board  was  suggested, 
but  was  not  a  success.  After  recess  Henry  Lee,  a  commissioner 
from  Ingham,  took  his  seat,  and  a  further  examination  of  books 
and  papers  was  ordered. 

The  sitting  of  March  24th  was  more  conciliatory.  After  a  short 
deliberation  the  following  paper  was  drafted  and  signed: — 

The  commissioners  of  the  county  of  Ingham,  in  pursuance  of  powers  vested  in 
them  by  law,  agree  to  pay  to  the  county  of  Jackson  the  sum  of  $120;  said  sum  to 
be  paid  out  of  moneys  collected  on  the  unpaid  non-resident  taxes  on  lands  in  the 
s-.iid  county  of  Ingham  returned,  and  now  in  the  office  of  the  treasurer  of  Jackson, 
levied  in  the  year  1S37;  and  provided  said  sum  of  $120  should  not  be  realized  from 
Collections  on  said  tax  within  six  months  from  this  date,  the  commissioners  of  the 
county  of  Ingham  agree  to  pay  it  over  from  other  funds.     And  it  is  further  under- 


stood  that  this  settlement  is  to  extend  to  all  claims  prior  to  this  date,  that  have  been 
audited  and  allowed  by  the  Board  of  Supervisors  or  Commissioners  of  the  County  of 
Jackson.  And  whatever  claims  may  arise  hereafter  growing  out  of  the  judicial 
connection  of  the  two  counties  shall  be  a  matter  of  future  adjustment.  And  the 
commissioners  of  the  county  of  Jackson  hereby  agree  to  relinquish  for  the  benefit 
and  use  of  said  county  of  Ingham,  all  claim  which  "the  said  county  of  Jackson  may 
have  had  to  the  balance  of  the  above  mentioned  non-resident  unpaid  tax,  amounting 
to  about  1517.00,  and  permit  the  same  to  be  collected  by  the  treasurer  of  the  county 
of  Jackson, — the  said  county  of  Ingham  paying  all  extra  expenses  which  may  arise 
from  collecting  the  same. 

[Signed.]  Alvin  Clark,  I  „         .     .  ,.   T    , 

Nicholas  Toilet,  (Comrrassioners   oj  Jackson 
Drtoto  Hodges,  Jr.  )  Omit*. 

Jacob  Loomis,  )   „  .  ,  T     , 

Henry  Lee,  [  Commmioneriof  Tngham 

Wm.  A.  Dryer.  )  voway. 

Wm.  R.  De  Land,  Clerk  of  the  Board  of  Commissioner*  of  Jackson  County. 

The  united  wisdom  of  two  counties  dispersed,  and  the  fact  is 
thus  set  forth  in  the  annals  of  that  important  and  amicable  trans- 
action. "Having  no  further  business,  on  motion  the  two  boards, 
adjourned  sine  die." 

Miscellaneous. — So  late  as  March,  1840,  there  were  sums  paid 
out  to  wolf-scalpers. 


In  the  annual  abstract  furnished  to  the  Auditor  General,  the 
total  value  of  real  and  personal  property,  pertaining  to  the  county, 
is  set  down  at  $1,661,318,  which,  compared  with  the  exhibit  made 
June,  1839,  viz.:  $2,065,720,  shows  a  depreciation  in  value,  equaling 
$404,402.  This  exhibit  was  completed  June  29,  1840.  A  few  days 
later,  the  same  board  approved  a  corrected  assessment  roll,  show- 
ing a  further  reduction  in  total  value  of  real  and  personal  property 
of  $158,954,  or  a  total  depreciation  within  the  years  1838-'40  of 
$563,356,  or  over  a  half  million  dollars. 

A  resolution  of  July  10  orders  "That  Daniel  Parkhurst,  the 
present  district  attorney  for  this  county,  be  allowed  the  sum  of 
$450,  and  the  use  of  the  room  he  now  occupies  in  court-house, 
known  on  the  Journal  of  the  Commissioners  as  room  No.  1  (reserv- 
ing said  room  for  the  use  of  the  grand  jury  at  each  term  of  the 
Circuit  Court),  as  his  salary  for  one  year, — the  year  to  commence 
from  the  time  of  his  appointment  to  said  office. "  Many  accounts 
were  authorized  to  be  paid,  some  routine  business  transacted  and 
the  board  adjourned. 

Nicholas  Townley,  of  Tompkins,  Alvin  Clark,  of  Grass  Lake, 
and  John  Belden,  of  Spring  Arbor,  with  Fairchild  Farrand,  ea>- 
offieio  clerk  of  the  board,  met  January  4,  1841,  and  organized  by 
electing  Alvin  Clark  chairman  for  the  ensuing  year.  The  first 
action  of  the  board  was  the  appointment  of  superintendents  of  the 
poor  for  one  year  from  January  4.  They  were  John  Daniels, 
Dru'sus  Hodges,  Jr.,  and  Daniel  Parkhurst. 


Nicholas  Townley's  motion,  to  have  the  court-house  insured  for 
$1,000  and  the  poor-house  for  $300,  in  the  office  of  the  Jackson 
Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company,  was  carried. 

At  a  special  meeting  held  Feb.  8,  1841,  the  commissioners  re- 

That  said  county  of  Jackson  shall  and  will  prepare,  construct  and  furnish  for  the 
use  of  the  Legislature  of  said  State,  a  good,  suitable  and  convenient  building  at  the 
village  of  Jackson,  in  said  county,  for  all  sessions  of  said  Legislature,  and  equally 
as  suitable  and  convenient  in  all  respects  as  the  building  now  occupied  by  said  Leg- 
islature, in  the  city  of  Detroit,  without  any  charge  for  the  same  or  expense  to  the 
said  State,  at  all  times  from  and  after  the  first  day  of  September  next,  until  such 
time  as  the  seat  of  government  of  said  State  may  and  shall  be  permanently  fixed 
and  located  by  law;  provided,  that  the  seat  of  government  of  said  State  of  Michigan 
shall  be  temporarily  fixed  and  located  at  the  said  village  of  Jackson  by  law. 

Alvin  Clark,  Cliuirmnu  limnil  (Jmniiiixxinnent.  F.  Farrand,  Clerk. 

The  commissioners  assembled  on  the  J  0th  to  consider  the  ques- 
tion of  the  collection  of  delinquent  taxes.  After  some  considera- 
tion the  hoard  resolved,  "That  Alvin  Clark  be  and  is  hereby 
authorized  to  bid  off  all  the  lands  that  are  not  sold  to  private  in- 
dividuals for  taxes  remaining  unpaid,  as  agent,  for  the  benefit  of 
the  county,  and  that  the  treasurer  be  requested  to  make  such  cer- 
tificates, as  required  by  law,  to  said  Alvin  Clark,  agent." 

The  June  session  was  mainly  occupied  in  the  preparation  of  the 
annual  report  for  the  Auditor  General  of  State. 

A  county  surveyor  was  appointed  Nov.  8, 1841,  to  serve  until  the 
election  of  county  officers,  the  first  Monday  in  January,  1843;  James 

A.  Knight  was  chosen  to  fill  the  position. 

The  following  day  George  Byrne,  Registar  of  the  county,  was 
authorized  to  compile  a  general  index  to  the  record  books  of  his 

In  December  the'  board  voted  a  sum  of  $500  to  Treasurer  John 
M.  Dwight  in  compensation  for  his  services  from  Jan.  1,  1841,  to 
Jan.  1,  1842. 

The  commissioners  held  their  last  regular  session,  as  recorded, 
Jan.  3,  4  and  5,  1842.  A  number  of  accounts  were  ordered  to  be 
paid,  and  a  sum  of  $200  allowed  Phineas  Farrand  for  his  services 
as  prosecuting  attorney  during  the  year  1841. 

Norman  Allen's  name  with  that  of  John  Belden  appear  as 
signers  and  commissioners,  on  the  last  record. 

Revival  of  Popular  Government,  July  4,  1842. — The  rule  of 
supervisors  was  re-established,  and  though  few  complaints  were 
lodged  against  the  oligarchy  who  for  a  few  years  ruled  over  the 
county,  the  change  to  the  government  of  many  was  hailed  with 

The  supervisors  assembled  at  the  meeting  of  July  4,  were: 
Nicholas  Townley,  Tompkins;  Benj.  Davis,  Napoleon;  A.  R. 
Morrison,  Parma;  Abram  Van  Ue,  Liberty;  H.  G.  Cornell,  Spring 
Arbor;  Charles  Wood  worth,  Concord;  A.  H.  De  Lamater,  Co- 
lumbia; Wm.  J.  Moody,  Jackson;  David  Porter,  Hanover;  Stephen 

B.  Crawford,  Springport;  C.  M.  Chapel,  Sandstone;  Ben.   Seidle, 


Grass  Lake;  Russell  Ford,  Leoni;  A.  T.  Gorton,  East  Portage; 
G.  Coolbaugh,  Henrietta;  Alvin  True,  Rives;  Elijah  Dixon, 

The  new  board  having  appointed  committees,  adjourned  to  the 
5th,  when  it  took  up  the  subject  of  claims  against  the  county,  and 
the  equalization  of  the  assessment  roll.  The  table  showing  the 
result  of  their  deliberations  in  the  second  instance  gives  the  fol- 
lowing totals:  No.  of  acres,  399, 866;  value  of  real  estate,  $1,355, - 
213;  value  (4  personal  property,  $82,701;  total  value,  $1,  -437, 

The  session  of  October,  1842,  opened  on  the  10th.  The  super- 
visors ordered  a  sum  of  $2,875.83  to  be  levied  for  the  purpose 
of  paying  State  tax  ;  and  $8,500  as  county  tax  for  1842.  This  was 
duly  apportioned  to  the  township. 

Messrs.  Jonathan  Wood,  Marcus  Wakeman  and  Oliver  Russ, 
were  elected  by  the  board  superintendents  of  the  poor  for  one 

During  the  December  sessions  the  supervisors  manifested  a  de- 
sire to  increase  the  salaries  of  the  county  treasurer  and  district 
attorney.  Consequently  a  motion  was  carried  granting  the  for- 
mer, J.  N.  Dwight,  $450  for  services  rendered  during  the  year 
1842,  and  $470,  together  with  the  use  of  two  rooms  in  the  court- 
house, for  the  latter,  Phineas  Farrand,  for  services  from  April, 
1842,  to  April,  1843. 

At  this  time  the  question  of  leasing  the  court  room  to  the 
Methodist  society  created  much  discussion,  both  within  and  with- 
out the  board,  so  that  when  the  motion  granting  the  lease  was 
placed  before  the  meeting,  it  required  the  casting  vote  of  Chair- 
man Cornell  to  pass  it. 

From  the  table  of  equalized  valuation  the  total  worth  of  real 
and  personal  property  is  set  down  at  $1,412,160,  and  the  number 
of  acres  in  the  county  at  $410,880.  The  supervisors  ordered  that 
a  sum  of  $10,591.25,  including  $2,824.24  State  tax, be  levied  offthe 
county  for  1843. 

The  election  of  the  superintendents  of  the  poor,  held  by  the  board 
Oct.  24,  resulted  in  the  re-election  of  Messrs.  "Wood,  Wakeman 
and  Russ. 

In  December,  1843,  the  tenants,  repairs  and  decoration  of  the 
county  court  building  occupied  the  attention  of  the  board,  and  if 
resolutions  of  such  bodies  ever  resulted  in  trouble  to  outside  par- 
ties, a  few  of  those  characterizing  that  meeting  promised  anything 
but  peace  to  an  old  citizen. 

Oct.  19  was  given  up  to  the  examination  of  112  claims  against 
the  county,  and  also  to  the  equalization  of  value  of  county  prop- 
erty for  1844.  The  entire  value  of  real  estate  was  set  down  at 
$1,245,556,  and  that  of  personal  property  at  $178,080,  with  an 
acreage  of  402, 797. 

The  name  of  David  Johnson  appears  as  prosecuting  attorney  in 
1844.  Oct.  31,  that  year,  the  board  voted  him  a  salary  of  $500  per 
year  for  his  services  from  April  10,  such  salary  to  be  paid  quarterly. 


By  some  happy  advance  in  the  knowledge  of  orthography,  the 
word  "  moneys1'  is  spelled  correctly  for  the  first  time  in  the  pages 
of  the  records  Jan.  1,  1845.  The  corrected  word  is  contained 
in  a  resolution  affecting  the  poor-farm,  carried  that  day  by  the 

The  second  < lav  of  the  January  session,  1845,  was  occupied  in 
the  auditing  of  79  accounts  against  the  county. 

At  the  annual  meeting  in  October,  the  supervisors  having  an- 
swered to  their  names,  proceeded  to  organization.  Superintendent 
Townley's  motion,  "That  Marcus  Wakeman  be  chairman  of  the 
Board  for  ensuing  year,"  was  carried,  when  the  call  of  townships 
was  again  made. 

The  business  brought  before  the  October  session  was  of  a  varied 
and  important  character,  though  not  exceeding  in  subject  the 
ordinary  routine. 

At  the  meeting  held  Dec.  19,  1845,  the  supervisors  resolved 
"  that  Hiram  Thompson  be  authorized  to  procure  the  binding  of 
the  entry  books  in  the  register's  office ;  also  to  procure  an  abstract 
at  the  land  office  of  the  original  entries  of  lands  in  Jackson 
county."  From  this  it  appears  that  the  county  did  not  possess 
any  records  of  the  first  land  purchases  until  1846  :  and  it  does  ap- 
pear strange  that  a  number  oi  supervisors  and  commissioners,  win. 
bestowed  so  very  much  attention  on  the  county,  should  overlook  a 
subject  so  interesting  and  valuable,  and  remain  without  such  im- 
portant knowledge  from  1S33  to  1845. 

In  the  calculations  of  the  board  it  appears  that  the  number  of 
acres  credited  to  the  people  in  1845  was  407,204;  the  aggregate 
value  of  real  and  personal  property,  $1,407, 369; the  State  tax,  $3,- 
518.38;  the  county  tax,  $8,796.96,  and  the  rejected  tax.  $1,158.84. 

Sixty-six  accounts  were  passed  by  the  board,  and  receipts  pre- 
sented by  G.  T.  Godfrey,  Prosecuting  Attorney, for  his  salary  ;  by 
H.  Tisdale  for  £454. 78,  for  services  rendered  county  in  1845  ;  and 
by  L.  D.  Welling  for  $1,072.51,  for  services  rendered  the  county 
during  the  years  1843-'5. 

At  the  October  meeting  of  1846  Supervisor  Nicholas  Townley 
was  elected  chairman  of  the  board  for  the  succeeding  12  months. 
On  the  third  day  of  the  session  the  following  resolution  was 
adopted  :  "That  Hiram  Thompson  be  authorized  to  make  an  ab- 
stract of  all  the  records  of  the  register's  office  of  Jackson  county, 
affecting  the  titles  of  any  lands  in  said  county,  but  at  his  own 
costs  and  charges,  reserving  the  right  to  the  county  of  Jackson  of 
purchasing  the  same  at  the  rate  of  nine  cents  for  each  abstract  en- 
try ;  the  said  Thompson  to  have  the  use  of  the  books  of  the  office, 
when  not  in  use  by  the  register  or  other  person  or  persons,  for  the 
above  object."  Whether  Mr.  Thompson  carried  out  his  patriotic 
offer  remains  to  be  seen. 

The  board  ordered  the  payment  of  111  accounts  Oct.  22.  On 
the  23d  Marcus  Wakeman,  Abram  Van  De  Bogart  and  William 
Moody  were  chosen  by  the  board  superintendents  of  the  poor  for 
the  ensuing  year. 


The  board  began  to  entertain  the  idea  of  erecting  new  county 
offices,  ami  among  other  committees  appointed  was  one  composed 
of  Nicholas  Townley,  F.  C.  Watkins  and  John  Belden,  to  ascer- 
tain whether  it  would  be  advisable  to  remove  the  register's  and 
county  clerk's  office  from  the  public  square  ;  if  so,  upon  what 
terms  can  a  site  be  procured,  and  also  the  terms  for  erecting  a 
fire-proof  building.  This  committee  reported  Dec.  30,  but  a  resolu- 
tion of  the  hoard  postponed  its  further  consideration  indefinitely. 

The  duplicate  for  1846  presented  the  following  totals  of  township 
valuation:  Number  of  acres,  406,676;  value  of  real  estate.  $1,225,- 
407;  value  of  personal  estate.  $195,409;  aggregate  value,  $1,420,816; 
State  tax.  $3,551.08.  county  tax,  $7,812.46.  This  statement  being 
approved  by  the  hoard,  the  public  accounts  were  taken  up,  and  52 
claims  ordered  to  be  paid.  This  closed  the  labors  of  the  supervi- 
sors for  1846. 

The  January  session  of  L847  was  principally  occupied  in  audit- 
ing and  passing  accounts.  The  meeting  of  Jan.  22,  however, 
entertained  a  resolution  offering  to  levy  upon  the  county  the  sum 
of  $50,000  for  the  erection  of  a  capitoi,  provided  the  Legislature 
woidd  fix  the  permanent  location  of  the  State  Government  in  the 
village  of  Jackson.     Forty  two  accounts  were  ordered  to  be  paid. 

At  the  annual  session  of  1847,  Oct.  11.  David  Menzie  was 
elected  chairman  for  the  year  ensuing. 

The  business  transacted  during  the  first  three  days  of  the  session 
was  of  an  unimportant  character.  On  the  14th  the  committee  on 
equalization  presented  their  report,  which,  summed  up,  showed, 
the  following  totals:  Number  of  acres,  409,350;  value  of  real 
estate,  $1,312,155;  equalized  value,  $1,295,599;  value  of  personal 
estate.  $112,851.50;  total,  $1,425,006.50. 


A  tax  of  50  cents  per  scholar,  aggregating  $195,  was  ordered  to 
be  levied  in  Hanover  township  for  the  support  of  primary  schools. 
The  supervisors  further  granted  the  use  of  the  court-house  for  the 
meetings  of  the  teachers'  institute. 


of  superintendents  of  the  poor  resulted  in  the  choice  of  Stephen 
3-  Crawford,  Caleb  M.  Chapel  and  Amos  Pickett  to  fill  that  posi- 
tion. The  closing  meetings  of  the  year  1S47  were  almost  entirely 
devoted  to  ordinary  routine  business. 

The  annual  meeting  of  1848  was  held  Oct.  9.  The  supervisors 
elect  were  duly  installed  in  office,  and  organized  by  choosing 
Alford  Hall  as  chairman  for  the  year  1848-'9. 

The  committee  appointed  to  examine  the  assessment  roll  re- 
ported as  follows,  on  the  third  day  of  the  session:  Acres  of  land, 
422,788;  value  of  real  estate,  $1,360,S36;  value  of  personal  estate, 
$235,503;  equalized  valuation,  $1,274,201;  aggregate  valuation, 


The  meeting  of  the  new  board  was  held  ( >et.  8,  184:9,  and  organ1 
ized  by  the  election  of  Michael  Shoemaker  as  chairman. 

At  the  annual  meeting  Oct.  14,  1S50  Supervisor  J.  B.  Eaton,  ot 
Jackson,  was  elected  chairman  for  the  ensuing  year. 

The  duplicate  was  then  presented  and  approved,  showing  totals  of 
assessed  value,  $1, 334,928;  equalized  value,  $1,141,847;  personal 
property,  $253,651;  aggregate  value,  $1,355,498;  State  tax,  $5,- 
478.80;'county  tax,  $\512.47;  total  tax,  $13,991.17. 

The  superintendents  of  the  poor  presented  a  voluminous  report, 
under  date  of  Oct.  10,  1849,  dealing  with  expenditures  for  the 
year  ending  Oct.  12.  The  various  items  arc  set  forth  thus:  Inci- 
dental expenses,  $9.76;  temporary  relief,  $2.'i3. 78;  justices'  orders, 
$194.34;  directors  of  poor,  $81.79;  physicians  temporary  relief, 
$182. 51;  justices  of  the  peace,  $4.50;  keeper  of  county  poor-house, 
$79(3.96  repairs  on  poor-house,  $6.19;  varnishing  poor-house, 
$27,35;  carrying  paupers  to  poor-house,  $13.25;  total,    $1,551.53. 

The  foregoing  may  be  considered  a  record  of  the  more  important 
transactions  of  the  supervisors  and  commissioners,  for  each  year 
from  1833  to  1S50. 

1851. — At  the  June  meeting  of  the  board  the  following  figures 
were  adopted  as  the  totals  on  which  to  base  the  assessment  of  the 
county:  Number  of  acres,  409,025;  assessed  valuation,  $1,304,S34; 
equalized  valuation,  $1,268,961.01;  personal  property,  $247,498; 
aggregate  equalized  valuation,  $1,516,852. 

The  adoption  of  the  report  of  the  committee  on  equalization 
closed  the  proceedings  of  the  board  of  supervisors.  The  ancient 
record  book  from  which  the  particulars  were  taken  was  devoted  to 
the  minutes  of  their  transactions  for  19  years,  from  Oct.  1,  1833, 
to  June  11,  1851.  It  contains  much  valuable  and  interesting  mat- 
ter, and  cannot  fail  to  prove  instructive,  while  passing  in  review, 
as  it  were,  the  men  who  watched  over  the  well-being  of  the  county 
from  a  period  extending  over  19  years.  It  is  unnecessary  to  follow 
up  the  proceedings  of  the  supervisors.  Their  names  will  suffice 
to  prove  the  upright  character  of  their  transactions  as  repre- 
sentative men,  and  their  earnestness  in  contributing  to  the  pros- 
perity of  their  county. 

1852 — 1880.— It  is  unnecessary  to  extend  an  account  of  the  gen- 
eral transactions  of  the  supervisors  through  all  the  years  following 
1852.  With  what  has  been  hitherto  written  on  the  subject,  the 
reader  is  enabled  to  examine  into  the  financial  condition  of  the 
county  almost  from  its  organization,  and  to  mark  the  years  wherein 
progress  was  made. 

The  assessment  of  real  and  personal  property  of  the  county  and 
city  for  the  year  1880  is  $9,255,302,  represented  as  follows  : 



Townships.  Aggregate  value. 

Blackmail $  355,110 

Columbia 406,499 

Concord 423,i 

Townships.                    Aggregate  value 
Springport 321,155 


Spring  Arbor 



First  Ward,  Jackson. 




Grass  Lake 555,326 

Hanover 369,339 

Henrietta 250,590 

Leoni 366,291 

Liberty 276,697 

Napoleon 283,597 

Norvell 277,695 

Parma 377,015 

Pulaski 330,919 

Rives 299,420 

Sandstone 346,933 

Jackson  County  Tax  Sales. — County  Treasurer  Townley  received 
from  the  State  treasurer  a  report  of  the  amount  of  the  tax  sales  in 
this  county  for  1880,  together  with  the  amount  due  the  State  on  old 
account.     The  latter  officer  writes  : 

"  The  footings  of  your  sales-book  and  State-tax-land  list  have 
been  completed.  The  amounts  sold  are  ascertained  to  be  as  fol 
lows  : 

On  the  sales-book 

From  the  State  tax  land  list. 

.$  1,131  71 

"There  is  due  from  the  county  to  the  State  on  old  account  the 
sum  of  $4,201.17.  This  account  grows  out  of  interest  on  returned 
and  rejected  taxes.  However,  sales  of  the  current  year  aggregat- 
ing $3,090.85  stand  nominally  to  the  credit  of  the  county  on  the 
State  treasurer's  books,  but  will  not  be  reckoned  as  such  until  next 
year.  Could  it  be  so  used  at  the  present  time  it  would  reduce  the 
old  account  to  §1,110.32." 

Under  the  fostering  care  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  the  condi- 
tion of  the  county  finances  is  flourishing,  every  department  of  the 
public  service,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  board,  is  well  ordered, 
and  thus  a  feeling  of  confidence  is  engendered  in  the  hearts  of  the 
people,  while  those  who  administered  the  government  of  the 
county  leave  a  sure  record  of  duty  done. 

The  Court-House — is  situated  near  the  Bennett  Block,  a  short 
distance  west  of  the  spot  where  the  first  stone  building  stood, 
erected  at  the  instance  of  the  county.  The  present  edifice  is  suf- 
ficiently extensive  for  the  transaction  of  county  business,  but  its 
situation  is  altogether  out  of  place.  Such  an  institution  should 
form  the  central  figure  of  a  public  square,  and  be  a  thing  of  beauty 
as  well  as  utility. 

The  importance  of  Jackson  among  the  counties  of  the  State  sug- 
gests the  propriety  of  having  its  public  buildings  made  the  image 
of  such  a  situation.  The  court-house,  as  erected  in  1871,  is  en- 
tirely too  massive  a  concern  to  be  hidden  away  in  its  present  corner. 



is  fortunately  large  enough  for  the  few  tenants  furnished  by  the 
district.  It  is  an  unpretentious  structure,  situated  in  rear  of  the 
court-house,  with  frontage  on  Jackson  street,  south  of  the  Bennett 


Since  such  an  institution  as  a  poor-house  seems  to  be  a  necessity 
of  our  day  throughout  the  civilized  world,  it  is  not  surprising  to 
learn  that  one  exists  in  this  prosperous  county.  A  description  of 
the  building  and  its  occupants  is,  therefore,  right  and  becoming  in 
the  pages  of  this  general  work  : 

"The  house  is  a  long  brick  structure,  two  stories  high,  with  an 
L  in  which  are  the  kitchen  and  women's  dining-room.  In  the 
kitchen  we  find  one  of  the  paupers  cooking,  and  the  articles  she 
turns  out  look  as  good  as  any  baked  in  household  ovens.  We  pass 
through  a  long  hall,  opening  from  either  side  of  which  are  the 
sleeping  rooms  of  the  women.  The  men  sleep  up  stairs,  and  in 
one  of  these  rooms  we  find  lying  a  man  whose  large  frame  and 
well-turned  muscles  show  plainly  that  he  was,  when  well,  a  strong, 
finely  built  man,  but  for  three  years  a  rupture  has  confined  him  to 
his  room,  almost  helpless. 

"All  these  rooms  are  marked  by  great  cleanliness,  and  the  in- 
mates are  clean  and  neat  in  their  personal  appearance.  Many  of 
them  are  venerable,  motherly  looking  dames,  who  appear  as  if 
they  had  sometime  known  better  days.  May  be  they  were  mothers 
who  worked  early  and  late,  taxing  their  strength  to  the  utmost  to 
rear  their  little  ones;  may  be  those  little  ones  grew  to  be  men  and 
women,  and  the  cares  of  the  world  choked  up  the  fount  of  affection 
in  their  breasts.  Oh,  no,  Will  Carleton  did  not  draw  altogether 
on  his  imagination  when  he  penned  '  Over  the  Hills  to  the  Poor- 
house.'  That's  the  romance,  but  unfortunately  for  it  the  reality  is 
apt  to  be  the  other  way.  In  this  ward  we  find  one  of  those  unfor- 
tunates who  seem  calculated  to  inspire  sentiments  of  both  disgust 
and  pity  in  the  mind  of  the  beholder.  Sitting  on  the  steps  of  aback 
enclosure  sits  awoman,clad  in  a  stout  blue  frock,  for  she  has  a  preju- 
dice against  clothes  and  frequently  destroys  them.  She  is  bearheaded 
and  seems  to  enjoy  a  sun  bath.  She  is  insane,  not  violently  so  as 
a  rule,  but  seems  to  have  lost  all  sense  of  human  nature,  and  to  be 
degraded  to  the  level  of  the  brute,  showing  but  little  more  idea  of 
wants.  She  has  been  in  the  Kalamazoo  asylum,  but  was  pronounced 
incurable,  and  for  the  last  six  years  has  been  an  inmate  of  the 
county-house.  She  is  intensely  filthy,  and  her  habits  are  decidedly 
more  animallv  natural  than  humanly  decent,  and  none  of  the  other 
inmates  will  associate  with  her.  She  is  a  German  woman,  unable 
to  speak  English,  and  even  Germans  find  it  difficult  to  understand 
her  speech,  so  uncouth  is  it. 

' '  In  the  house  we  find  extremes  meeting.  We  meet  here  Thomas 
Bolton   and  Mrs.  Atkins,   both    of  whom  have   passed    the  usual 


term  of  life,  and  who  have  passed  nearly  a  generation  in  this  ref- 
uge. On  the  other  hand,  there  are  two  infant  children  who  were 
born  in  this  place,  and  others  who  never  knew  any  other  home. 

"In  a  small  stone  annex  is  the  room  where  the  men  eat  and 
where  the  blind  live,  for  there  are  three  old  men  of  this  class  in 
the  institution.  One  of  the  inmates  is  a  deaf  mute,  'and  he  is  re- 
garded as  one  of  the  best  men  to  work  in  the  whole  number,  but 
then  he  is  young.  Back  of  the  blind  ward  is  a  room  where  the 
most  sickening  sight  of  all  greets  our  eyes.  On  one  side  of  the 
room  are  two  bunks,  and  on  these  there  lie  two  men.  One  of  them 
is  a  victim  of  that  horrid  disease,  St.  Vitus  dance,  and  the  convul- 
sive twitching  of  his  muscles  sends  a  shiver  down  the  visitor's 
spine.  The  other  is  bedridden,  unable  to  do  anything  for  himself 
or  to  change  his  own  position.  In  this  room  these  two  pass  their 
lives — it  seems  wrong  to  say  they  live — fed  and  cared  for  by  a  con- 
sumptive inmate. 

"The  number  now  confined  is  33,  about  equally  divided  as  to  sex. 
Those  who  are  able  work — the  men  about  the  farm,  garden,  barn 
and  woodpile,  and  the  women  in  the  ordinary  duties  of  the  house- 
hold economy. 

"  The  poor  farm  contains  160  acres,  nearly  all  under  cultivation. 
The  crop  of  grain  this  year  has  been  large.  The  superintendents 
expect  to  get  about  five  hundred  bushels  of  wheat,  while  the  yield 
ot  vegetables  will  be  better  than  usual. 

"The  furniture  of  the  rooms  is,  of  course,  simple,  but  none  the 
less  clean  and  substantial.  All  the  wood-work  shows  the  marks  of 
plentiful  libations  of  soap  and  water,  and  the  bedding  is  well 
washed,  and  aired  daily.  These  precautions  have  sufficed  to 
keep  up  the  health  of  the  house,  and  there  is  little  sickness.  It 
should  not  be  supposed  that  the  inmates  keep  themselves  so  clean 
entirely  from  choice.  Many  of  them  left  to  themselves  would  re- 
lapse into  a  state  of  filth  such  as  marks  too  many  of  the  homes  of 
poverty  outside.  But  by  a  firm  discipline  they  are  compelled  to 
keep  looking  decent,  bathing  frequently.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that 
in  this  latter  respect  the  accommodations  are  not  better,  a  tub  of 
water  being  all  the  facilities  thus  afforded.  The  food  given  them 
is  solid  and  good.  They  eat  good  bread,  salt  meats,  and  occasion- 
ally fresh,  a  general  assortment  of  vegetables,  with  tea,  and  fruit 
in  season.  Those  who  form  their  ideas  of  poor-house  fare  from 
'Seven  Oaks'  and  other  books  of  that  class  will  please  take 
notice  that  Jackson  county  does  not  support  that  kind  of  a  poor- 
house.  The  inmates  are  healthy  and  appear  well  fed  and  contented, 
and  differing  in  no  particular  respect  from  those  outside." 

The  support  of  poor  persons  within  the  county,  the  maintenance 
of  paupers,  and  aid  to  strangers  cost  the  people  of  the  county  over 
$3,000  per  annum  in  direct  and  indirect  taxation. 



In  dealing  with  the  court  of  Jackson  county,  it  is  desirable  to 
give  only  its  history  from  the  beginning  to  that  period  when  its 
organization  may  be  said  to  have  been  completed,  and  its  rules 
understood  and  observed.  Therefore,  in  the  succeeding  pages 
the  legal  transactions  of  the  Circuit  Court  are  summarized  up  to 
1838,  after  which  a  roll  of  the  president  and  associate  judges  is 
given,  with  the  names  of  the  clerks  of  court  who  entered  the  pro- 
ceedings. The  county  officers  being  partially  connected  with  the 
courts,  the  roll  of  names  and  year  of  election  are  given,  and  added 
to  this  record. 


The  Territorial  Governor,  Hon.  Lewis  Cass,  issued  the  following 
proclamation  under  date  Feb.  2,  1831,  confirming  the  action  of  the 
commissioners  appointed  to  locate  the  county-seat  of  Jackson: 


A  Proclamation. 

Whereas,  By  an  act  of  the  Legislative  Council,  approved  July  31,  1830,  authority 
is  given  to  the  governor  of  the  Territory  to  appoint  commissioners  to  locate  the  seats 
of  justice  in  the  several  counties  where  the  seats  of  justice  may  not  have  been 
located,  and  to  receive  their  report  and  confirm  the  same  if  he  approve  thereof; 
and  then  to  issue  a  proclamation  establishing  the  seals  of  justice  so  located; 

And  whereas,  Henry  Rumsey,  Chauncey  S.  Goodrich  and  John  Allen,  Esquires, 
were  appointed  commissioners  to  locate  the  seat  of  justice  of  the  county  of  Jackson, 
and  have  proceeded  to  execute  the  said  duty,  aod  have  by  a  report  signed  by  them. 
located  the  seat  of  justice  of  the  said  county  of  Jackson  at  the  said  village  of  Jack- 
sonopolis,  in  the  said  county: 

Now,  therefore,  By  virtue  of  the  authority  given  in  said  act,  and  in  conformity 
with  the  said  report,  I  do  herd  by  issue  this  proclamation,  establishing  the  seat  of 
justice  of  the  said  county  of  Jackson  at  the  said  village  of  Jacksonopolis,  in  the  said 

In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand,  and  caused  the  great 
seal  of  the  Territory  to  be  affixed.  Done  at  Detroit,  on  the  second  of  February,  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  thirty-one,  and  of  the  Inde- 
pendence of  the  United  States  the  fifty-fifth. 

By  the  Governor,  Lewis  Cass.     [L.  S.] 

John  T.  Mason, 

Secretary  of  the  Territory. 


The  formation  of  counties  throughout  the  State  in  1829  was  fol- 
lowed by  acts  of  the  Legislative  assembly  of  the  Territory,  relating 


to  the  government  of  such  counties,  their  partition  into  townships, 
and  the  establishment  of  county  and  circuit  courts  in  each  district 
so  organized.  These  acts  were  approved  June  29,  1832,  and 
among  many  others  relating  to  this  county  was  one  dealing  with 
the  courts,  in  the  following  terms:  "That  a  county  court  should  be 
established  in  Jackson  county,  possessing  all  the  privileges  of  the 
other  county  courts  in  the  Territory,  a  session  of  which  must  be 
held  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  September  each  year,  and  the  first 
session  to  take  place  at  the  house  of  Horace  Blackman.  The 
county  of  Jackson  was  created  one  circuit,  and  a  session  of  the 
court  ordered  to  be  held  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  September  each 
year,  the  first  session  to  be  held  at  the  house  of  Horace  Black- 

Always  prompt  in  matters  of  this  kind,  the  authorities  appointed 
Dr.  Oliver  Russ  judge,  Samson  Stoddard  clerk  of  court,  and  David 
Kves  sheriff.  The  necessary  legal  notice  was  extensively  posted, 
and  in  accordance  with  the  spirit  of  the  act,  the  first  court  of  justice 
in  Jackson  county  was  proclaimed  open  on  the  first  Tuesday  of 
September,  1832.  A  grand  jury  was  impaneled,  which  comprised 
almost  every  responsible  man  then  in  the  neighborhood.  Attor- 
neys John  Allen  and  Olney  Hawkins  were  present,  with  a  few 
determined  litigants  ranged  in  the  back-ground.  The  court-room, 
— a  parlor  in  the  log  house  of  Horace  Blackman — was  densely 
packed  with  the  jurors,  lawyers,  litigants  and  the  curious.  The 
judge  sat  patiently  waiting  the  time  when  the  multitude  would 
cease  their  converse,  and  settle  down  to  hear  the  lecture  to  which 
he  was  determined  to  treat  the  jurors.  It  came.  Sheriff  Kyes 
read  the  proclamation  a  second  time,  and  declared  the  session 
of  the  court  to  have  begun.  The  judge  rose  from  his  seat  with  a 
good  ileal  of  dignity,  took  a  long  look  at  his  assembled  friends, 
and  then  entered  on  one  of  those  peculiar  addresses  heard  only  in 
the  courts,  or  at  the  meetings  of  a  people  recently  settled  in  a  new 
country,      lie  said: 

"  Gentlemen  of  the  < intml  Jnr>/,  Friends  mn/  Cowit/rymm:  "We 
are  just  emerging  from  the  barbarous  period  of  our  lives,  and  that 
is  comprised  in  the  few  months  which  have  passed  away  since  we 
left  our  Eastern  homes  in  search  of  Western  ones.  The  State  has 
not  forgotten  us;  but,  on  the  contrary,  has  recognized  our  courage 
by  bestowing  upon  us  all  the  forms  of  government  known  in  much 
older  counties,  and  above  all  she  has  blessed  the  county  by  placing 
me  a  judge  over  you.  Gentlemen  of  the  jury,  I  am  proud  to 
assure  you  that  your  duties  at  this  session  of  the  court  will  be  of 
the  lightest  character,  but  1  trust  the  time  is  not  far  distant 
when  intelligent  men.  such  as  you  are,  will  be  idle  in  such  a 
cause,  or  lawyers,  such  as  I  see  before  me,  be  without  a  train  of 
clients.  The  advancing  civilization  of  our  time  requires  that 
litigation  and  trouble  of  all  sorts  should  accompany  it,  and  I  must 
congratulate  the  State  for  placing  among  us,  so  early  in  the  history 
ot  our  county,  an  institution  which  may,  undoubtedly,  cause  more 
trouble  and  anxiety  than  it  will  be  ever  able  to  relieve. 


'  •  Gentlemen,  in  closing  this  little  address,  I  must  not  forget  to 
remind  you  that  this  is  only  the  beginning  of  the  end.  The  time 
will  soon  be  at  hand  when  the  juror  may  lose  the  curiosity  which  this 
court  now  awakens,  and  seek  a  means  to  escape  a  visit  to  the 
county  court-house,  that  will  soon  offer  us',  at  least,  a  larger  room 
to  examine  and  deliberate  in.  The  case  of  John  Doe  will  come 
before  you;  treat  it  as  it  deserves." 

The  jurors  were  satisfied,  the  crowd  was  satisfied;  but  the 
happiest  mortal  in  all  that  gathering  was  the  judge  himself,  who 
looked  with  a  smile  at  the  following  entries,  made  by  S.  Stoddard, 
Clerk  of  the  County  Court,  in  one  of  the  early  record  books: 

John  Doe,  selling  liquor  to  Indian;  damages,  $20.  Attorney, 
John  Allen. 

Thomas  Godfrey  vs.  Daniel  D.  T.  Warner,  trespass;  damages, 
$100.     Attorney,  O.  Hawkins. 

Fee  bill — Summons,  50c.;  docketing,  12£c. ;  same,  6Jc.  Date — 
Sept.  4,  1832.  Eemarks — Summons  issued  returnable  at  next 
term  of  court.  Returned,  served  by  David  Kves,  Sheriff;  fee, 

Under  date  of  Sept.  7,  1832.  the  fee  bill,  in  the  case  of  Abel 
Millington  vs.  Sanford  Marsh  and  Daniel  D.  T.  Warner,  comprised 
a  capias,  costing  50c;  docketing,  12ic;  tiling  papers,  25c.  So 
Stoddard  remarks: —  "Capias  issued  on  filing  affidavit  of  E.  W. 
Morgan.  Capias  returned  with  bond  for  defendant's  appearance 
by  David  Kyes,  Sheriff.    Fees,  $1.50." 

The  action  of  Stephen  Grant  and  Trumbul  Cary  against  Elijah 
Spencer,  claiming  damages  of  $1,000,  was  brought  before  the 
court  in  1832,  and  a  capias  was  issued  returnable  at  the  next  term 
of  the  Circuit  Court. 

The  Bank  of  Michigan  vs.  John  Wickham,  H.  W.  Bassett  and 
H.  Blackman,  a  case  noticed  under  date  Dec.  18,1832,  is  treated 
to  the  laconic  remark,  "Capias  issued  returnable  at  next  term  of 
Circuit  Court.      Returned,  served  by  David  Kyes.  Sheriff." 

All  the  cases  were  returned  to  the  Circuit  Court,  the  judge 
asked  three  hearty  cheers  for  the  stars  and  stripes,  which  were 
freely  given,  and  then,  placing  one  foot  on  the  chair  and  his  hand 
under  his  chin,  spoke  to  the  members  of  that  grand  jury  for  over 
an  hour,  and  might  have  continued  for  the  succeeding  60  minutes 
had  not  the  last  of  the  fatigued  pioneers  followed  the  example  of 
his  friends,  leaving  Messrs.  Stoddard  and  Kyes  for  the  audience. 

It  is  related  by  one  of  the  surviving  first  settlers  that  the  judge 
was  very  desirous  to  indite  John  Doe.  then  a  tavern-keeper  in  the 
township,  for  selling  liquor  to  Indians.  In  his  charge  to  the  grand 
jury  he  referred  to  it;  but  the  jury  requested  the  judge  to  make  out 
a  bill  against  the  breaker  of  laws,  as  they  were  not  conversant 
with  legal  forms  in  their  adopted  State.  Buss  snatched  up  a  pen 
and  wrote:  John  Doe  to  Jackson  ('mint//.  Dr.,  To  sellinq  liquor  to 
Indian*,  $20.00 

What  became  of  this  "true  bill"  is  not  recorded;  but  it  is  handed 
down  in  legend  that  Doe  never  paid  the  $20,   and  that  Dr.    Russ' 


"true  bill"  is  still  passed  round  the  judicial  circuits  of  the  State, 
always  forming  subject  for  the  leisure  moments  of  modern  lawyers. 

FIRST    REGULAR    SESSION,     1833. 

The  first  session  of  the  Circuit  Court,  held  in  Jackson  county 
June  3,  1833,  was  presided  over  by  Hon.  William  A.  Fletcher, 
with  Win.  R.  DeLand  as  assistant  judge.  The  commission  of 
Judge  Fletcher  was  issued  by  Gov.  G.  B.  Porter  April  23,  1833. 
This  document  appointed  him  judge  of  the  Circuit  Court  in  and  for 
the  Territrv  of  Michigan  for  four  years,  or  during  the  pleasure  of 
the  Governor  of  the  Territory  for  the  time  being. 

David  Kyes,  the  sheriff,  read  this  commission,  together  with 
that  appointing  W.  R.  De  Land  assistant  judge.  As  the  latter 
named  has  been  so  intimately  connected  with  the  county,  it  is  well 
to  give  a  copy  of  his  commission: 

George  B.  Porter — Ooeernor  in  and  over  the  Territory  of  Michigan. 

To  nil  to  wh', in  these  presents  nun/  come.  Greeting  :— Know  ye  that  reposing 
special  trust  and  confidence  in  the  integrity  and  ability  of  William  R.  De  Land,  I 
have  nominaicd  and.  by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Legislative  Coun- 
cil of  the  said  Territory,  have  appointed  him  an  Associate  Judge  of  the  Circuit 
Court  for  the  county  of  Jackson;  and  I  do  hereby  authorize  and  empower  him  to 
execute  and  fulfill  I  he  duties  of  that  office  according  to  law, — to  have  and  to  hold 
the  said  office  with  all  the  rights,  privileges  and  emoluments  thereunto  belonging, 
during  the  pleasure  of  the  governor  of  the  said  Territory  for  the  time  being. 

The  date  of  this  document  is  contemporary  with  that  of  Judge 
Fletcher's  commission. 

A  commission,  under  the  same  date,  was  issued  to  Hiram 
Thompson,  appointing  him  associate  judge,  though  he  did  not 
take  his  seat  until  the  November  session. 

The  first  grand  jury  was  composed  of  the  following  persons  : 
Solomon  Brill;  Lemuel  Blackmail,  Russell  Blackmail,  Jacksonburgh; 
Wm.  11.  Pease,  Wesley  W.  Laverty,  Elizur  B.  Chapman,  Ezekiel  T. 
Critchet,  John  Laverty.  Jacksonburgh;  Zenas  Fuller;  Jotham  Wood; 
Wm.  T.  Worden;  Charles  Henington:  Wm.  D.  Thompson,  Jackson- 
burgh; Samuel  Wing;  Hiram  Austin;  Nathan  Russ,  Jacksonburgh; 
Abel  Benett,  Wm.  Pool,  Nathan  Z.  Lattimore,  Caleb  Chapel,  Ira 
Kellogg,  Timothy  Williams,  James  Jacobs.  Solomon  Brill  was 
appointed  foreman  and  authorized  by  the  court  to  administer  oat) is 
to  such  witnesses  as  might  appear  for  examination. 

The  petit  panel  comprised  the  following:  Nathaniel  Boyn,  Moses 
Boyn,  George  Woodworth,  Edward  Morrell,  Aaron  Evans,  John 
Daniels,  Josephus  Case,  Alexander  Laverty.  Isaac  Carrier.  Joseph 
Sutton,  John  Eames,  Ethan  Allen.  James  Fifield,  Jeremiah  Mar- 
vin, David  Riley,  Orrin  Gregory,  Leander  M.  Cain,  Sanford  Marsh. 
William  Worth,  Stephen  Rowan,  Martin  Flint,  Major  I).  Mills. 

The  court  ordered  that  ( )lney  Hawkins,  of  Ann  Arbor,  be  ap- 
pointed district  attorney.  Those  preliminaries  being  completed, 
the  case  of  Millington  against  Marsli  and  others  was  called,  when 
Attorney  Hawkins  moved  for  judgment  of  nonsuit,  owing  to  some 


informality  in  the  procedure  of  plaintiff ;  but  the  motion  was  over- 
ruled at  the  adjourned  meeting,  June  4,  and  the  plaintiff  allowed 
to  file  a  declaration  within  30  days. 

A  nonsuit  ensued  in  the  case  of  Thos.  Godfrey  versus  Daniel  D. 
T.  Warner  by  consent  of  plaintiff's  attorney,  John  Allen,  and  01- 
nev  Hawkins,  the  defendant's  attorney. 

The  little  difficulty  between  Harvey  Austin  and  Calvin  II. 
Swain  was  simply  settled  by  the  failure  of  defendant  to  appear  be- 
fore the  court,  or,  as  Dr.  Samson  Stoddard,  then  county  clerk,  re- 
ported, "  The  defendant  being  three  times  solemnly  called  comes 
not,  but  makes  default.*' 

The  United  States  against  Win.  Savacool  was  almost  a  cause  cel- 
ebre.  Savacool  was  indicted  for  larceny.  He  denied  the  crime. 
not  wisely,  but  too  well,  and  was  requested  to  sojourn  for  three 
months  in  the  hospitable  jail  of  Washtenaw  county,  and  instructed 
to  stay  there  until  the  costs  of  the  prosecution  be  paid.  All  this 
kindness,  resulting  from  the  stealing  of  property  valued  at  $2.25, 
was  fully  appreciated  by  the  prisoner.  The  jurors  who  tried  this 
terrible  man  were  Sanford  Marsh,  Wm.  Worth,  Geo.  Woodworth, 
Orrin  Gregory.  David  Riley,  Aaron  Karnes.  Moses  Bovn,  Isaac 
Curier,  Major  D.  Mills,  Jeremiah  Marvin,  Edward  Morrell  and 
Martin  Flint. 

BECOND    SESSION,    1833. 

The  session  of  November,  1833,  was  held  under  President  Judge 
Fletcher,  with  Associate  Judges  Hiram  Thompson  and  W.  R.  De 
Land.  Alexander  Laverty  proclaimed  the  court  open,  after  which 
the  commission  of  Judge  II.  Thompson  was  read.  The  grand 
jury  panel  was  called,  when  the  following  answered  to  their  names  : 
O.  Gregory,  J.  Wood,  A.  F.  Bolton,  J.  Valentine,  J.  S.  Love,  A. 
B.  Gibson,  O.  Buss,  A.  Trip,  J.  McConneU,  A.  Eames,  C.  M. 
Chappel,  N.  Buss,  "N".  G.  Lattimer,  J.  Tunnicliff,  J.  Daniels,  C. 
Harrington,  C.  Harrington,  Jr.,  J.  N.  Swain.  W.  I).  Thompson, 
D.  Laverty,  E.  Allen,  J.  II.  Otis,  C.  Smith.  Abram  F.  Bolton 
was  appointed  foreman,  and  directed  to  swear  any  witnesses  who 
might  come  up  for  examination,  and  O.  Hawkins,  district  attorney, 
pro  tt  in. 

Attorneys  E.  W  Morgan  and  Jewett  appeared  at  this  session, 
but  the  docket  was  so  light,  showing  only  five  unimportant  cases, 
that  they  manifested  their  disapproval  by  leaving  the  village  the 
evening  of  the  first  day's  sitting.  On  the  12th  a  jury  appeared 
consisting  of  S.  Brill,  B.  Davis,  J.  S.  Fifield,  Lyman  Pease,  Hi- 
ram Austin,  J.  Marvin,  A.  Barrett,  W.  Laverty,  J.  Laverty,  Sam. 
Boberts,  Stephen  Bowan.  M.  Bean,  N.  Bean,  E.  B.  Chapman,  J. 
Case,  R.  Updike,  Ed.  Morrell,  J.  T.  Durand,  J.  Wellman,  M.  D. 
Mills.  This  jury  was  immediately  discharged,  as  there  did  not 
appear  any  necessity  for  its  further  attendance,  and  subsequently 
the  court  adjourned  without  naming  a  day  for  the  next  session. 

A  session  of  the  court  was  held  June  5,  1834,  with  the  judges 
named  hitherto  presiding.     A  jury  was  impaneled,  and  the  docket 

HISTORY      "]'    .lAi'KSiiN     nil'NTY. 

disposed  of.  A  most  peculiar  pair  of  cases,  those  of  Nehemiah  0. 
Sargeant  against  Daniel  D.  T.  Warner,  and  Abel  Millington  v&rsw 
Marsh  and  Warner,  seem  to  have  occupied  almost  the  entire  atten- 
tion of  the  court  from  its  first  session  in  1833.  Sometimes  Warner 
would  appear,  and  sometimes  an  attachment  would  be  issued 
against  him;  but  the  celebrated  defendant  still  considered  himself 
at  liberty  to  do  exactly  what  he  pleased.  Attorney  C.  Clelland  ap- 
peared for  Warner  at  this  session,  and  succeeded  in  causing  the 
attachment  against  him  to  be  discharged. 

( )gden  B.  Laverty  was  not  so  successful.  He  was  committed  to 
Washtenaw  jail  for  ten  days,  and  fined  $10  for  offending  the 
State  by  battering  a  citizen. 

At  the  session  of  December,  Edward  Mundy,  an  Illinois  attor- 
ney, was  examined  by  Attorneys  G.  W.  Jewett,  James  Kingsley 
and  E.  W.  Morgan;  took  the  usual  oath,  and  was  admitted  an 
attorney  and  counsellor  at  law.  Wm.  J.  Moody  was  admitted  in  a 
similar  manner. 

The  judgment  in  the  shocking  case  of  Solomon  Brill,  a  man 
guilty  of  a  crime  that  sent  a  thrill  of  indignation  through  the  hearts 
of  the  people,  was  rather  too  lenient  to  be  just.  The  second  jury 
impanelled  to  try  the  prisoner  found  him  guilty,  when  the  court 
delivered  the  following  sentence  :  "  It  is  considered  and  adjudged 
by  the  court,  that  the  said  Solomon  Brill  be  and  he  is  hereby  sen- 
tenced to  be  imprisoned  by  solitary  imprisonment,  and  at  hard 
labor,  for  the  period  of  three  years  from,  and  including,  this  day, 
and  that  he  pay  a  fine  of  $100,  together  with  the  costs 
of  this  prosecution,  and  that  he  stand  committed  until  the 
sentence  be  complied  with.  And  it  being  made  to  appear  to  the 
court  that  there  is  no  gaol  in  the  county  of  Jackson  aforesaid,  suit- 
able for  the  confinement  of  said  convict,  it  is  therefore  ordered  by 
the  court  that  this  sentence  be  executed  by  the  imprisonment  of 
the  said  Solomon  Brill  in  the  gaol  of  the  county  of  Washtenaw,  in 
the  Territory  of  Michigan;  and  the  sheriff  of  the  said  county  of 
Jackson  is  hereby  authorized  to  convey  the  body  of  the  said  Solo- 
mon Brill  into  the  said  county  of  Washtenaw,  and  to  deliver  it  to 
the  keeper  of  the  gaol  in  the  said  county  of  Washtenaw." 

W.  J.  Moody  appeared  for  the  terrible  defendant;  but  all  that 
could  be  done  by  him  was  to  obtain  leave  to  indorse  the  writ  in 
the  case  nimcpro  fame,  and  cause  the  first  jury  to  disagree.  Solo- 
mon was  plaintiff  in  a  number  of  cases,  which  were  now  discon- 

The  session  of  1S35  was  principally  engaged  in  investigating  a 
number  of  civil  cases.  The  case  of  the  State  against  E.  M.  Barnes 
for  assault  and  battery,  resulted  in  a  fine  of  $2.  The  charge 
against  him  of  selling  spirituous  liquors  to  Indians  was  postponed 
to  the  December  session,  the  defendant  and  his  surety,  Samuel 
Quigley,  giving  bonds  in  the  sum  of  $50  each.  W.  J.  Moody  was 
appointed  district  attorney,  Jonathan  Wood,  foreman  of  jury,  and 
A.  Laverty,  crier. 


The  session  of  1836  was  opened  under  the  presidency  of  Judge 
Fletcher  and  Associate  Judge  De  Land.  Harvey  Austin  was 
elected  foreman  of  the  jury,  and  Phineas  Farrand  was  appointed 
prosecuting  attorney.  The  trials  of  civil  cases  were  proceeded  with 
without  ceremony,  and  disposed  of;  and  the  court  having  admitted 
Leander  Chapman  as  an  attorney  and  counselor  at  law,  adjourned 
June  8. 

The  Circuit  Court  of  1837  was  declared  open  by  the  newly  ap- 

fointed  crier,  Joseph  C.  Watkins,  April  25.  Hon.  Wm.  A. 
'letcher,  Ethan  Allen  and  David  Adams  presided.  A  jury  was 
impaneled,  and  Moses  Benedict  being  elected  chairman,  the  ex- 
amination of  the  docket  was  proceeded  with.  W.  D.  Thompson's 
name  appeared  as  clerk,  and  the  criminal  prosecutions  were  car- 
ried out  under  the  name  of  the  State  of  Michigan  versus  the  United 
States  as  formerly. 

The  president  and  associate  judges,  with  foreman  of  jury,  Town- 
send  E.  Gidley,  assembled  April  24,  1838.  The  organization  of 
the  session  was  followed  by  the  motion  of  Wm.  J.  Moody  to  ad- 
mit David  Johnson  as  an  attorney  and  counselor  at  law.  The 
aspirant  for  legal  honors  having  been  examined  by  Phineas  Far- 
rand, P.  Morgan  and  George  Miles,  ami  having  taken  the  usual 
oath,  was  duly  admitted  to  the  Bar  of  Jackson  county.  The  Peo- 
ple of  the  State  of  Michigan  against -lira  Payne,  Paul  B.  King, 
Abel  F.  Fitch,  C.  H.  McClure,  Phineas  Farrand,  were  charged 
with  conspiracy  this  year,  and  a  commission  appointed  to  take 
depositions  of  witnesses  in  the  several  cases. 

The  October  session  proved  a  feast  for  the  few  professors  of  law 
permitted  to  practice  at  the  Bar  of  Jackson  county.  Every  adult 
in  the  county  appeared  upon  that  uncertain  ground  where  angels 
fear  to  tread,  until  at  length  the  very  hard-working  agriculturist 
sued  the  studious  lawyer,  and  of  course  did  not  receive  any  re- 
ward beyond  the  experience  gained  dining  the  progress  of  his 

Having  had  a  synopsis  of  the  proceedings  of  the  pioneer  courts, 
we  will  now  take  a  glance  at  the  roll  of  judges  who  presided  over 
the  sessions  of  the  tribunal  from  1832  to  the  present  time.  Be- 
ginning with  the  name  of  Oliver  Russ,  who  was  specially  com- 
missioned to  preside  over  the  court's  first  session  in  1832,  the  fol- 
lowing named  judges,  associate  judges  and  clerks  succeeded  him  : 

Presiding  Judges .  Associate  Judges.  Clerks. 

1833      William  A.  Fletcher.         |  W-*  ££££*  f        Samson  Stoddard. 

j  ^d^mr  |  Wm.D.  Thompson. 


,£,,,  ,,  (  Henry  A.  Francisco  and  ( 

J041  }         Samuel  Selden.  i 

1842  Alpheus  Felch. 

1843  '•  "  Czar  Jones 
,a.-                    ,,                             (  Barnabas  O.  Hatch  and  j  ,, 
1Mt)                                               )       Aaron  T.  Gorton.       t 

Wm.  R.  De  Land. 
F.  Far;  and. 


Judge  Alpheus  Felch  retired  from  the  Bench  in  November,  1845, 
and  on  the  27th  of  that  month,  following  the  close  of  the  Novem- 
ber session,  the  Bar  of  Jackson  assembled  under  the  presidency  of 
Leander  Chapman,  with  George  Sumner  as  secretary,  and  adopted 
the  following  preamble  and  resolutions  : 

Whekeas,  The  Hon.  Alpheus  Felch,  one  of  the  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
this  State,  anil  presiding  judge  of  the  Circuit  Court  of  this  county,  has  signified  his 
intention  of  resigning  his  scat  upon  the  Bench  in  consequence  of' his  election  to  the 
office  of  governor  of  the  State  of    Michigan;  therefore 

Renolieri,  That  it  is  with  ureal  pleasure  we  arc  enabled  to  testify  that  he  has  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  his  judicial  office  with  such  faithfulness,  impartiality  and 
ability,  that  he  has  reflected  much  credit  upon  himself  and  upon  the  judiciary  of 
our  infant  State,  and  given  entire  satisfaction  to  the  public  and  the  members  of  the 

Rets/iked,  That  while  necessity  demands  that  we  should  lose  his  valuable  services 
in  that  important  and  honorable  office,  we  shall  ever  cherish  the  liveliest  remem- 
brance of  those  peculiar  relations  that  have  existed  between  himself  as  the  presiding 
officer  of  this  court  aud  ourselves  as  members  of  the  Bar.  and  which  have  been  use- 
ful and  pleasing  to  us  and  marked  with  so  much  courtesy  and  good  feeling  on  his 
part;  and  that  he  will  carry  with  him  in  his  retirement  from  the  liench  our  highest 
respect,  for  his  character,  and  our  warmest  personal  friendship  and  best  wishes  for 
his  prosperity  and  happiness  in  whatever  station  he  may  hereafter  be  called  to  act. 

Samuel  II.  Kimball's  motion  to  adopt  the  above  was  earned. 
Samuel  Higby's  motion  to  present,  and  G.  J.  Gridley's  motion  for 
leave  to  enter  the  proceedings  ot  the  meeting  upon  the  court  jour- 
nal, were  also  adopted,  and  thus  closed  the  last  session  of  1845. 

1846 — Warner  Wing,  Presiding  Judge;  B.  C.  Hatch  and  A.  T. 
Gorton,  Assistant  Judges;  Czar  Jones,  Clerk;  George  Miles,  Pre- 
siding Judge. 

1847 — Epaphroditus  Ranson,  Presiding  Judge;  Geo.  Miles,  Pre- 
siding Judge. 

During  the  progress  of  the  November  session  of  the  court,  At- 
torney Augustus  I).  Hawley  died,  when  a  meeting  of  the  Bar 
was  held  under  the  presidency  of  Leander  Chapman,  with  G.  T. 
Grid  ley  as  secretary,  and  a  series  of  resolutions  of  condolence 

184S — George  Miles,  Presiding  Judge. 

1849 — George  Miles,  Presiding  Judge. 

1850 — George  Miles  and  Abner  Pratt,  Presiding  Judges. 

The  first  business  of  the  December  session  of  1850  was  a  meet- 
ing of  the  Bar  of  Jackson  county,  to  draw  up  a  series  of  sympa- 
thetic resolutions  in  connection  with  the  death  of  Hon.  Geo.  Miles. 
The  record  of  this  meeting  appears  upon  the  Court  Journal  under  the 
following  head  :  "In  the  matter  of  the  death  of  Hon.  Geo.  Miles, 
late  circuit  judge  and  presiding  judge  of  the  court."  The  minutes 
of  the  meeting  are  signed  by  L.  Chapman,  Chairman,  and  Samuel 
Higby,  Secretary. 

1851 — Abner  Pratt,  Presiding  Judge. 

1852 — David  Johnson,  and  Abner  Pratt,  Presiding  Judges. 

1853 — D.  Johnson  and  Charles  W.  Whipple,  Presiding  Judges; 
Eugene  Pringle,  C.  C.  Commissioner. 



1854 — David  Johnson,  Samuel  T.    Douglas  and  A.   Pratt.    Pre- 
siding Judges;  David  Johnson,  C.  C.  Commissioner. 
1855 — David  Johnson  and  A.  Pratt,  Presiding  Judges. 
1856 — David  Johnson,  Presiding  Judge. 

1857 — David  Johnson  and   Edwin  Lawrence,  Presiding  Judges. 
1858 — Edwin  Lawrence  and  E.  II.  0.  Wilson,  Circuit  Judges. 
1859-69 — Edwin  Lawrence,  Circuit  Judge. 
1870-2—  Samuel  Highv.  Circuit  Judge. 
1873-'5— Alex.  D.  Crane,  Circuit  Judge. 
L876  '81 — Geo.  M.  Huntington,  Circuit  Judge. 


Thomas  McGee 18"i6 

Joseph  Beebe 18C0 

MelvriHe  McGee 1864 

L.  M.  Powel 

James  M.  Gould 1880 

James  Valentine 1 833 

Leander  Chapman 18:16 

Wm.  R.  De  Land 1840 

Samuel  Higbv 1844 

Orson  W.  Bennett 1818 

Jonathan  L.  Videto 1852 

The  judges  of  the  Probate  Court  were  elected  for  a  term  of  four 
years.  Judge  Gould  was  elected  November,  1880,  and  will  hold 
the  position  until  January,  1885. 


Olney  D.  Hawkins— appointed 1833 

Wm.  J.  Moody  "  1835 

Leander  Chapman 1838 

Phineas  Farrand 1840 

David  Johnson 1844 

G.  T.  Gridley I84ii 

Fidus  Livermore 1848 

Samuel  Higby 1850 

Austin  Blair 1852 

Fidus  Livermore 1854 

Eugene  Pringle 1856 

Wm.  K.  Gibson" 1860 

O.  W.  Bennett 1862 

Victor  M.  Bostwick 1864 

Wm.  K.  Gibson 1866 

Thomas  A.  Wilson 1870 

James  Gould 1872 

L.  M.  Power 1874 

James  A.  Parkson 1876 

Robert  Haire 1878 

John  C.  Sharp 1880 

CIKCCIT   con,'!'    .  uMMIs-luM   US. 

Eugene  Pringle 1852 

W.T.Howell 1854 

Wm.  K.  Gibson 1856 

James  R.  De  Land 1858 

James  W.  Bennttt  )  1Q,.0 

Joshua  Haire  f m,~ 

Grove  H .  Wolcott  ) 

Geo.  P.  Griswold 
Geo.  A.  Armstrong 
Grove  H.  Wolcott 
Homer  A.  Curtis 
James  Hammil 


John  A.  Townsend  ) 
James  Hammil         )  '" 
W.  S.  Gridley  / 

Geo.  Proudfit   f 

Walter  Johnson  ) 

Joshua  Haire      j 

Reuben  E  Clark  > 

James  (loss  j   

Frank  Hewlett     / 

V.  V.  B.Merwin  f 1878 

V.  V.  R.  Merwin  1  1san 

JohnMcDevitt     f ™W 



.  iSiTt; 

county  clerks. 

S.  Stoddard 1832 

W.  D.  Thompson  1836 

W.  R.  De  Land 1838 

F.  Farrand 1840 

Czar  Jones 1842 

James  A.  Dyer 1846 

Walter  Budington 1848 

Horace  G.  Bliss 1852 

Dc  v.i.t  ;■   " ..;;:. <s.-4 

Alex.  G.  Bell 1856 

Daniel  Upton 1858 

Robert  D.  Knowles 1866 

Luther  H.  Ludlow 1872 

Almerin  M.  Tinker 
(■apt.  Holden, 


linker   ) 

l.D.C.   f 
William  D.  Taylor  f     •  1c_a 

E  A.  Clement,  DO.  f lfc78 

lllMcia      OF    .IA<  Kmi.\     I'lll'XTV. 

[(!■■(. !M  KAUs   u|-    DKKIIS. 

Hiram  Thompson 1832 

Jas.  C.  Bailey 1836 

Wrn.  A.  Perrine 1840 

Hiram  Thompson 1*42 

Peter  E.  De  Mill 1846 

Gardner  II.  Shaw 1848 

Levi  P.  Gregg 1852 

John  M.  Root 1856 

8.  IT.  Ludlow 1860 

At).  Van  de  Bogart 1862 

Harvey  Bush 1864 

DeWitt  C.  Smith 1868 

Anson  Townley 1870 

Harvey  Bush 1H72 

Anson  Townley 1874 

Anson  Townley 1876 

Anson  Townley 1880 


David  Keyes 1832 

Amasa  B.  Gibson 1831? 

James  A.  Dyer 1838 

JohnL.Videto 1840 

Henry  Tisdale 1842 

L.D.  Welling 1846 

Amos  Pickett 1850 

Wm.  Wycoff 1854 

Geo.  L.  Smalley 1858 

J.  K.  Smallev 1862 

D.  II.  Lockwood 

Geo.  Jennings 

Danl.  W.  Shaw 

Ogden  A.  Green 

Wm,  R.  Brown 

Wm.  R.  Brown 

Chauncy  S.  Webster 

Norton  M.  Terry 1878 

David  II.  Lockwood 1880 




S.  Stoddard 1834 

O.  Russ 1836 

Norman  Allen 1838 

John  N.  Dwight 1840  ! 

Leander  Chapman 1842 

James  C.  Wood 1846 

Reynolds  Landon 1850 

Amos  Pickett 1854 

Anson  Townley 1856 

L.  F.  Grandv 1860 

Anson  Townley 1862 

L.  F.  Grandy 1864 

L.  H.  Ludlow 1868 

Reynolds  Landon 1870 

Mark  L.  Rav 1872 

David  Trumbull 1874 

Dwight  F.  Gillett 1876 

Richard  Townley 1878 

Luther  H.  Ludlow 1880 

Gordon  Case 1840 

Marcus  Wakeman  (  1RAO 

B.  H.  Deming         ( 1M~ 

Marcus  Wakeman  (  . „,, 

John  Griffith  t 184* 

Charles  Mooney  )                           ia.„ 

Ben.  Sidell  f 1846 

H.  O.  Bronson  )                            ,„.„ 

N.  P.  Stanton          \ lb48 

J.G.Cornell  )                           .   .. 

A.  N.  Moulton        \ 185U 

Abr.  Croman  [ 

J.  R.  Crowell         J 18aj 

E.  K.  Whitmore  {                           ^5i 

Mathew  Dearin  j  ' ' ' 

R.  C.  Robinson  )                            ,0^ 

J.R  Crowell         I  •"■' 1B 

G.  W.  Watkins  (                           1ReR 

S.Stoddard  \ 18°8 

A.  A    Dorrance     1 1860 

J.  R.  Crowell  \ 

A.  A.  Dorrance  )  ..... 

S.  C.  Crafts  f 18b2 

A.  A.  Dorrance  / 

M.  J.  Draper  l  1864 

A.  S.  Cushman  )  .... 

M.  J.  Draper  f  18W) 

A  8  Cushman  / 

G.  W.  Watkins  \ 1868 

Albert  Foster  [ 

Jas.  F.  Sammons  )     1870 

Jacob  Bieber  ) 

Lewis  Gunder  j" 187'*' 

James  Finn  { 

Lewis  Gunder  \  ltsti 

James  Finn  / 

Lewis  Guilder  C 18'b 

James  Finn  {  1firjR 

Charles W.  Cook  ) 18's 

Capt.  John  Bedford  }  -toon 

Frank  Therman        \ 188° 

The  latter  is  the  first  colored  man  elected  to  a  county  office' in 



lll-'h>l;>      c.|.     .1  Ac    K>'C\     i  "I'NTY. 



J.  P.  Stratton  /  ,      g      ,      lg29  t    1843 
John  Durand  \  ' 

Caleb  A.  Canfield 1842 

Henrv  A.  Hayden 1844 

Anson  H.  De  Lamatre 1846 

John  T.  Durand 1852 

Austin  Pouieroy 1856 

Henry  Bean 1862 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  justices  of  the  peace,  of  Jackson 
county,  together  with  their  postoffice  address  and  the  year  upon 
which  their  terms  expire: 

Austin  Pouieroy 1864 

Wm.  S.  Crowl 1868 

W.  S.  Crowl 1870 

M.F.  Cook 1874 

Henry  F.  Bean 1 876 

Percy  T.  Cook  1878 

Wm. S.  Crowl. . . 1880 


Willard  W.  Wooster,  Jackson 1880 

Charles  Wood,  "      1881 

James  Mayo,  "       1882 


Andrew  J.  Williamson,  Brooklyn.  .1879 
George  N.Bertram,  "         ..1881 

W.  J.  Casey,  "        ...1882 

W.  S.  Pitcher,  "        .  .1883 


John  G.  Darling,  Albion 1880 

James  M.  Dodge.  Concord 1879 

Richmond  Briggs,  Parma 1881 

James  W.  Townsend. 


Solon    S.    Clark,    Grass  Lake 1883 

DeWitt  C.  Johnson,  "         "   1882 

Aaron  A.  Price,  "        "  1881 

W.  Hopkins,  "        "  1880 


James  D.    Knight,  Hanover 1883 

George  S.  Wilson,  Horton 1882 

Walter  J.  G.  Dean,  Hanover 1881 

E.  J.Sprague,  "         1880 


S.  S.  Johnson,  Henrietta 1880 

Daniel  Garfield,       "         1883 


E.  A.  Sager,  Michigan  Center 1880 

J.  P.  Kaywood,  Leoni 1882 

James  Hayhoe,  Jackson 1883 


Wallace  E.  Kennedy,  Liberty 1882 

James  P.  Sanford,  Horton 1883 


Charles  C.  Dewey.  Napoleon 1880 

Amos  H.  Phillips  Jackson 1882 

Ralph  Covert,  Napoleon 1883 


Philip  Howland,  Norvill 1880 

Benjamin  F.  Burgess,  Norvill 1881 

Thomas  Rhead,  "       1882 

Cornelius  L.  Hall,  "       1883 


Milo  C.  Beeman,  Albion 1882 

Horace  King,  "      1883 


Robert  Brail,  Pulaski 

Jacob  Findlay,  Concord 

Ira  A  Willis,  Pulaski 

Samuel  D.  Brown,  Mosherville. 

Lester  Miner,  Leslie 1879 

Orwin  True,  Rives  Junction 1880 

William  Peak.  Jackson 1881 

Michael  Graham,  Leslie 1883 


Ezekiel  Root,  Parma 1880 

Thomas  Sackerider,  Sandstone 1881 

Daniel  D.  Petrie,  Parma 1883 


Joseph  T.  Day,  Springport 1880 

Alfred  W.  Soule,         "         1881 

Martin  L.  Day,  "         1882 

Robert  Rockwood,  Otter  Creek. . .  1883 


W.    J.    Tefft,    Spring  Arbor 1879 

Amasee  M.  Pardee,  "      "      1880 

George  Coggswell,    "      "      1881 

Zora  McGonegal,     "       "      1882 

Heniy  N,  Tefft,        "       "      1883 


Alexander  H.  Lattimer,  Jackson . . .  1879 
Philander  E.  Pierce.  "       ...1880 

Samuel  Gates,  "       ...1881 

John  O'Brien,  "       ...1882 

Kennicut  B.  Green,  "       ...1883 


Marcus  P.  Wade,  Tompkins 1879 

George  A.  Stimpson,     "       1880 

Chauncey  Ferguson,  E.  Springport.  1881 

Amenzo'M.  Cook,  Tompkins 1882 

Joseph  C.  Wade,  "        1883 


Samuel  E.  Dewey,  Waterloo 1881 

Edwin  B.  Parks,  "        1882 

Orville  Horton,  "        1883 


Warren  N.  Buck,  Jackson 1879 

Horace  Hunt,  "        1880 

L.  D.  Welling,  "        1881 

Minard  F.  Cook,        "         188<> 

D.  Gibbs  Palmer,      "        I883 


In  the  review  of  the  pioneers,  brief  sketches  of  the  ancient  Bar  of 
this  county  have  been  given,  so  that  a  repetition  is  unnecessary.  The 
junior  members  of  the  present  society,  whose  years  do  not  place  them 
among  the  early  settlers,  will  be  referred  to  in  the  biographical 
chapter.  Therefore  a  review  of  the  surviving  pioneers  of  the  pro- 
fession, and  their  very  promising  juniors,  will  form  the  close  of 
this  chapter.     The  following  comprise  the  present  Bar  : 

Jackson — Austin  Blair,  James  C.  Wood,  David  Johnson,  G.  T. 
Gridley,  Wm.  K.  Gibson,  Eugene  Pringle,  John  D.  Conely,  Eras- 
tus  Peck,  Melville  McGee.  J.  AY  Bennett,  Grove  H.  Wolcott, 
Enoch  Banker. 

Brooklyn — Nathan  G.  King. 

Jackson — Lewis  M.  Powell,  Thomas  A.  Wilson,  John  C.  Sharp, 
Jonathan  L.  Videto,  Andrew  J.  Gould,  Frank  Hewlett,  James 
Hammil,  James  A.  Parkinson,  Mark  S.  Wolcott,  Calvin  0.  Burt, 
James  Gould,  1ST.  B.  Hall,  Geo.  Proudfit,  Albert  A.  Bliss,  Wm. 
Seward  Gridley,  Richmond  Livermore,  Wm.  H.  Potts,  Reuben  E. 
Clark,  Robert  J.  Haire,  Walter  Johnson,  Robert  D.  Knowles,  J. 
T.  Hammond,  Eli  A.  Clement, 

Grass  Lake — James  Goss. 

Norvell — George  H.  Fay. 

Jackson — J.  C.  Lowell,  Chas.  B.  Wood,  Y.  Y.  B.  Merwin, 
Joshua  Haire,  George  F.  Anderson,  Thomas  E.  Barkworth,  By- 
ron S.  Ashley,  Henry  Hanaw,  Alfred  E.  Lucking,  Charles  A. 
Blair,  George  H.  Jameson,  Verne  S.  Pease,  Ray  Hewlet,  Mel- 
ville Stone,  John  E.  Winn,  John  McDevitt. 

Hanover — Charles  E.  Snow. 

Jackson — W.  A.  Chamberlain,  F.  Livermore,  Sr. 


A  review  of  the  various  political  campaigns  in  any  extended 
form  is  impracticable  ;  first,  because  such  a  mass  of  campaign 
items  as  this  county  alone  could  furnish  would  require  every 
page  in  this  large  volume  ;  secondly,  because  the  greater  number 
of  readers  are  content  with  the  quadrennial  literature  which  is 
drawn  from  its  hiding  place  to  make  known  to  the  world  that 
there  is  political  war  in  the  United  States ;  and,  thirdly,  because 
there  is  no  earthly  use  in  reverting  to  a  subject  which  is  wanting 
in  every  charitable  and  Christian  aspect.  Here  are  given  a  few 
items  dealing  with  political  organization,  pure  and  simple,  with 
three  papers  seemingly  unconnected  with  politics,  and  yet  exer- 
cising a  very  great  influence.  These  comprise  "  Sympathy  with 
the  Oppressed,"  "The  Pulpit  and  the  Press,'1  and  the  "Railroad 
Conspiracy.1'  Such  papers  are  most  valuable,  and  the  events 
which  they  chronicle  had  a  peculiar  effect  upon  the  political  par- 
ties of  the  county. 

The  first  election  held  in  the  township  of  Jacksonburgh  was  in 
1831,  for  one  congressional  delegate  and  two  members  of  the 
Legislative  Council.  The  Van  Buren-Harrison  campaign  of  1836 
drew  forth  all  the  political  energies  of  the  jjeople.  Again,  in  1840 
the  same  political  contestants  met  in  the  field  and  excitement 
reached  its  highest  point.  "Hard  cider11  and  "  log  cabins"  were 
introduced  into  the  campaign  ;  poles  of  liberty,  stars  and  stripes, 
and  a  hundred  inconceivable  nicknacks  occupied  every  prominent 
eminence.  The  Whigs  of  Jackson  county  worked  with  amazing  zeal, 
and  so  gained  for  General  Harrison  a  vote  of  1,504  against"  1,121 
recorded  for  Mr.  Van  Buren. 

In  1811  James  K.  Polk  was  nominated  for  the  presidency  by 
the  Democrats,  Henry  Clay  by  the  Whigs,  and  James  G.  Birney 
by  the  Free-Soil  party.  The  electors  of  the  county  came  forth  in 
their  numbers,  giving  to  President  Polk  a  majority  of  87  over 
Henry  Clay,  who  received  1,302  votes.  The  Abolitionist  Birney 
received  475  votes  from  men  who  even  then  recognized  true  liberty 
and  a  free  soil. 

In  1848  Zachary  Taylor,  Lewis  Cass  and  Martin  Van  Buren 
were  nominated  by  their  respective  parties,  the  first  on  the 
Whig  ticket,  the  second  on  the  Democratic,  pure  and  simple,  and 
the  third  by  the  Free  Democrats.  The  contest  throughout  the 
Union  was  spirited,  and  in  no  place  more  so  than  in  this  county. 
Gen.  Taylor  received  969  votes,  the  old  Governor  of  Michigan 
Territory  1,547,  and  Mr.  Van  Buren  1,072.  Jackson  county  acted 
wisely  and  well  in  giving  a  great  majority  for  Lewis  Cass. 


In  1852  (it'll.  Scott,  with  Messrs.  Franklin  Pierce  and  John  P. 
Hale,  were  in  the  held  for  the  presidential  race.  Mr.  Pierce  re- 
ceived 1,840  Democratic  votes  in  the  county,  Gen.  Scott  1,727 
Whig  votes,  and  Mr.  Hale  484  Abolition. 

The  Republican  party  was  formed  at  Jackson  in  1854.  The 
campaign  of  1856  was  opened  by  the  nomination  of  John  C. 
Fremont.  "The  Pathfinder,  "on  the  Republican  ticket,  James  Bu- 
chanan on  tlic  Democratic,  and  Millard  Fillmore  on  the  "Ameri- 
can." The  nominee  of  the  Republican  party  received  2, 996  votes 
from  the  electors  of  Jackson  county.  Mr.  Buchanan  2.11s,  and  the 
Know-Nothing  nominee  44. 

In  1859-'60  the  Republic  was  a  scene  of  popular  discontent.  The 
repeal  of  the  Missouri  compromise,  the  struggles  in  Kansas,  and 
John  Brown's  raid,  all  tended  to  this  end.  the  Northern  States 
were  determined  to  prevent  the  extension  of  slavery,  and  even  re- 
solved to  take  measures  tor  its  abolition  mtoto.  The  Southern 
States  were  equally  determined  to  perpetuate  theterrible  stain  on 
the  principles  of  human  liberty.  The  Democratic  party  allowed 
divisions  to  creep  into  its  rank  and  tile,  which  resulted  in  the 
nomination  of  Stephen  A.  Douglas  for  President  on  the  one  side. 
and  John  C.  Breckenridge  on  the  other.  The  utter  defeat  of  the 
great  Douglas  was  the  result.  The  Republicans  formed  a  phalanx 
of  determination.  At  the  Chicago  convention  of  I860  they  nom- 
inated Abraham  Lincoln,  succeeded  at  the  polls,  and  inaugurated 
him  as  President  of  the  United  States.  Austin  Blair  was  elected 
Governor  of  Michigan,  and  in  almost  every  State  a  determined 
anti-slavery  man  was  honored  with  a  similar  position. 

In  1864  President  Lincoln  was  re-elected  over  Geo.  B.  McClel- 
lan,  the  Democratic  nominee.  After  the  assassination  of  Lincoln 
a  Tennesseean  named  Andrew  Johnson — the  Vice-President — a 
Unionist,  although  half  a  flunkey,  became  President  of  the  United 

The  Democratic  convention  of  1868  nominated  Horatio  Sey- 
mour and  Francis  P.  Blair.  Jr.,  for  President  and  Vice-President. 
The  Republicans  brought  forward  U.  S.  Grant  and  Schuyler  Col- 
fax, and  elected  their  nominees  by  a  popular  majority. 

The  campaign  of  1872  opened  with  the  nomination  of  Horace 
Greeley  for  President  by  the  Liberal  Republicans ;  Charles  <  >*- 
Connor,  the  great  lawyer.' by  the  Democrats,  and  U.  S.  Grant  by 
the  Republicans.  The  nominee  of  the  latter  party  reached  the 
White  House  for  his  second  term. 

The  choice  of  James  A.  Garfield  for  President  in  1880  seems 
now  to  be  judicious.  The  party  of  which  he  is  the  acknowledged 
head  took  a  wise  course  and  baffled  the  nefarious  designs  of  a 
host  of  vampires,  who  would  again  hoist  a  man  to  the  highest  posi- 
tion in  the  State,  who  would  permit  them,  and  perhaps  join  with 
them,  in  sucking  the  best  blood  of  the  Republic.  Gen.  Hancock, 
the  Democratic  nominee,  is  without  stain  either  in  his  social  or  mil- 
itary record.  However,  the  nation  acted  wisely  in  abolishing  hero 
worship;  and  in  leaving  the  gallant  General  to  occupy  his  comfor- 


table  quarters  on  Governor's  Island.  The  vote  recorded  as  given 
by  the  electors  of  Jackson  to  the  various  candidates  for  the  presi- 
dency is  as  follows  :  James  A.  Garfield,  4.4x6;  WInfield  S.  Han- 
cock, 3,744;  James  B.  Weaver,  National  Greenback,  1,810;  and 
Neal  Dow,  Prohibition,  117. 

our;    WHIG    CITIZENS. 

The  meeting  of  Whigs,  held  at  Jackson  Sept.  27.  1837,  was  at- 
tended by  many  of  the  pioneers,  including  those  of  the  following 
well-known  names  :  Norman  Allen,  Zina  Allen,  Russell  Black- 
man,  Horace  Blackman,  N.   Bayne,   Benah   Bean,  J.   C.  Burnell, 

C.  P.  Cowden,  John  Callar,  R.  W.  Chamberlin,  L.  Calkin,  J.  N. 
Dwight,  Wm.  R  De  Land,  R.  Davis,  I.  A.  Dyer,  John  Daniels. 
John  Durand,  John  T.  Durand,  I.  Darling,  P.  Farrand,  Heman 
Fassett,  H.  II.  Gilbert,  Samuel  Hamlin.  Reuben  Eollister,  Thomas 
Jenkins,  W.  W.  Laverty,  Lyman  Lewis,  George  Monroe.  Stephen 
Monroe,  Stephen  Town,  Leander  McCane,  John  McConnell,  Na- 
thaniel Morrell,  Lyman  Pease,  S.  V.  Richardson.  Nicholas  Sullivan, 
James  McKee,  Ralph  Stiles,  Amos  Temple,  Peter  C.  Yreland. 
Samuel  Wing,  G.  W.  Woodworth,  S.  Woodworth,  P.  Will- 
iams, Jotham  Wood,  George  Weston,  Enos  Wheeler,  Ansel  Wing. 
Jonas  Wing. 

The  meeting  was  organized  by  the  appointment  of  Phineas  Far- 
rand, president,  and  J.  C.  Burnell,  secretary.  The  persons  whose 
names  are  given  above  were  appointed  delegates  to  the  county 
convention  held  at  Jacksonburgh   seven  days  later.       P.  Farrand, 

D.  T.  Dwight  and  J.  C.  Burnell  were  appointed  a  town  corre- 
sponding committee,  and  the  president,  secretary,  and  Norman 
Allen  were  appointed  a  committee  to  draft  a  series  of  resolutions, 
expressive  of  the  sense  of  the  meeting.  The  resolutions  were 
submitted  and  approved,  and  so  the  voice  of  the  people,  seeking 
for  their  liberties,  went  forth  from  the  village  to  be  re-echoed 
throughout  the  State. 


Of  all  the  peculiarities  of  man,  there  are  none  so  comically 
strange  as  those  drawn  forth  during  the  progress  of  a  political  con- 
test. Enthusiasm  is  rampant,  and  that  which  men  would  fear  to 
speak  or  act  in  calmer  days  is  made  patent  to  the  world.  In  the 
campaign  of  1840,  the  Tippecanoe  boys  of  Jackson  and  the  towns 
in  the  neighborhood,  were  excited  to  the  sticking  point,  and  May 
9,  1840,  assembled  at  Monroe's  tavern  for  the  purpose  of  doing 
something,or  anything.  The  morning  was  miserably  cold  and  wet, 
yet  the  boys  were  all  there,  with  teams,  axes,  spades,  and  all  the 
rude  paraphernalia  of  men  who  are  determined  on  some  desperate 
work.  Their  ardor  conquered  every  opposition,  and  before  the 
night  crept  on,  the  logs  were  brought  to  the  location,  the  cabin 
erected,  and  the  lofty  pole  of  liberty  raised.      The  cabin  stood  on 


J.  T.  Durand's  lot,  opposite  the  Sentinel  office.  Mr.  Durand  fur- 
nished many  of  the  logs,  while  Culver  and  Stone,  of  Leoni,  pre- 
sented the  liberty  pole. 


The  Sentinel  and  Democrat,  of  1840,  were  often  guilty  of  in- 
dulging in  the  extraordinary  and  complimentary  (?)  language, 
which  the  journalists  of  that  day  were  so  skilled  in  using.  In 
April,  1840,  while  "Winter  lingered  in  the  lap  of  Spring,"  the 
Presidential  campaign  was  opened  at  Jackson  by  the  Democratic 
party,  and  a  scathing  editorial  appeared  in  the  journal  represent- 
ing that  platform.  The  following  week  the  S,  ntinel  gave  up  its 
second  page  to  a  eulogy  of  Gen.  Harrison,  with  a  small  paragraph 
devoted  to  the  Democratic  edit<  >r,  his  tierce  opponent.  This  was 
headed  "X»  Wondeb,"  anil  took  the  following  peculiar  form  :  "The 
..Id  wonumoi  the  Michigan  Democrat has  been  shaking  with  the 
ague  like  mad,  for  a  day  or  two  !  Well,  really,  when  a  loco-foco 
editor  (?)  sings  out,  'Hurrah  for  Harrison; — hurrah  for  Wood- 
bridge,"  and  calls  himself  an  old  woman,  is  it  any  wonder,  at  all, 
that  he  should  take  to  shaking  like  60  ?  We  rather  guess  not. 
Well,  'go  it,'  old  woman;  we  hope  Mr.  Ague  will  shake  the  evil 
spirits  out  of  you  before   he    takes    his    leave.       Again,  under  the 

head  of  '  Wellerism,' is  written:    "Who  the  d 1  thro  wed  that 

stone  'i "  as  the  old  woman  of  the  Michigan  Democrat  said  when  the 
teller  threw  a  rotten  egg  between  his  eyes. " 


Then  rally,  ye  log-cabin  Democrats  all : 

Tis  Grati'tuile's.  justice's,  Liberty's  call  ; 

As  Harrison  has  always  conquered  his  foes, 

E'en  thus  will  he  use  up  the  loco-focos. 

So,  Huzza  for  old  Tip,  and  God  save  the  Union ! 

The  editor  of  the  Sentmd,  desiring  to  reassure  his  constituents  ot 
his  unswerving  loyalty  to  party,  announced  his  intention  to  be 
present  at  Fort  Meigs,  thus  :  "We  are  all,  save  the  d — 1  (and  he 
wants  to  go  bad  enough)  going  to  attend  the  jubilee  at  Fort  Meigs 
the  first  week  in  June,  1840,  and  shall  therefore  be  unable  to  issue 
a  regular  sheet  until  after  our  return."